Provided by: dpkg-dev_1.18.24ubuntu1_all bug

NAME

       dpkg-source - Debian source package (.dsc) manipulation tool

SYNOPSIS

       dpkg-source [option...] command

DESCRIPTION

       dpkg-source packs and unpacks Debian source archives.

       None  of  these  commands  allow multiple options to be combined into one, and they do not
       allow the value for an option to be specified in a separate argument.

COMMANDS

       -x, --extract filename.dsc [output-directory]
              Extract a source package (--extract since dpkg 1.17.14).  One  non-option  argument
              must  be  supplied, the name of the Debian source control file (.dsc).  An optional
              second non-option argument may be supplied to specify the directory to extract  the
              source  package  to,  this must not exist. If no output directory is specified, the
              source package is extracted into a directory named source-version under the current
              working directory.

              dpkg-source  will  read the names of the other file(s) making up the source package
              from the control file; they are assumed to be in the same directory as the .dsc.

              The files in the extracted package will have their permissions and  ownerships  set
              to  those  which  would  have been expected if the files and directories had simply
              been created - directories and executable files will be 0777 and plain  files  will
              be  0666, both modified by the extractors' umask; if the parent directory is setgid
              then the extracted directories will be too, and all the files and directories  will
              inherit its group ownership.

              If  the source package uses a non-standard format (currently this means all formats
              except “1.0”), its  name  will  be  stored  in  debian/source/format  so  that  the
              following builds of the source package use the same format by default.

       -b, --build directory [format-specific-parameters]
              Build a source package (--build since dpkg 1.17.14).  The first non-option argument
              is taken as the name of the directory containing the debianized source  tree  (i.e.
              with a debian sub-directory and maybe changes to the original files).  Depending on
              the source package format used to build the package, additional parameters might be
              accepted.

              dpkg-source  will  build  the  source  package  with the first format found in this
              ordered list: the format indicated with  the  --format  command  line  option,  the
              format  indicated  in  debian/source/format,  “1.0”.   The  fallback  to  “1.0”  is
              deprecated and will be removed at some point  in  the  future,  you  should  always
              document  the  desired  source  format  in debian/source/format. See section SOURCE
              PACKAGE FORMATS for an extensive description of the various source package formats.

       --print-format directory
              Print the source format  that  would  be  used  to  build  the  source  package  if
              dpkg-source  --build directory was called (in the same conditions and with the same
              parameters; since dpkg 1.15.5).

       --before-build directory
              Run the corresponding hook of the source package format (since dpkg 1.15.8).   This
              hook  is  called  before  any build of the package (dpkg-buildpackage calls it very
              early even before debian/rules clean). This command is idempotent and can be called
              multiple  times. Not all source formats implement something in this hook, and those
              that do usually prepare the source tree for the build for example by ensuring  that
              the Debian patches are applied.

       --after-build directory
              Run  the corresponding hook of the source package format (since dpkg 1.15.8).  This
              hook is called after any build of the package (dpkg-buildpackage  calls  it  last).
              This command is idempotent and can be called multiple times. Not all source formats
              implement something in this hook, and those that do usually use  it  to  undo  what
              --before-build has done.

       --commit [directory] ...
              Record  changes in the source tree unpacked in directory (since dpkg 1.16.1).  This
              command can take supplementary parameters depending on the source format.  It  will
              error out for formats where this operation doesn't mean anything.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.  The format specific build and extract options can
              be shown by using the --format option.

       --version
              Show the version and exit.

OPTIONS

   Generic build options
       -ccontrol-file
              Specifies the main source control file to read information  from.  The  default  is
              debian/control.   If  given  with relative pathname this is interpreted starting at
              the source tree's top level directory.

       -lchangelog-file
              Specifies  the  changelog  file  to  read  information   from.   The   default   is
              debian/changelog.   If given with relative pathname this is interpreted starting at
              the source tree's top level directory.

       -Fchangelog-format
              Specifies the format of the changelog. See dpkg-parsechangelog(1)  for  information
              about alternative formats.

       --format=value
              Use the given format for building the source package (since dpkg 1.14.17).  It does
              override any format given in debian/source/format.

       -Vname=value
              Set an output substitution variable.  See  deb-substvars(5)  for  a  discussion  of
              output substitution.

       -Tsubstvars-file
              Read substitution variables in substvars-file; the default is to not read any file.
              This option can be used multiple times to read substitution variables from multiple
              files (since dpkg 1.15.6).

       -Dfield=value
              Override or add an output control file field.

       -Ufield
              Remove an output control file field.

       -Zcompression, --compression=compression
              Specify  the  compression to use for created tarballs and diff files (--compression
              since dpkg 1.15.5).  Note that this option will not cause existing tarballs  to  be
              recompressed,  it  only  affects new files. Supported values are: gzip, bzip2, lzma
              and xz.  The default is xz for formats 2.0 and newer, and gzip for format  1.0.  xz
              is only supported since dpkg 1.15.5.

       -zlevel, --compression-level=level
              Compression  level  to  use (--compression-level since dpkg 1.15.5).  As with -Z it
              only affects newly created files. Supported values are: 1 to  9,  best,  and  fast.
              The default is 9 for gzip and bzip2, 6 for xz and lzma.

       -i[regex], --diff-ignore[=regex]
              You  may  specify a perl regular expression to match files you want filtered out of
              the list of files for the diff (--diff-ignore since dpkg 1.15.6).   (This  list  is
              generated  by a find command.) (If the source package is being built as a version 3
              source package using a VCS, this can be  used  to  ignore  uncommitted  changes  on
              specific files. Using -i.* will ignore all of them.)

              The  -i  option by itself enables this setting with a default regex (preserving any
              modification to the default regex done by a previous use  of  --extend-diff-ignore)
              that  will  filter  out  control  files and directories of the most common revision
              control systems, backup and swap files and Libtool build output directories.  There
              can  only  be  one active regex, of multiple -i options only the last one will take
              effect.

              This is very helpful in cutting out extraneous files that get included in the diff,
              e.g.  if  you  maintain  your source in a revision control system and want to use a
              checkout to build a source package  without  including  the  additional  files  and
              directories  that  it  will  usually  contain  (e.g.  CVS/, .cvsignore, .svn/). The
              default regex is already very exhaustive, but if you need  to  replace  it,  please
              note  that  by default it can match any part of a path, so if you want to match the
              begin of a filename or only full filenames, you will need to provide the  necessary
              anchors (e.g. ‘(^|/)’, ‘($|/)’) yourself.

       --extend-diff-ignore=regex
              The  perl  regular  expression  specified  will  extend  the  default value used by
              --diff-ignore and its current value, if set (since dpkg 1.15.6).  It does  this  by
              concatenating  “|regex” to the existing value.  This option is convenient to use in
              debian/source/options to exclude some auto-generated files from the automatic patch
              generation.

       -I[file-pattern], --tar-ignore[=file-pattern]
              If  this  option  is  specified,  the  pattern will be passed to tar(1)'s --exclude
              option when it is called to generate a .orig.tar or .tar file  (--tar-ignore  since
              dpkg  1.15.6).   For  example,  -ICVS  will make tar skip over CVS directories when
              generating a .tar.gz file. The option  may  be  repeated  multiple  times  to  list
              multiple patterns to exclude.

              -I  by itself adds default --exclude options that will filter out control files and
              directories of the most common revision control systems, backup and swap files  and
              Libtool build output directories.

       Note:  While  they  have  similar  purposes,  -i  and  -I  have  very different syntax and
       semantics. -i can only be specified once and takes a perl  compatible  regular  expression
       which  is  matched  against the full relative path of each file. -I can specified multiple
       times and takes a filename pattern with shell wildcards.  The pattern is  applied  to  the
       full  relative  path but also to each part of the path individually. The exact semantic of
       tar's       --exclude       option       is        somewhat        complicated,        see
       https://www.gnu.org/software/tar/manual/tar.html#wildcards for a full documentation.

       The  default  regex  and patterns for both options can be seen in the output of the --help
       command.

   Generic extract options
       --no-copy
              Do not copy original  tarballs  near  the  extracted  source  package  (since  dpkg
              1.14.17).

       --no-check
              Do not check signatures and checksums before unpacking (since dpkg 1.14.17).

       --no-overwrite-dir
              Do not overwrite the extraction directory if it already exists (since dpkg 1.18.8).

       --require-valid-signature
              Refuse to unpack the source package if it doesn't contain an OpenPGP signature that
              can be verified (since dpkg 1.15.0) either with the user's trustedkeys.gpg keyring,
              one  of  the  vendor-specific  keyrings,  or  one  of  the official Debian keyrings
              (/usr/share/keyrings/debian-keyring.gpg                                         and
              /usr/share/keyrings/debian-maintainers.gpg).

       --require-strong-checksums
              Refuse  to  unpack  the  source package if it does not contain any strong checksums
              (since dpkg 1.18.7).  Currently  the  only  known  checksum  considered  strong  is
              SHA-256.

       --ignore-bad-version
              Turns  the  bad  source  package version check into a non-fatal warning (since dpkg
              1.17.7).  This option should only  be  necessary  when  extracting  ancient  source
              packages with broken versions, just for backwards compatibility.

SOURCE PACKAGE FORMATS

       If you don't know what source format to use, you should probably pick either “3.0 (quilt)”
       or “3.0 (native)”.  See https://wiki.debian.org/Projects/DebSrc3.0 for information on  the
       deployment of those formats within Debian.

   Format: 1.0
       A source package in this format consists either of a .orig.tar.gz associated to a .diff.gz
       or a single .tar.gz (in that case the package is  said  to  be  native).   Optionally  the
       original  tarball  might be accompanied by a detached upstream signature .orig.tar.gz.asc,
       extraction supported since dpkg 1.18.5.

       Extracting

       Extracting a native package is a simple extraction of the single  tarball  in  the  target
       directory. Extracting a non-native package is done by first unpacking the .orig.tar.gz and
       then applying the patch contained in the .diff.gz file. The timestamp of all patched files
       is reset to the extraction time of the source package (this avoids timestamp skews leading
       to problems when autogenerated files are patched). The diff  can  create  new  files  (the
       whole  debian  directory  is created that way) but can't remove files (empty files will be
       left over).

       Building

       Building a native package is just creating a single tarball  with  the  source  directory.
       Building  a  non-native  package  involves  extracting  the original tarball in a separate
       “.orig” directory and regenerating the .diff.gz by comparing the source package  directory
       with the .orig directory.

       Build options (with --build):

       If  a  second non-option argument is supplied it should be the name of the original source
       directory or tarfile or the empty string if the package is a Debian-specific  one  and  so
       has  no  debianization diffs. If no second argument is supplied then dpkg-source will look
       for the original  source  tarfile  package_upstream-version.orig.tar.gz  or  the  original
       source directory directory.orig depending on the -sX arguments.

       -sa, -sp, -sk, -su and -sr will not overwrite existing tarfiles or directories. If this is
       desired then -sA, -sP, -sK, -sU and -sR should be used instead.

       -sk    Specifies to expect the original source as a tarfile, by default  package_upstream-
              version.orig.tar.extension.   It  will  leave  this  original  source in place as a
              tarfile, or copy it to the current directory if it isn't already there. The tarball
              will be unpacked into directory.orig for the generation of the diff.

       -sp    Like -sk but will remove the directory again afterwards.

       -su    Specifies  that the original source is expected as a directory, by default package-
              upstream-version.orig and dpkg-source will create a  new  original  source  archive
              from it.

       -sr    Like -su but will remove that directory after it has been used.

       -ss    Specifies  that  the  original  source  is  available  both as a directory and as a
              tarfile. dpkg-source will use the directory to create the diff, but the tarfile  to
              create the .dsc.  This option must be used with care - if the directory and tarfile
              do not match a bad source archive will be generated.

       -sn    Specifies to not look for any original source, and to not  generate  a  diff.   The
              second  argument,  if  supplied, must be the empty string. This is used for Debian-
              specific packages which do not have a separate upstream source and  therefore  have
              no debianization diffs.

       -sa or -sA
              Specifies  to look for the original source archive as a tarfile or as a directory -
              the second argument, if any, may be either, or the empty string (this is equivalent
              to  using  -sn).   If  a  tarfile is found it will unpack it to create the diff and
              remove it afterwards (this is equivalent to -sp); if a directory is found  it  will
              pack  it to create the original source and remove it afterwards (this is equivalent
              to -sr); if neither is found it will assume that the package has  no  debianization
              diffs,  only a straightforward source archive (this is equivalent to -sn).  If both
              are found then dpkg-source will ignore the directory, overwriting it,  if  -sA  was
              specified  (this is equivalent to -sP) or raise an error if -sa was specified.  -sA
              is the default.

       --abort-on-upstream-changes
              The process fails if the generated diff contains changes to files  outside  of  the
              debian   sub-directory  (since  dpkg  1.15.8).   This  option  is  not  allowed  in
              debian/source/options but can be used in debian/source/local-options.

       Extract options (with --extract):

       In all cases any existing original source tree will be removed.

       -sp    Used when extracting then the original source (if any) will be left as  a  tarfile.
              If  it  is  not  already  located  in  the  current directory or if an existing but
              different file is there it will be copied there.  (This is the default).

       -su    Unpacks the original source tree.

       -sn    Ensures that the original source is neither copied to  the  current  directory  nor
              unpacked.  Any  original  source  tree  that  was in the current directory is still
              removed.

       All the -sX options are mutually exclusive. If you specify more than one only the last one
       will be used.

       --skip-debianization
              Skips  application  of  the  debian diff on top of the upstream sources (since dpkg
              1.15.1).

   Format: 2.0
       Extraction supported since dpkg 1.13.9, building supported since dpkg 1.14.8.  Also  known
       as wig&pen. This format is not recommended for wide-spread usage, the format “3.0 (quilt)”
       replaces it.  Wig&pen was the first  specification  of  a  new-generation  source  package
       format.

       The  behaviour  of  this  format  is  the  same as the “3.0 (quilt)” format except that it
       doesn't use an explicit list of patches. All files in debian/patches/  matching  the  perl
       regular expression [\w-]+ must be valid patches: they are applied at extraction time.

       When building a new source package, any change to the upstream source is stored in a patch
       named zz_debian-diff-auto.

   Format: 3.0 (native)
       Supported since dpkg 1.14.17.  This format is an extension of the native package format as
       defined  in the 1.0 format. It supports all compression methods and will ignore by default
       any VCS specific files and directories as well as many temporary files (see default  value
       associated to -I option in the --help output).

   Format: 3.0 (quilt)
       Supported  since  dpkg  1.14.17.   A  source  package  in this format contains at least an
       original tarball (.orig.tar.ext where ext can be gz,  bz2,  lzma  and  xz)  and  a  debian
       tarball   (.debian.tar.ext).   It   can   also   contain   additional   original  tarballs
       (.orig-component.tar.ext).  component can only contain alphanumeric characters and hyphens
       (‘-’).   Optionally  each  original  tarball  can  be  accompanied  by a detached upstream
       signature (.orig.tar.ext.asc and .orig-component.tar.ext.asc), extraction supported  since
       dpkg 1.17.20, building supported since dpkg 1.18.5.

       Extracting

       The  main  original  tarball is extracted first, then all additional original tarballs are
       extracted in subdirectories named after the component part of  their  filename  (any  pre-
       existing  directory  is  replaced).  The  debian tarball is extracted on top of the source
       directory after prior removal of any pre-existing debian directory. Note that  the  debian
       tarball  must  contain a debian sub-directory but it can also contain binary files outside
       of that directory (see --include-binaries option).

       All patches listed  in  debian/patches/debian.series  or  debian/patches/series  are  then
       applied.   If  the former file is used and the latter one doesn't exist (or is a symlink),
       then the latter is replaced with a symlink to the former. This is meant to simplify  usage
       of  quilt  to  manage  the  set  of  patches.  Note  however that while dpkg-source parses
       correctly series files with explicit options used for patch application  (stored  on  each
       line  after  the  patch filename and one or more spaces), it does ignore those options and
       always expect patches that can be applied with the -p1 option of patch. It will thus  emit
       a warning when it encounters such options, and the build is likely to fail.

       The  timestamp  of all patched files is reset to the extraction time of the source package
       (this avoids timestamp skews leading to problems when autogenerated files are patched).

       Contrary to quilt's default behaviour, patches are expected to  apply  without  any  fuzz.
       When that is not the case, you should refresh such patches with quilt, or dpkg-source will
       error out while trying to apply them.

       Similarly to quilt's default behaviour, the patches can remove files too.

       The file .pc/applied-patches is created if some  patches  have  been  applied  during  the
       extraction.

       Building

       All  original  tarballs  found  in  the  current  directory  are  extracted in a temporary
       directory by following the same logic as for the unpack, the debian  directory  is  copied
       over   in   the   temporary   directory,  and  all  patches  except  the  automatic  patch
       (debian-changes-version  or  debian-changes,  depending  on   --single-debian-patch)   are
       applied.  The  temporary  directory  is compared to the source package directory. When the
       diff is non-empty, the build fails unless --single-debian-patch or --auto-commit has  been
       used,  in which case the diff is stored in the automatic patch.  If the automatic patch is
       created/deleted, it's added/removed from the series file and from the quilt metadata.

       Any change on a binary file is not representable in a diff and will thus lead to a failure
       unless  the  maintainer  deliberately  decided to include that modified binary file in the
       debian tarball (by listing it in debian/source/include-binaries). The build will also fail
       if  it  finds  binary  files in the debian sub-directory unless they have been whitelisted
       through debian/source/include-binaries.

       The updated debian directory and the list of modified binaries is then  used  to  generate
       the debian tarball.

       The  automatically generated diff doesn't include changes on VCS specific files as well as
       many temporary files (see default value associated to -i option in the --help output).  In
       particular,  the .pc directory used by quilt is ignored during generation of the automatic
       patch.

       Note: dpkg-source --before-build (and --build) will ensure that all patches listed in  the
       series  file  are  applied so that a package build always has all patches applied. It does
       this by finding unapplied patches  (they  are  listed  in  the  series  file  but  not  in
       .pc/applied-patches), and if the first patch in that set can be applied without errors, it
       will apply them all. The option --no-preparation can be used to disable this behavior.

       Recording changes

       --commit [directory] [patch-name] [patch-file]
              Generates a patch corresponding to the local changes that are not  managed  by  the
              quilt patch system and integrates it in the patch system under the name patch-name.
              If the name is missing, it will be asked interactively. If patch-file is given,  it
              is  used  as  the  patch  corresponding  to  the  local  changes to integrate. Once
              integrated, an editor is launched so that you can edit the meta-information in  the
              patch header.

              Passing  patch-file  is mainly useful after a build failure that pre-generated this
              file, and on this ground the given file is removed  after  integration.  Note  also
              that  the  changes  contained in the patch file must already be applied on the tree
              and that the files modified by the patch must  not  have  supplementary  unrecorded
              changes.

              If  the  patch generation detects modified binary files, they will be automatically
              added to debian/source/include-binaries so that they end up in the  debian  tarball
              (exactly like dpkg-source --include-binaries --build would do).

       Build options

       --allow-version-of-quilt-db=version
              Allow  dpkg-source to build the source package if the version of the quilt metadata
              is the one specified, even  if  dpkg-source  doesn't  know  about  it  (since  dpkg
              1.15.5.4).   Effectively  this says that the given version of the quilt metadata is
              compatible with the version 2 that dpkg-source currently supports. The  version  of
              the quilt metadata is stored in .pc/.version.

       --include-removal
              Do not ignore removed files and include them in the automatically generated patch.

       --include-timestamp
              Include timestamp in the automatically generated patch.

       --include-binaries
              Add   all   modified   binaries   in   the   debian   tarball.  Also  add  them  to
              debian/source/include-binaries: they will be added by default in subsequent  builds
              and this option is thus no more needed.

       --no-preparation
              Do  not  try  to  prepare  the  build tree by applying patches which are apparently
              unapplied (since dpkg 1.14.18).

       --single-debian-patch
              Use debian/patches/debian-changes instead of  debian/patches/debian-changes-version
              for  the  name of the automatic patch generated during build (since dpkg 1.15.5.4).
              This option is particularly useful when the package is maintained in a  VCS  and  a
              patch  set  can't  reliably  be  generated.  Instead the current diff with upstream
              should  be  stored  in   a   single   patch.   The   option   would   be   put   in
              debian/source/local-options      and      would     be     accompanied     by     a
              debian/source/local-patch-header file explaining how the Debian changes can be best
              reviewed, for example in the VCS that is used.

       --create-empty-orig
              Automatically  create  the  main  original  tarball as empty if it's missing and if
              there are supplementary original tarballs (since  dpkg  1.15.6).   This  option  is
              meant  to  be  used  when  the source package is just a bundle of multiple upstream
              software and where there's no “main” software.

       --no-unapply-patches, --unapply-patches
              By default, dpkg-source will automatically unapply the patches in the --after-build
              hook  if  it  did  apply  them  during --before-build (--unapply-patches since dpkg
              1.15.8, --no-unapply-patches since  dpkg  1.16.5).   Those  options  allow  you  to
              forcefully  disable  or  enable  the patch unapplication process. Those options are
              only allowed in debian/source/local-options so that all generated  source  packages
              have the same behavior by default.

       --abort-on-upstream-changes
              The  process  fails  if  an automatic patch has been generated (since dpkg 1.15.8).
              This option can be used to ensure  that  all  changes  were  properly  recorded  in
              separate  quilt  patches  prior  to  the  source  package build. This option is not
              allowed in debian/source/options but can be used in debian/source/local-options.

       --auto-commit
              The process doesn't fail if an automatic patch has  been  generated,  instead  it's
              immediately recorded in the quilt series.

       Extract options

       --skip-debianization
              Skips  extraction  of the debian tarball on top of the upstream sources (since dpkg
              1.15.1).

       --skip-patches
              Do not apply patches at the end of the extraction (since dpkg 1.14.18).

   Format: 3.0 (custom)
       Supported since dpkg 1.14.17.  This format is special.  It doesn't represent a real source
       package format but can be used to create source packages with arbitrary files.

       Build options

       All  non-option arguments are taken as files to integrate in the generated source package.
       They must exist and are preferably in the current directory. At least  one  file  must  be
       given.

       --target-format=value
              Required.  Defines  the real format of the generated source package.  The generated
              .dsc file will contain this value in its Format field and not “3.0 (custom)”.

   Format: 3.0 (git)
       Supported since dpkg 1.14.17.  This format is experimental.

       A source package in this format consists of a single bundle of a git  repository  .git  to
       hold  the source of a package.  There may also be a .gitshallow file listing revisions for
       a shallow git clone.

       Extracting

       The bundle is cloned as a  git  repository  to  the  target  directory.   If  there  is  a
       gitshallow file, it is installed as .git/shallow inside the cloned git repository.

       Note  that  by  default  the new repository will have the same branch checked out that was
       checked out in the original source.  (Typically “master”, but it could be anything.)   Any
       other branches will be available under remotes/origin/.

       Building

       Before  going  any  further,  some  checks  are done to ensure that we don't have any non-
       ignored uncommitted changes.

       git-bundle(1) is used to generate a  bundle  of  the  git  repository.   By  default,  all
       branches and tags in the repository are included in the bundle.

       Build options

       --git-ref=ref
              Allows  specifying a git ref to include in the git bundle. Use disables the default
              behavior of including all branches and tags. May be specified multiple  times.  The
              ref  can  be  the  name of a branch or tag to include. It may also be any parameter
              that can be passed to git-rev-list(1). For example,  to  include  only  the  master
              branch,  use  --git-ref=master.  To  include  all tags and branches, except for the
              private branch, use --git-ref=--all --git-ref=^private

       --git-depth=number
              Creates a shallow clone with  a  history  truncated  to  the  specified  number  of
              revisions.

   Format: 3.0 (bzr)
       Supported since dpkg 1.14.17.  This format is experimental.  It generates a single tarball
       containing the bzr repository.

       Extracting

       The tarball is unpacked and then bzr is used to checkout the current branch.

       Building

       Before going any further, some checks are done to ensure  that  we  don't  have  any  non-
       ignored uncommitted changes.

       Then  the  VCS  specific  part  of  the  source  directory  is  copied over to a temporary
       directory. Before this temporary directory is packed in a  tarball,  various  cleanup  are
       done to save space.

DIAGNOSTICS

   no source format specified in debian/source/format
       The  file debian/source/format should always exist and indicate the desired source format.
       For backwards compatibility, format “1.0” is assumed when the file doesn't exist  but  you
       should  not rely on this: at some point in the future dpkg-source will be modified to fail
       when that file doesn't exist.

       The rationale is that format “1.0” is no longer the recommended format, you should usually
       pick  one of the newer formats (“3.0 (quilt)”, “3.0 (native)”) but dpkg-source will not do
       this automatically for you.  If you want to continue using the old format, you  should  be
       explicit about it and put “1.0” in debian/source/format.

   the diff modifies the following upstream files
       When  using source format “1.0” it is usually a bad idea to modify upstream files directly
       as the changes end up hidden and mostly undocumented in the  .diff.gz  file.  Instead  you
       should store your changes as patches in the debian directory and apply them at build-time.
       To avoid this complexity you can also use  the  format  “3.0  (quilt)”  that  offers  this
       natively.

   cannot represent change to file
       Changes  to  upstream sources are usually stored with patch files, but not all changes can
       be represented with patches: they can only alter the content of plain text files.  If  you
       try  replacing  a  file  with something of a different type (for example replacing a plain
       file with a symlink or a directory), you will get this error message.

   newly created empty file file will not be represented in diff
       Empty files can't be created with patch files. Thus this change is  not  recorded  in  the
       source package and you are warned about it.

   executable mode perms of file will not be represented in diff
       Patch  files  do  not  record permissions of files and thus executable permissions are not
       stored in the source package. This warning reminds you of that fact.

   special mode perms of file will not be represented in diff
       Patch files do not record permissions of files  and  thus  modified  permissions  are  not
       stored in the source package. This warning reminds you of that fact.

ENVIRONMENT

       SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH
              If  set, it will be used as the timestamp (as seconds since the epoch) to clamp the
              mtime in the tar(5) file entries.

       VISUAL
       EDITOR Used by the “2.0” and “3.0 (quilt)” source format modules.

       GIT_DIR
       GIT_INDEX_FILE
       GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY
       GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES
       GIT_WORK_TREE
              Used by the “3.0 (git)” source format modules.

FILES

   debian/source/format
       This file contains on a single line the format that should be used  to  build  the  source
       package (possible formats are described above). No leading or trailing spaces are allowed.

   debian/source/include-binaries
       This  file  contains  a list of binary files (one per line) that should be included in the
       debian tarball. Leading and trailing spaces are stripped.  Lines  starting  with  ‘#’  are
       comments and are skipped.  Empty lines are ignored.

   debian/source/options
       This  file  contains  a list of long options that should be automatically prepended to the
       set of command line options of a dpkg-source --build or dpkg-source  --print-format  call.
       Options like --compression and --compression-level are well suited for this file.

       Each  option should be put on a separate line. Empty lines and lines starting with ‘#’ are
       ignored.  The leading ‘--’ should be stripped and short options are not allowed.  Optional
       spaces are allowed around the ‘=’ symbol and optional quotes are allowed around the value.
       Here's an example of such a file:

         # let dpkg-source create a debian.tar.bz2 with maximal compression
         compression = "bzip2"
         compression-level = 9
         # use debian/patches/debian-changes as automatic patch
         single-debian-patch
         # ignore changes on config.{sub,guess}
         extend-diff-ignore = "(^|/)(config.sub|config.guess)$"

       Note: format options are not accepted in this file, you  should  use  debian/source/format
       instead.

   debian/source/local-options
       Exactly  like  debian/source/options except that the file is not included in the generated
       source package. It can be useful to store a preference tied to the maintainer  or  to  the
       VCS repository where the source package is maintained.

   debian/source/local-patch-header and debian/source/patch-header
       Free  form  text  that  is put on top of the automatic patch generated in formats “2.0” or
       “3.0 (quilt)”. local-patch-header is not included in the generated  source  package  while
       patch-header is.

   debian/patches/series
       This  file  lists  all  patches that have to be applied (in the given order) on top of the
       upstream source package. Leading and trailing spaces are stripped.   Lines  starting  with
       ‘#’  are comments and are skipped.  Empty lines are ignored.  Remaining lines start with a
       patch filename (relative to the debian/patches/ directory) up to the first space character
       or  the  end of line. Optional quilt options can follow up to the end of line or the first
       ‘#’ preceded by one or more spaces (which marks the start of a comment up to  the  end  of
       line).

BUGS

       The  point  at  which  field  overriding  occurs compared to certain standard output field
       settings is rather confused.

SEE ALSO

       deb-src-control(5), deb-changelog(5), dsc(5).