Provided by: gnupg_2.1.15-1ubuntu8_amd64 bug

NAME

       gpg - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS

       gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION

       gpg  is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool to provide digital
       encryption and signing services using the OpenPGP  standard.  gpg  features  complete  key
       management and all bells and whistles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       Note  that  this  version  of  GnuPG  features  all  modern  algorithms and should thus be
       preferred over older GnuPG versions.  If you are looking for version 1 of GnuPG,  you  may
       find that version installed under the name gpg1.

RETURN VALUE

       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature was bad, and other
       error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS

       Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to protect your secret
       key.  This  passphrase  is the weakest part of the whole system. Programs to do dictionary
       attacks on your secret keyring are very easy to write  and  so  you  should  protect  your
       "~/.gnupg/" directory very well.

       Keep  in  mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it is *very* easy to
       spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the program knows about it;
       either give both filenames on the command line or use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY

       GnuPG  tries  to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP standard. In particular,
       GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and
       the  ZLIB  and  BZIP2  compression  algorithms.  It  is important to be aware that not all
       OpenPGP programs implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing their use via the
       --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo, --cert-digest-algo, or --compress-algo options in GnuPG, it
       is possible to create a perfectly valid OpenPGP message, but one that cannot  be  read  by
       the intended recipient.

       There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and each supports a slightly
       different subset of these optional algorithms.  For example, until recently, no (unhacked)
       version  of  PGP  supported the BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply
       could not be read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard  OpenPGP  preferences
       system  that  will  always  do  the right thing and create messages that are usable by all
       recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP program they use. Only override this safe  default
       if you really know what you are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences on a given key are
       invalid for some reason, you are far better  off  using  the  --pgp6,  --pgp7,  or  --pgp8
       options.  These  options  are  safe  as  they  do  not  force any particular algorithms in
       violation of OpenPGP, but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS

       Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that only one  command  is
       allowed.

       gpg  may  be  run  with  no  commands,  in  which case it will perform a reasonable action
       depending on the type of file it is given as input (an encrypted message is  decrypted,  a
       signature is verified, a file containing keys is listed).

       Please  remember  that  option as well as command parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
       encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using the special option --.

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print the  program  version  and  licensing  information.   Note  that  you  cannot
              abbreviate this command.

       --help
       -h     Print  a usage message summarizing the most useful command line options.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
              Print a list  of  all  available  options  and  commands.   Note  that  you  cannot
              abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign
       -s     Make  a  signature.  This  command may be combined with --encrypt (for a signed and
              encrypted message), --symmetric (for a signed and symmetrically encrypted message),
              or  --encrypt  and --symmetric together (for a signed message that may be decrypted
              via a secret key or a passphrase).  The key to be used for  signing  is  chosen  by
              default or can be set with the --local-user and --default-key options.

       --clearsign
              Make  a  clear  text  signature.  The content in a clear text signature is readable
              without any special software.  OpenPGP  software  is  only  needed  to  verify  the
              signature.   Clear  text  signatures may modify end-of-line whitespace for platform
              independence and are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be used for signing
              is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and --default-key options.

       --detach-sign
       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt
       -e     Encrypt  data.  This option may be combined with --sign (for a signed and encrypted
              message), --symmetric (for a message that may be decrypted via a secret  key  or  a
              passphrase),  or  --sign and --symmetric together (for a signed message that may be
              decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric
       -c     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The  default  symmetric  cipher
              used  is  AES-128, but may be chosen with the --cipher-algo option. This option may
              be combined with  --sign  (for  a  signed  and  symmetrically  encrypted  message),
              --encrypt  (for  a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase),
              or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed message that may be decrypted via  a
              secret key or a passphrase).

       --store
              Store only (make a simple literal data packet).

       --decrypt
       -d     Decrypt  the  file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file is specified) and
              write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with --output). If the decrypted file  is
              signed,  the  signature  is  also  verified.  This command differs from the default
              operation, as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file and  it
              rejects files which don't begin with an encrypted message.

       --verify
              Assume  that  the  first argument is a signed file and verify it without generating
              any output.  With no arguments, the signature packet is read from STDIN.  If only a
              one argument is given, it is expected to be a complete signature.

              With  more  than  1  argument,  the  first  should  be a detached signature and the
              remaining files make up the the signed data. To read the signed  data  from  STDIN,
              use  '-'  as the second filename.  For security reasons a detached signature cannot
              read the signed material from STDIN without denoting it in the above way.

              Note: If the option --batch is not used, gpg may assume that a single argument is a
              file  with  a  detached  signature  and it will try to find a matching data file by
              stripping certain suffixes.  Using this historical feature  to  verify  a  detached
              signature is strongly discouraged; always specify the data file too.

              Note:  When  verifying  a  cleartext signature, gpg verifies only what makes up the
              cleartext signed data and not any extra data outside of the cleartext signature  or
              header  lines  following directly the dash marker line.  The option --output may be
              used to write out the actual signed data; but there are other  pitfalls  with  this
              format as well.  It is suggested to avoid cleartext signatures in favor of detached
              signatures.

       --multifile
              This modifies certain other commands to accept multiple files for processing on the
              command  line or read from STDIN with each filename on a separate line. This allows
              for many files to be processed at once. --multifile may  currently  be  used  along
              with  --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --verify may not be
              used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys
       -k
       --list-public-keys
              List all keys from the public keyrings, or just the keys given on the command line.

              Avoid using the output of this command in scripts or other programs as it is likely
              to  change as GnuPG changes.  See --with-colons for a machine-parseable key listing
              command that is appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.  Never  use  the
              regular output for scripts - it is only for human consumption.

       --list-secret-keys
       -K     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the ones given on the command line.
              A # after the letters sec means that the secret key is not usable (for example,  if
              it was created via --export-secret-subkeys).  See also --list-keys.

       --list-sigs
              Same  as --list-keys, but the signatures are listed too.  This command has the same
              effect as using --list-keys with --with-sig-list.

              For each signature listed, there are several flags in between  the  "sig"  tag  and
              keyid.  These  flags give additional information about each signature. From left to
              right, they are the numbers 1-3 for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level),
              "L"  for  a  local  or  non-exportable  signature  (see  --lsign-key),  "R"  for  a
              nonRevocable signature (see the --edit-key command "nrsign"), "P" for  a  signature
              that  contains  a  policy  URL  (see  --cert-policy-url),  "N" for a signature that
              contains a notation (see --cert-notation), "X" for an eXpired signature (see --ask-
              cert-expire),  and  the  numbers  1-9  or  "T"  for  10 and above to indicate trust
              signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
              Same as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note  that  for  performance
              reasons  the revocation status of a signing key is not shown.  This command has the
              same effect as using --list-keys with --with-sig-check.

              The status of the verification is indicated by a flag directly following the  "sig"
              tag  (and  thus before the flags described above for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates
              that the signature has been successfully verified, a "-" denotes  a  bad  signature
              and  a  "%"  is  used if an error occurred while checking the signature (e.g. a non
              supported algorithm).

       --locate-keys
              Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses the same algorithm
              as  used  when  locating keys for encryption or signing and may thus be used to see
              what keys gpg might use.  In particular external methods as defined by  --auto-key-
              locate may be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.

       --fingerprint
              List  all  keys  (or the specified ones) along with their fingerprints. This is the
              same output as --list-keys but with the  additional  output  of  a  line  with  the
              fingerprint.  May  also  be  combined  with  --list-sigs  or --check-sigs.  If this
              command is given twice, the fingerprints of all  secondary  keys  are  listed  too.
              This  command  also  forces pretty printing of fingerprints if the keyid format has
              been set to "none".

       --list-packets
              List only the sequence of packets.  This command  is  only  useful  for  debugging.
              When used with option --verbose the actual MPI values are dumped and not only their
              lengths.  Note that the output of this command may change with new releases.

       --card-edit
              Present a menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help" provides an overview
              on  available  commands.  For  a detailed description, please see the Card HOWTO at
              https://gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
              Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
              Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This functionality is also
              available as the subcommand "passwd" with the --card-edit command.

       --delete-keys name
       --delete-keys name
              Remove  key  from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes is required or the
              key must be specified by  fingerprint.  This  is  a  safeguard  against  accidental
              deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-keys name
              gRemove  key  from  the  secret keyring. In batch mode the key must be specified by
              fingerprint.  The option --yes can be used to advice gpg-agent  not  to  request  a
              confirmation.   This  extra  pre-caution is done because gpg can't be sure that the
              secret key (as controlled by gpg-agent) is only used for the given  OpenPGP  public
              key.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same  as  --delete-key,  but  if  a secret key exists, it will be removed first. In
              batch mode the key must be specified by fingerprint.  The option --yes can be  used
              to advice gpg-agent not to request a confirmation.

       --export
              Either export all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and those registered via
              option --keyring), or if at least one name is given, those of the given  name.  The
              exported keys are written to STDOUT or to the file given with option --output.  Use
              together with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
              Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.  Fingerprints  may  be  used
              instead  of  key  IDs.  Option  --keyserver  must  be used to give the name of this
              keyserver. Don't send your complete keyring to a keyserver ---  select  only  those
              keys which are new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are given, gpg does nothing.

       --export-secret-keys
       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same  as  --export,  but  exports  the  secret keys instead.  The exported keys are
              written to STDOUT or to the file given with option --output.  This command is often
              used  along  with  the  option  --armor to allow easy printing of the key for paper
              backup; however the external tool paperkey does a better job for  creating  backups
              on  paper.  Note that exporting a secret key can be a security risk if the exported
              keys are send over an insecure channel.

              The second form of the command has the special property to render the  secret  part
              of  the  primary  key  useless;  this  is  a  GNU  extension  to  OpenPGP and other
              implementations can not be  expected  to  successfully  import  such  a  key.   Its
              intended  use  is  to  generated  a full key with an additional signing subkey on a
              dedicated machine and then using this command to export the key without the primary
              key to the main machine.

              GnuPG  may  ask  you to enter the passphrase for the key.  This is required because
              the internal protection method  of  the  secret  key  is  different  from  the  one
              specified by the OpenPGP protocol.

       --export-ssh-key
              This command is used to export a key in the OpenSSH public key format.  It requires
              the specification of one key by the usual means and exports the latest valid subkey
              which  has  an authentication capability to STDOUT or to the file given with option
              --output.  That output can directly be added to ssh's ‘authorized_key’ file.

              By specifying the key to export using a key ID or a fingerprint  suffixed  with  an
              exclamation  mark  (!), a specific subkey or the primary key can be exported.  This
              does not even require that the key has the authentication capability flag set.

       --import
       --fast-import
              Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The  fast  version  is
              currently just a synonym.

              There  are  a few other options which control how this command works.  Most notable
              here is the --import-options merge-only option which does not insert new  keys  but
              does only the merging of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --recv-keys key IDs
              Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver. Option --keyserver must be
              used to give the name of this keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
              Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on the local  keyring.
              This  is  useful  for  updating  a  key  with the latest signatures, user IDs, etc.
              Calling this with no arguments will refresh the entire keyring. Option  --keyserver
              must  be  used  to  give  the  name  of the keyserver for all keys that do not have
              preferred keyservers set (see --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-url).

       --search-keys names
              Search the keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given here will be  joined
              together to create the search string for the keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be
              used to give the name of this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different  search
              methods  allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify a user ID" below. Note
              that different keyserver types support different  search  methods.  Currently  only
              LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
              Retrieve  keys  located at the specified URIs. Note that different installations of
              GnuPG may support different protocols (HTTP, FTP, LDAP, etc.).   When  using  HTTPS
              the system provided root certificates are used by this command.

       --update-trustdb
              Do  trust  database maintenance. This command iterates over all keys and builds the
              Web of Trust. This is an interactive command because it may have  to  ask  for  the
              "ownertrust"  values  for  keys.  The user has to give an estimation of how far she
              trusts the owner of the displayed key to correctly certify (sign) other keys. GnuPG
              only  asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet been assigned to a key. Using
              the --edit-key menu, the assigned value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance without user interaction. From time to time the trust
              database  must  be  updated  so  that  expired keys or signatures and the resulting
              changes in the Web of Trust can be tracked. Normally,  GnuPG  will  calculate  when
              this  is  required  and  do it automatically unless --no-auto-check-trustdb is set.
              This command can be used  to  force  a  trust  database  check  at  any  time.  The
              processing  is  identical  to that of --update-trustdb but it skips keys with a not
              yet defined "ownertrust".

              For use with cron jobs, this command can be used together  with  --batch  in  which
              case  the  trust  database  check is done only if a check is needed. To force a run
              even in batch mode add the option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
              Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup purposes  as  these
              values  are  the  only  ones  which  can't  be re-created from a corrupted trustdb.
              Example:
                  gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
              Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values stored in  files  (or  STDIN  if  not
              given); existing values will be overwritten.  In case of a severely damaged trustdb
              and if you have a recent  backup  of  the  ownertrust  values  (e.g.  in  the  file
              ‘otrust.txt’, you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                  cd ~/.gnupg
                  rm trustdb.gpg
                  gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
              When  updating  from  version  1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be used to create
              signature caches in the keyring. It might be handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo
       --print-mds
              Print message digest of algorithm ALGO for all given  files  or  STDIN.   With  the
              second  form (or a deprecated "*" as algo) digests for all available algorithms are
              printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
              Emit count random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If count is not given
              or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes will be emitted.  If used with --armor
              the output will be base64 encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless you  know
              what you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to change.

       --enarmor
       --dearmor
              Pack  or  unpack  an  arbitrary  input into/from an OpenPGP ASCII armor.  This is a
              GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not very useful.

       --tofu-policy auto|good|unknown|bad|ask key...
              Set the TOFU policy for all the bindings associated with the specified  keys.   For
              more  information  about the meaning of the policies, see: [trust-model-tofu].  The
              keys may be specified either by their fingerprint (preferred) or their keyid.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --quick-gen-key user-id [algo [usage [expire]]]
              This is a simple command to generate a standard key with one user id.  In  contrast
              to  --gen-key  the  key is generated directly without the need to answer a bunch of
              prompts.  Unless the option --yes is given, the key creation will  be  canceled  if
              the given user id already exists in the key ring.

              If  invoked  directly  on  the  console  without any special options an answer to a
              ``Continue?'' style confirmation prompt is required.  In case the user  id  already
              exists  in  the key ring a second prompt to force the creation of the key will show
              up.

              If any of the optional arguments are given, only the primary key is created and  no
              prompts  are  shown.  For a description of these optional arguments see the command
              --quick-addkey.  The usage accepts also the value ``cert'' which  can  be  used  to
              create  a  certification only primary key; the default is to a create certification
              and signing key.

              If this command is used with --batch, --pinentry-mode has been set to loopback, and
              one  of  the passphrase options (--passphrase, --passphrase-fd, or passphrase-file)
              is used, the supplied passphrase is used for the new key and the agent does not ask
              for it.  To create a key without any protection --passphrase '' may be used.

       --quick-addkey fpr [algo [usage [expire]]]
              Directly  add  a  subkey to the key identified by the fingerprint fpr.  Without the
              optional arguments an encryption subkey is added.  If  any  of  the  arguments  are
              given a more specific subkey is added.

              algo  may  be any of the supported algorithms or curve names given in the format as
              used by key listings.  To use the default algorithm the string ``default'' or ``-''
              can  be  used.  Supported  algorithms  are  ``rsa'', ``dsa'', ``elg'', ``ed25519'',
              ``cv25519'', and other ECC curves.  For example the string ``rsa'' adds an RSA  key
              with  the  default key length; a string ``rsa4096'' requests that the key length is
              4096 bits.

              Depending on the given algo the subkey may either be  an  encryption  subkey  or  a
              signing  subkey.   If  an algorithm is capable of signing and encryption and such a
              subkey is desired, a usage string must be given.  This string is either ``default''
              or  ``-'' to keep the default or a comma delimited list of keywords: ``sign'' for a
              signing subkey,  ``auth''  for  an  authentication  subkey,  and  ``encr''  for  an
              encryption  subkey  (``encrypt''  can  be  used  as alias for ``encr'').  The valid
              combinations depend on the algorithm.

              The expire argument can be used to specify  an  expiration  date  for  the  subkey.
              Several  formats  are  supported;  commonly the ISO YYYY-MM-DD format is used.  The
              values ``never'', ``none'', or ``-'' can be used for no expiration date.

       --gen-key
              Generate a new key pair using the current default parameters.  This is the standard
              command  to  create  a new key.  In addition to the key a revocation certificate is
              created and stored  in  the  ‘openpgp-revocs.d’  directory  below  the  GnuPG  home
              directory.

       --full-gen-key
              Generate  a new key pair with dialogs for all options.  This is an extended version
              of --gen-key.

              There is also a feature which allows you to create keys  in  batch  mode.  See  the
              manual section ``Unattended key generation'' on how to use this.

       --gen-revoke name
              Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key.  To only revoke a subkey or
              a key signature, use the --edit command.

              This command merely creates the revocation certificate so that it can  be  used  to
              revoke  the  key  if  that  is  ever  needed.  To actually revoke a key the created
              revocation certificate needs to be merged with the key to revoke.  This is done  by
              importing  the revocation certificate using the --import command.  Then the revoked
              key needs to be published, which is best done by sending the  key  to  a  keyserver
              (command --send-key) and by exporting (--export) it to a file which is then send to
              frequent communication partners.

       --desig-revoke name
              Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key. This allows  a  user  (with
              the permission of the keyholder) to revoke someone else's key.

       --edit-key
              Present  a  menu  which enables you to do most of the key management related tasks.
              It expects the specification of a key on the command line.

              uid n  Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID with index n.  Use *  to
                     select all and 0 to deselect all.

              key n  Toggle  selection  of  subkey with index n or key ID n.  Use * to select all
                     and 0 to deselect all.

              sign   Make a signature on key of user name If the key is not  yet  signed  by  the
                     default  user  (or  the  users  given  with  -u),  the  program displays the
                     information of the key again, together with its fingerprint and asks whether
                     it  should be signed. This question is repeated for all users specified with
                     -u.

              lsign  Same as "sign" but the  signature  is  marked  as  non-exportable  and  will
                     therefore  never be used by others. This may be used to make keys valid only
                     in the local environment.

              nrsign Same as "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked  as  non-revocable  and  can
                     therefore never be revoked.

              tsign  Make  a  trust  signature.  This is a signature that combines the notions of
                     certification (like a  regular  signature),  and  trust  (like  the  "trust"
                     command).  It  is  generally  only useful in distinct communities or groups.
                     For more information  please  read  the  sections  ``Trust  Signature''  and
                     ``Regular Expression'' in RFC-4880.

              Note  that  "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for non-revocable, and "t" (for
              trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to "sign" to create a signature of any type
              desired.

       If  the  option --only-sign-text-ids is specified, then any non-text based user ids (e.g.,
       photo IDs) will not be selected for signing.

              delsig Delete a signature. Note that it is not possible  to  retract  a  signature,
                     once it has been send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you
                     better use revsig.

              revsig Revoke a signature. For every signature which has been generated by  one  of
                     the  secret  keys,  GnuPG  asks  whether  a revocation certificate should be
                     generated.

              check  Check the signatures on all  selected  user  IDs.   With  the  extra  option
                     selfsig only self-signatures are shown.

              adduid Create an additional user ID.

              addphoto
                     Create a photographic user ID. This will prompt for a JPEG file that will be
                     embedded into the user ID. Note that a very large JPEG will make for a  very
                     large  key.  Also  note  that some programs will display your JPEG unchanged
                     (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit in a dialog box (PGP).

              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.

              deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.  Note that it is not  possible  to
                     retract  a  user  id,  once  it  has  been  send  to  the  public (i.e. to a
                     keyserver).  In that case you better use revuid.

              revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

              primary
                     Flag the current user id as the primary one, removes  the  primary  user  id
                     flag  from  all  other user ids and sets the timestamp of all affected self-
                     signatures one second ahead. Note that setting a photo user  ID  as  primary
                     makes it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a regular user ID as
                     primary makes it primary over other regular user IDs.

              keyserver
                     Set a preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).  This  allows  other
                     users  to  know  where  you  prefer they get your key from. See --keyserver-
                     options honor-keyserver-url for more on how this works.  Setting a value  of
                     "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.

              notation
                     Set  a name=value notation for the specified user ID(s). See --cert-notation
                     for more on how this works. Setting a value of "none" removes all notations,
                     setting a notation prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                     setting a notation name (without the =value)  prefixed  with  a  minus  sign
                     removes all notations with that name.

              pref   List   preferences  from  the  selected  user  ID.  This  shows  the  actual
                     preferences, without including any implied preferences.

              showpref
                     More verbose preferences listing for the selected user ID.  This  shows  the
                     preferences in effect by including the implied preferences of 3DES (cipher),
                     SHA-1 (digest), and Uncompressed  (compression)  if  they  are  not  already
                     included  in  the  preference list. In addition, the preferred keyserver and
                     signature notations (if any) are shown.

              setpref string
                     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or just the selected)
                     user  IDs. Calling setpref with no arguments sets the preference list to the
                     default (either built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and  calling
                     setpref  with  "none" as the argument sets an empty preference list. Use gpg
                     --version to get a list of available algorithms. Note  that  while  you  can
                     change  the preferences on an attribute user ID (aka "photo ID"), GnuPG does
                     not select keys via attribute user IDs so these preferences will not be used
                     by GnuPG.

                     When  setting preferences, you should list the algorithms in the order which
                     you'd like to see them used by someone else when  encrypting  a  message  to
                     your  key.  If you don't include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the
                     end.  Note that there are many factors that go into  choosing  an  algorithm
                     (for  example,  your  key  may not be the only recipient), and so the remote
                     OpenPGP application being used to send to you may or  may  not  follow  your
                     exact  chosen  order  for a given message.  It will, however, only choose an
                     algorithm that is present on the preference list  of  every  recipient  key.
                     See also the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.

              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

              keytocard
                     Transfer  the  selected  secret  subkey (or the primary key if no subkey has
                     been selected) to a smartcard.  The  secret  key  in  the  keyring  will  be
                     replaced  by  a stub if the key could be stored successfully on the card and
                     you use the save command later. Only certain key types may be transferred to
                     the  card.  A  sub  menu allows you to select on what card to store the key.
                     Note that it is not possible to get that key back from the  card  -  if  the
                     card  gets  broken  your  secret  key  will be lost unless you have a backup
                     somewhere.

              bkuptocard file
                     Restore the given file to a card. This command may  be  used  to  restore  a
                     backup  key  (as  generated  during  card  initialization) to a new card. In
                     almost all cases this will be  the  encryption  key.  You  should  use  this
                     command  only  with the corresponding public key and make sure that the file
                     given as argument is indeed the backup to restore. You should then select  2
                     to  restore  as  encryption  key.   You  will  first  be  asked to enter the
                     passphrase of the backup key and then for the Admin PIN of the card.

              delkey Remove a subkey (secondary key). Note that it is not possible to  retract  a
                     subkey,  once it has been send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that
                     case you better use revkey.

              revkey Revoke a subkey.

              expire Change the key or subkey expiration time.  If  a  subkey  is  selected,  the
                     expiration  time  of this subkey will be changed. With no selection, the key
                     expiration of the primary key is changed.

              trust  Change the owner  trust  value  for  the  key.  This  updates  the  trust-db
                     immediately and no save is required.

              disable
              enable Disable or enable an entire key. A disabled key can not normally be used for
                     encryption.

              addrevoker
                     Add a designated revoker to the  key.  This  takes  one  optional  argument:
                     "sensitive".  If a designated revoker is marked as sensitive, it will not be
                     exported by default (see export-options).

              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

              toggle This is dummy command which exists only for backward compatibility.

              clean  Compact (by removing all signatures except the selfsig) any user ID that  is
                     no  longer  usable  (e.g.  revoked, or expired). Then, remove any signatures
                     that are not usable by the trust calculations.  Specifically,  this  removes
                     any  signature that does not validate, any signature that is superseded by a
                     later signature, revoked signatures, and signatures issued by keys that  are
                     not present on the keyring.

              minimize
                     Make  the  key  as  small as possible. This removes all signatures from each
                     user ID except for the most recent self-signature.

              cross-certify
                     Add cross-certification signatures to signing subkeys that may not currently
                     have  them.  Cross-certification  signatures protect against a subtle attack
                     against signing subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.   All  new  keys
                     generated  have  this signature by default, so this option is only useful to
                     bring older keys up to date.

              save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

              quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.

              The listing shows you the key with its  secondary  keys  and  all  user  ids.   The
              primary  user id is indicated by a dot, and selected keys or user ids are indicated
              by an asterisk.  The trust value is displayed with the primary key:  the  first  is
              the  assigned owner trust and the second is the calculated trust value. Letters are
              used for the values:

              -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

              e      Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an expired key.

              q      Not enough information for calculation.

              n      Never trust this key.

              m      Marginally trusted.

              f      Fully trusted.

              u      Ultimately trusted.

       --sign-key name
              Signs a public key with your  secret  key.  This  is  a  shortcut  version  of  the
              subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
              Signs  a  public key with your secret key but marks it as non-exportable. This is a
              shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign" from --edit-key.

       --quick-sign-key fpr [names]
       --quick-lsign-key fpr [names]
              Directly sign a key from the passphrase without any further user interaction.   The
              fpr  must  be the verified primary fingerprint of a key in the local keyring. If no
              names are given, all useful user ids are signed; with  given  [names]  only  useful
              user  ids  matching  one  of  theses names are signed.  By default, or if a name is
              prefixed with a '*', a case insensitive substring match is  used.   If  a  name  is
              prefixed with a '=' a case sensitive exact match is done.

              The  command  --quick-lsign-key  marks the signatures as non-exportable.  If such a
              non-exportable signature already  exists  the  --quick-sign-key  turns  it  into  a
              exportable signature.

              This  command  uses  reasonable  defaults  and  thus  does  not  provide  the  full
              flexibility of the "sign" subcommand from --edit-key.  Its intended use is to  help
              unattended key signing by utilizing a list of verified fingerprints.

       --quick-adduid user-id new-user-id
              This command adds a new user id to an existing key.  In contrast to the interactive
              sub-command adduid of --edit-key  the  new-user-id  is  added  verbatim  with  only
              leading  and  trailing white space removed, it is expected to be UTF-8 encoded, and
              no checks on its form are applied.

       --quick-revuid user-id user-id-to-revoke
              This command revokes a User ID on an existing key.  It cannot be used to revoke the
              last  User ID on key (some non-revoked User ID must remain), with revocation reason
              ``User ID is no longer valid''.  If you want  to  specify  a  different  revocation
              reason,  or to supply supplementary revocation text, you should use the interactive
              sub-command revuid of --edit-key.

       --passwd user_id
              Change the passphrase of the secret key belonging to the certificate  specified  as
              user_id.  This is a shortcut for the sub-command passwd of the edit key menu.

OPTIONS

       gpg  features  a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to change the default
       configuration.

       Long options can be put in an options file  (default  "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short  option
       names  will  not work - for example, "armor" is a valid option for the options file, while
       "a" is not. Do not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and any  required
       arguments.  Lines  with  a  hash ('#') as the first non-white-space character are ignored.
       Commands may be put in this file too, but that is not generally useful as the command will
       execute automatically with every execution of gpg.

       Please  remember that option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is encountered, you can
       explicitly stop parsing by using the special option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change the configuration and are usually  found  in  the  option
       file.

       --default-key name
              Use  name  as the default key to sign with. If this option is not used, the default
              key is the first key found in the secret keyring.  Note  that  -u  or  --local-user
              overrides this option.  This option may be given multiple times.  In this case, the
              last key for which a secret key is available is used.  If there is  no  secret  key
              available for any of the specified values, GnuPG will not emit an error message but
              continue as if this option wasn't given.

       --default-recipient name
              Use name as default recipient if option --recipient is not used and  don't  ask  if
              this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
              Use  the  default  key  as  default recipient if option --recipient is not used and
              don't ask if this is a valid one. The default key is the first one from the  secret
              keyring or the one set with --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
              Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
              Give more information during processing. If used twice, the input data is listed in
              detail.

       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch
       --no-batch
              Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.  --no-batch disables
              this  option.   Note that even with a filename given on the command line, gpg might
              still need to read from STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that  the  input  is  a
              detached  signature  and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do not want
              to feed data via STDIN, you should connect STDIN to ‘/dev/null’.

       --no-tty
              Make sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any  output.   This  option  is
              needed  in  some  cases  because GnuPG sometimes prints warnings to the TTY even if
              --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used when listing keys
              and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,  --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, --list-
              secret-keys, and the --edit-key functions).  Options can be prepended  with  a  no-
              (after the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.  The options are:

              show-photos
                     Causes  --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, and --list-secret-keys
                     to display any photo IDs attached to the key.   Defaults  to  no.  See  also
                     --photo-viewer.   Does  not  work with --with-colons: see --attribute-fd for
                     the appropriate way to get photo data for scripts and other frontends.

              show-usage
                     Show usage information for keys and subkeys in  the  standard  key  listing.
                     This  is  a  list  of  letters  indicating  the  allowed  usage  for  a  key
                     (E=encryption, S=signing, C=certification, A=authentication).   Defaults  to
                     yes.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show  policy  URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings.  Defaults to
                     no.

              show-notations
              show-std-notations
              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations in the  --list-
                     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show  any  preferred  keyserver  URL  in  the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs
                     listings. Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of user IDs during key  listings.   Defaults
                     to yes.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs in key listings. Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show revoked and expired subkeys in key listings. Defaults to no.

              show-keyring
                     Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which keyring a
                     given key resides on. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-expire
                     Show signature expiration dates (if any) during --list-sigs or  --check-sigs
                     listings. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include  signature  subpackets  in  the key listing. This option can take an
                     optional argument list of the subpackets to list. If no argument is  passed,
                     list  all  subpackets.  Defaults  to no. This option is only meaningful when
                     using --with-colons along with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.

       --verify-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options  used  when  verifying
              signatures. Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The
              options are:

              show-photos
                     Display any photo  IDs  present  on  the  key  that  issued  the  signature.
                     Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the signature being verified. Defaults to yes.

              show-notations
              show-std-notations
              show-user-notations
                     Show  all,  IETF  standard,  or  user-defined  signature  notations  in  the
                     signature being verified. Defaults to IETF standard.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the signature being verified.   Defaults
                     to yes.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display  the  calculated validity of the user IDs on the key that issued the
                     signature. Defaults to yes.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature  verification.   Defaults
                     to no.

              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show  only  the  primary user ID during signature verification.  That is all
                     the AKA lines as well  as  photo  Ids  are  not  shown  with  the  signature
                     verification status.

              pka-lookups
                     Enable  PKA  lookups  to  verify sender addresses. Note that PKA is based on
                     DNS, and so enabling this option may disclose information on when  and  what
                     signatures are verified or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
                     "web bug" described for the --auto-key-retrieve option.

              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise the trust  in  a  signature  to  full  if  the  signature  passes  PKA
                     validation. This option is only meaningful if pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-large-rsa
       --disable-large-rsa
              With --gen-key and --batch, enable the creation of RSA secret keys as large as 8192
              bit.  Note: 8192 bit is more than is generally recommended.  These large keys don't
              significantly  improve  security,  but  they  are  more expensive to use, and their
              signatures and certifications are larger.  This option is  only  available  if  the
              binary was build with large-secmem support.

       --enable-dsa2
       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up to 1024 bit.  This
              is also the default with  --openpgp.   Note  that  older  versions  of  GnuPG  also
              required this flag to allow the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
              This  is  the  command  line  that  should  be run to view a photo ID. "%i" will be
              expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I" does the same,  except  the  file
              will  not  be  deleted once the viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID,
              "%K" for the long key ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the  extension  of
              the  image  type  (e.g.  "jpg"),  "%T"  for  the  MIME  type  of  the  image  (e.g.
              "image/jpeg"), "%v" for the single-character calculated validity of the image being
              viewed  (e.g.  "f"),  "%V"  for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"),
              "%U" for a base32 encoded hash of the user ID, and "%%" for an actual percent sign.
              If  neither  %i or %I are present, then the photo will be supplied to the viewer on
              standard input.

              The default viewer is "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title  'KeyID  0x%k'  STDIN".  Note
              that  if your image viewer program is not secure, then executing it from GnuPG does
              not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
              Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and  keyserver  helpers.  If
              not  provided,  keyserver  helpers use the compiled-in default directory, and photo
              viewers use the PATH environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system this value  is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
              Add  file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with a tilde and a slash,
              these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If  the  filename  does  not  contain  a
              slash,  it is assumed to be in the GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or
              $GNUPGHOME is not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the  intent  is  to  use  the
              specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with --no-default-keyring.

              If the the option --no-keyring has been used no keyrings will be used at all.

       --secret-keyring file
              This  is  an  obsolete  option  and  ignored.   All  secret  keys are stored in the
              ‘private-keys-v1.d’ directory below the GnuPG home directory.

       --primary-keyring file
              Designate file as the primary public keyring. This means that newly  imported  keys
              (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
              Use  file  instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a tilde and a slash,
              these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If  the  filename  does  not  contain  a
              slash,  it is assumed to be in the GnuPG home directory (‘~/.gnupg’ if --homedir or
              $GNUPGHOME is not used).

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is  not  used,  the  home
              directory  defaults to ‘~/.gnupg’.  It is only recognized when given on the command
              line.  It also overrides any home directory stated through the environment variable
              ‘GNUPGHOME’   or   (on   Windows   systems)   by   means   of  the  Registry  entry
              HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

              On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable  application.   In
              this case only this command line option is considered, all other ways to set a home
              directory are ignored.

              To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an empty file name
              ‘gpgconf.ctl’  in  the  same  directory as the tool ‘gpgconf.exe’.  The root of the
              installation is than that  directory;  or,  if  ‘gpgconf.exe’  has  been  installed
              directly  below  a  directory  named ‘bin’, its parent directory.  You also need to
              make sure that the following directories exist and are  writable:  ‘ROOT/home’  for
              the GnuPG home and ‘ROOT/var/cache/gnupg’ for internal cache files.

       --display-charset name
              Set  the  name  of  the  native  character  set.  This  is  used  to  convert  some
              informational strings like user IDs to the proper UTF-8 encoding.  Note  that  this
              has  nothing  to do with the character set of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG
              does not recode user-supplied data.  If  this  option  is  not  used,  the  default
              character  set  is determined from the current locale. A verbosity level of 3 shows
              the chosen set.  Valid values for name are:

              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.

              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.

              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

              koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

              utf-8  Bypass all translations and assume that the OS uses native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings
       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume that command line arguments are given as UTF8 strings.  The  default  (--no-
              utf8-strings)  is  to  assume  that  arguments  are encoded in the character set as
              specified by --display-charset. These options affect all following arguments.  Both
              options may be used multiple times.

       --options file
              Read options from file and do not try to read them from the default options file in
              the homedir (see --homedir). This option is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before an attempt to open
              an  option  file.  Using this option will also prevent the creation of a ‘~/.gnupg’
              homedir.

       -z n
       --compress-level n
       --bzip2-compress-level n
              Set compression level to n for the ZIP and ZLIB compression algorithms. The default
              is  to  use  the  default compression level of zlib (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-
              level sets the compression level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to
              6  as  well).  This  is a different option from --compress-level since BZIP2 uses a
              significant amount of memory for each additional compression level.  -z sets  both.
              A value of 0 for n disables compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
              Use  a  different  decompression  method for BZIP2 compressed files. This alternate
              method uses a bit more than half the memory, but also runs at half the speed.  This
              is  useful  under  extreme  low  memory  circumstances when the file was originally
              compressed at a high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames
       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than one dot.  --mangle-
              dos-filenames  causes  GnuPG  to  replace  (rather than add to) the extension of an
              output filename to avoid this problem. This option is off by  default  and  has  no
              effect on non-Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level
       --no-ask-cert-level
              When  making  a  key signature, prompt for a certification level. If this option is
              not specified, the certification level used is set  via  --default-cert-level.  See
              --default-cert-level  for information on the specific levels and how they are used.
              --no-ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              0 means you make no particular claim as to how carefully you verified the key.

              1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to  own  it  but  you
              could  not,  or  did  not  verify  the  key  at all. This is useful for a "persona"
              verification, where you sign the key of a pseudonymous user.

              2 means you did casual verification of the key. For example, this could  mean  that
              you verified the key fingerprint and checked the user ID on the key against a photo
              ID.

              3 means you did extensive verification of the key. For  example,  this  could  mean
              that you verified the key fingerprint with the owner of the key in person, and that
              you checked, by means of a hard to forge document  with  a  photo  ID  (such  as  a
              passport)  that  the  name  of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
              key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that the email address on
              the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note  that  the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just that: examples. In
              the end, it is up to you to decide just what "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
              When building the trust database, treat any signatures with a  certification  level
              below  this  as  invalid.  Defaults to 2, which disregards level 1 signatures. Note
              that level 0 "no particular claim" signatures are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
              Assume that the specified key (which must be given as a full 8 byte key ID)  is  as
              trustworthy as one of your own secret keys. This option is useful if you don't want
              to keep your secret keys (or one of them) online but still want to be able to check
              the validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model pgp|classic|tofu|tofu+pgp|direct|always|auto
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

              pgp    This  is  the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures as used in PGP 5.x
                     and later. This is the  default  trust  model  when  creating  a  new  trust
                     database.

              classic
                     This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by PGP 2.

              tofu

                     TOFU  stands  for Trust On First Use.  In this trust model, the first time a
                     key is seen, it is memorized.  If later another key is seen with a  user  id
                     with the same email address, a warning is displayed indicating that there is
                     a conflict and that the key might be a forgery and an attempt at  a  man-in-
                     the-middle attack.

                     Because  a  potential  attacker  is  able  to  control the email address and
                     thereby circumvent the  conflict  detection  algorithm  by  using  an  email
                     address that is similar in appearance to a trusted email address, whenever a
                     message is verified, statistics about the number of messages signed with the
                     key  are  shown.  In this way, a user can easily identify attacks using fake
                     keys for regular correspondents.

                     When compared with the  Web  of  Trust,  TOFU  offers  significantly  weaker
                     security  guarantees.   In  particular,  TOFU  only helps ensure consistency
                     (that is, that the binding between a key and email address doesn't  change).
                     A  major  advantage  of  TOFU  is that it requires little maintenance to use
                     correctly.  To use the web of trust properly, you need to actively sign keys
                     and mark users as trusted introducers.  This is a time-consuming process and
                     anecdotal evidence suggests that even security-conscious users  rarely  take
                     the time to do this thoroughly and instead rely on an ad-hoc TOFU process.

                     In  the  TOFU  model, policies are associated with bindings between keys and
                     email addresses (which are extracted from user ids and  normalized).   There
                     are five policies, which can be set manually using the --tofu-policy option.
                     The default policy can be set using the --tofu-default-policy policy.

                     The TOFU policies are: auto, good, unknown, bad and ask.  The auto policy is
                     used  by  default  (unless  overridden by --tofu-default-policy) and marks a
                     binding as marginally trusted.  The good, unknown and bad  policies  mark  a
                     binding  as fully trusted, as having unknown trust or as having trust never,
                     respectively.  The unknown policy is useful for just using  TOFU  to  detect
                     conflicts,  but  to  never  assign  positive  trust to a binding.  The final
                     policy, ask prompts the user to indicate the binding's trust.  If batch mode
                     is  enabled (or input is inappropriate in the context), then the user is not
                     prompted and the undefined trust level is returned.

              tofu+pgp
                     This trust model combines TOFU with the Web  of  Trust.   This  is  done  by
                     computing  the  trust level for each model and then taking the maximum trust
                     level where the trust levels are ordered as follows: unknown <  undefined  <
                     marginal < fully < ultimate < expired < never.

                     By   setting  --tofu-default-policy=unknown,  this  model  can  be  used  to
                     implement the web of trust with TOFU's  conflict  detection  algorithm,  but
                     without  its  assignment  of  positive  trust  values,  which some security-
                     conscious users don't like.

              direct Key validity is set directly by the user and not calculated via the  Web  of
                     Trust.

              always Skip  key  validation  and assume that used keys are always fully valid. You
                     generally won't use this unless  you  are  using  some  external  validation
                     scheme.  This  option  also  suppresses  the  "[uncertain]" tag printed with
                     signature checks when there is no evidence that the user ID is bound to  the
                     key.   Note  that  this trust model still does not allow the use of expired,
                     revoked, or disabled keys.

              auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever  the  internal  trust  database
                     says. This is the default model if such a database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters
       --no-auto-key-locate
              GnuPG  can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using this option. This
              happens when encrypting to an email address (in the "user@example.com"  form),  and
              there  are  no  user@example.com  keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any
              number of the following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:

              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

              dane   Locate a key using DANE, as specified in draft-ietf-dane-openpgpkey-05.txt.

              wkd    Locate a key using the Web Key Directory protocol.  This is an  experimental
                     method and semantics may change.

              ldap   Using  DNS  Service  Discovery,  check  the  domain in question for any LDAP
                     keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt to locate the key using  the  PGP
                     Universal method of checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

              keyserver
                     Locate  a  key  using  whatever  keyserver  is defined using the --keyserver
                     option.

              keyserver-URL
                     In addition, a keyserver URL as used in the --keyserver option may  be  used
                     here to query that particular keyserver.

              local  Locate  the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism allows the user to
                     select the order a local key lookup is done.  Thus using  '--auto-key-locate
                     local' is identical to --no-auto-key-locate.

              nodefault
                     This  flag  disables  the  standard local key lookup, done before any of the
                     mechanisms defined by the --auto-key-locate are tried.  The position of this
                     mechanism  in the list does not matter.  It is not required if local is also
                     used.

              clear  Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override  mechanisms  given
                     in a config file.

       --auto-key-retrieve
       --no-auto-key-retrieve
              This  option  enables  the  automatic  retrieving  of  keys  from  a keyserver when
              verifying signatures made by keys that are not on the local keyring.

              If the method "wkd" is included in the list of methods  given  to  auto-key-locate,
              the  Signer's User ID is part of the signature, and the option --disable-signer-uid
              is not used, the "wkd" method may also be used to retrieve a key.

              Note that this option makes a "web bug" like behavior possible.  Keyserver  or  Web
              Key Directory operators can see which keys you request, so by sending you a message
              signed by a brand new key  (which  you  naturally  will  not  have  on  your  local
              keyring), the operator can tell both your IP address and the time when you verified
              the signature.

       --keyid-format none|short|0xshort|long|0xlong
              Select how to display key IDs.  "none" does not show the key ID at  all  but  shows
              the fingerprint in a separate line.  "short" is the traditional 8-character key ID.
              "long" is the more accurate (but less convenient) 16-character key ID.  Add an "0x"
              to  either  to  include  an  "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.
              Note that this option is ignored if the option --with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
              This option is deprecated - please use the --keyserver in ‘dirmngr.conf’ instead.

              Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys,  --send-keys,  and
              --search-keys  will communicate with to receive keys from, send keys to, and search
              for keys on. The format of the name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The
              scheme  is  the  type  of keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers,
              "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for the  Graff  email  keyserver.  Note
              that your particular installation of GnuPG may have other keyserver types available
              as well. Keyserver schemes are case-insensitive. After the keyserver name, optional
              keyserver  configuration  options may be provided. These are the same as the global
              --keyserver-options from below, but apply only to this particular keyserver.

              Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally no need to  send
              keys  to  more than one server. The keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses round robin
              DNS to give a different keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives  options  for  the  keyserver.
              Options  can  be  prefixed with a `no-' to give the opposite meaning. Valid import-
              options or export-options may be used here as well to apply to  importing  (--recv-
              key)  or  exporting  (--send-key) a key from a keyserver. While not all options are
              available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys that are marked on
                     the keyserver as revoked. Note that not all keyservers differentiate between
                     revoked  and  unrevoked  keys,  and  for  such  keyservers  this  option  is
                     meaningless.  Note  also  that  most  keyservers  do  not have cryptographic
                     verification of key revocations, and so turning this option off  may  result
                     in skipping keys that are incorrectly marked as revoked.

              include-disabled
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys that are marked on
                     the keyserver as disabled. Note that  this  option  is  not  used  with  HKP
                     keyservers.

              auto-key-retrieve
                     This is the same as the option auto-key-retrieve.

              honor-keyserver-url
                     When  using --refresh-keys, if the key in question has a preferred keyserver
                     URL, then use that preferred keyserver to refresh the key from. In addition,
                     if  auto-key-retrieve  is  set,  and  the  signature  being  verified  has a
                     preferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to fetch the  key
                     from.  Note  that this option introduces a "web bug": The creator of the key
                     can see when the keys is refreshed.  Thus this  option  is  not  enabled  by
                     default.

              honor-pka-record
                     If  --auto-key-retrieve  is used, and the signature being verified has a PKA
                     record, then use the PKA information to fetch the key. Defaults to "yes".

              include-subkeys
                     When receiving a key, include subkeys as potential targets. Note  that  this
                     option  is  not  used with HKP keyservers, as they do not support retrieving
                     keys by subkey id.

              timeout
                     Tell the keyserver helper program how long (in seconds) to try and perform a
                     keyserver  action before giving up. Note that performing multiple actions at
                     the same time uses  this  timeout  value  per  action.   For  example,  when
                     retrieving  multiple keys via --recv-keys, the timeout applies separately to
                     each key retrieval, and not to the --recv-keys command as a whole.  Defaults
                     to 30 seconds.

              http-proxy=value
                     This  options  is  deprecated.   Set  the  proxy  to  use  for  HTTP and HKP
                     keyservers.  This overrides any proxy defined in ‘dirmngr.conf’.

              verbose
                     This option  has  no  more  function  since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use  the  dirmngr
                     configuration options instead.

              debug  This  option  has  no  more  function  since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use  the dirmngr
                     configuration options instead.

              check-cert
                     This option  has  no  more  function  since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use  the  dirmngr
                     configuration options instead.

              ca-cert-file
                     This  option  has  no  more  function  since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use  the dirmngr
                     configuration options instead.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer (defaults to 3)

       --tofu-default-policy auto|good|unknown|bad|ask
              The default TOFU policy (defaults to auto).  For more information about the meaning
              of this option, see: [trust-model-tofu].

       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --no-sig-cache
              Do  not  cache  the  verification  status  of key signatures.  Caching gives a much
              better performance in key listings.  However,  if  you  suspect  that  your  public
              keyring is not save against write modifications, you can use this option to disable
              the caching. It probably does not make sense to disable  it  because  all  kind  of
              damage can be done if someone else has write access to your public keyring.

       --auto-check-trustdb
       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If  GnuPG  feels  that its information about the Web of Trust has to be updated, it
              automatically runs the --check-trustdb command internally.   This  may  be  a  time
              consuming process. --no-auto-check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent
       --no-use-agent
              This is dummy option. gpg always requires the agent.

       --gpg-agent-info
              This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg.

       --agent-program file
              Specify  an  agent program to be used for secret key operations.  The default value
              is determined by running gpgconf with the option --list-dirs.  Note that  the  pipe
              symbol (|) is used for a regression test suite hack and may thus not be used in the
              file name.

       --dirmngr-program file
              Specify a dirmngr program to be used for keyserver access.  The  default  value  is
              ‘/usr/bin/dirmngr’.

       --no-autostart
              Do  not  start  the gpg-agent or the dirmngr if it has not yet been started and its
              service is required.  This option is mostly useful on machines where the connection
              to  gpg-agent  has  been redirected to another machines.  If dirmngr is required on
              the remote machine, it may be started manually using gpgconf --launch dirmngr.

       --lock-once
              Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not release  the  lock
              until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
              Release  the  locks  every  time a lock is no longer needed. Use this to override a
              previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
              Disable locking  entirely.  This  option  should  be  used  only  in  very  special
              environments,  where  it  can  be  assured that only one process is accessing those
              files. A bootable floppy with a stand-alone encryption  system  will  probably  use
              this. Improper usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This  option  will cause write errors on the status FD to immediately terminate the
              process. That should in fact be the default but it never worked this way  and  thus
              we need an option to enable this, so that the change won't break applications which
              close their end of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using  this  option  along
              with  --enable-progress-filter  may  be  used  to  cleanly  cancel long running gpg
              operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With n greater than 0 the number of prompts  asking  to  insert  a  smartcard  gets
              limited  to  N-1.  Thus  with a value of 1 gpg won't at all ask to insert a card if
              none has been inserted at startup. This option is useful in the configuration  file
              in  case  an  application  does  not  know about the smartcard support and waits ad
              infinitum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invocations.   This  makes
              random  generation faster; however sometimes write operations are not desired. This
              option can be used to achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
              Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
              Suppress the warning about unsafe file and home directory (--homedir)  permissions.
              Note  that  the  permission  checks  that  GnuPG  performs  are  not intended to be
              authoritative,  but  rather  they  simply  warn  about  certain  common  permission
              problems.  Do  not  assume  that  the  lack  of a warning means that your system is
              secure.

              Note that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be suppressed in  the
              gpg.conf  file, as this would allow an attacker to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in
              place, and  use  this  file  to  suppress  warnings  about  itself.  The  --homedir
              permissions warning may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --no-mdc-warning
              Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem
       --no-require-secmem
              Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no (i.e. run, but give
              a warning).

       --require-cross-certification
       --no-require-cross-certification
              When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the cross  certification
              "back  signature"  on  the  subkey  is  present and valid.  This protects against a
              subtle  attack  against  subkeys  that  can  sign.   Defaults  to  --require-cross-
              certification for gpg.

       --expert
       --no-expert
              Allow  the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like signing an expired
              or revoked key, or certain potentially incompatible things like generating  unusual
              key   types.   This  also  disables  certain  warning  messages  about  potentially
              incompatible actions. As the name implies, this option is for experts only. If  you
              don't  fully  understand  the  implications of what it allows you to do, leave this
              off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name
       -r     Encrypt for user id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient  is  not  specified,
              GnuPG asks for the user-id unless --default-recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name
       -R     Encrypt for user ID name, but hide the key ID of this user's key. This option helps
              to hide the receiver of the message and is a limited countermeasure against traffic
              analysis.  If  this option or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user
              ID unless --default-recipient is given.

       --recipient-file file
       -f     This option is similar to --recipient except that it encrypts to a  key  stored  in
              the  given  file.  file must be the name of a file containing exactly one key.  gpg
              assumes that the key in this file is fully valid.

       --hidden-recipient-file file
       -F     This option is similar to --hidden-recipient except  that  it  encrypts  to  a  key
              stored  in  the given file.  file must be the name of a file containing exactly one
              key.  gpg assumes that the key in this file is fully valid.

       --encrypt-to name
              Same as --recipient but this one is intended for use in the options file and may be
              used  with  your own user-id as an "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when
              there are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or by the asked  user
              id.   No  trust checking is performed for these user ids and even disabled keys can
              be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for use in the options file and
              may  be  used  with  your own user-id as a hidden "encrypt-to-self". These keys are
              only used when there are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or  by
              the  asked  user  id.   No  trust checking is performed for these user ids and even
              disabled keys can be used.

       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable the use of all --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to keys.

       --group name=value1
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email programs.  Any time the
              group  name  is  a recipient (-r or --recipient), it will be expanded to the values
              specified. Multiple groups with the same  name  are  automatically  merged  into  a
              single group.

              The  values  are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key description is accepted. Note
              that a value with spaces in it will be treated as two different values.  Note  also
              there  is  only  one level of expansion --- you cannot make an group that points to
              another group. When used from the command line, it may be necessary  to  quote  the
              argument  to  this  option  to  prevent  the  shell  from  treating  it as multiple
              arguments.

       --ungroup name
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name
       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that this option overrides --default-key.

       --sender mbox
              This option has two purposes.  mbox must either be a complete user id with a proper
              mail  address  or just a mail address.  When creating a signature this option tells
              gpg the user id of a key used to make a signature  if  the  key  was  not  directly
              specified  by  a  user id.  When verifying a signature the mbox is used to restrict
              the information printed by the TOFU code to matching user ids.

       --try-secret-key name
              For hidden recipients GPG needs to know the keys to use for trial decryption.   The
              key set with --default-key is always tried first, but this is often not sufficient.
              This option allows setting more keys to be used for trial decryption.  Although any
              valid user-id specification may be used for name it makes sense to use at least the
              long keyid to avoid ambiguities.  Note that gpg-agent might pop up a pinentry for a
              lot  keys  to  do  the  trial  decryption.   If  you want to stop all further trial
              decryption you may use close-window button instead of the cancel button.

       --try-all-secrets
              Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message but try all secret keys  in  turn
              to  find  the  right  decryption  key.  This option forces the behaviour as used by
              anonymous recipients (created by using --throw-keyids  or  --hidden-recipient)  and
              might come handy in case where an encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients
       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During  decryption  skip  all  anonymous recipients.  This option helps in the case
              that people use the hidden recipients feature to hide there own encrypt-to key from
              others.  If oneself has many secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because
              all keys are tried in turn to decrypt something which was not really  intended  for
              it.   The drawback of this option is that it is currently not possible to decrypt a
              message which includes real anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor
       -a     Create ASCII armored output.  The default is to create the binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file
       -o file
              Write output to file.

       --max-output n
              This option sets a limit on the  number  of  bytes  that  will  be  generated  when
              processing  a  file.  Since  OpenPGP  supports various levels of compression, it is
              possible that the plaintext of a given message may be significantly larger than the
              original  OpenPGP  message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages, there is
              often a desire to set a maximum file size that will be generated before  processing
              is forced to stop by the OS limits. Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --input-size-hint n
              This option can be used to tell GPG the size of the input data in bytes.  n must be
              a positive base-10 number.  This option is only useful if the input  is  not  taken
              from a file.  GPG may use thos hint to optimize its buffer allocation strategy.  It
              is also used by the --status-fd line ``PROGRESS'' to provide a value for  ``total''
              if that is not available by other means.

       --import-options parameters
              This  is  a  space or comma delimited string that gives options for importing keys.
              Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the  opposite  meaning.  The  options
              are:

              import-local-sigs
                     Allow  importing  key  signatures  marked  as "local". This is not generally
                     useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.  Defaults to no.

              keep-ownertrust
                     Normally possible still existing ownertrust values of a key are cleared if a
                     key  is  imported.   This is in general desirable so that a formerly deleted
                     key does not automatically gain an ownertrust values merely due  to  import.
                     On  the  other  hand it is sometimes necessary to re-import a trusted set of
                     keys again but keeping already assigned  ownertrust  values.   This  can  be
                     achieved by using this option.

              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During  import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the PKS keyserver bug
                     (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys with multiple subkeys. Note that  this
                     cannot  completely repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                     the keyserver, but it does at least give you back one subkey. Defaults to no
                     for regular --import and to yes for keyserver --recv-keys.

              import-show
                     Show  a  listing of the key as imported right before it is stored.  This can
                     be combined with the option --dry-run to only look at keys.

              import-export
                     Run the entire import code but instead of  storing  the  key  to  the  local
                     keyring  write  it to the output.  The export options export-pka and export-
                     dane affect the output.  This option can be used to remove all invalid parts
                     from a key without the need to store it.

              merge-only
                     During  import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do not allow any new
                     keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

              import-clean
                     After import, compact (remove all signatures except the self-signature)  any
                     user  IDs from the new key that are not usable.  Then, remove any signatures
                     from the new key that are not usable.  This includes  signatures  that  were
                     issued  by keys that are not present on the keyring. This option is the same
                     as running the --edit-key command "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes  all  signatures  except  the
                     most  recent  self-signature  on  each  user  ID. This option is the same as
                     running the --edit-key command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

       --import-filter name=expr
       --export-filter name=expr
              These  options  define  an  import/export  filter  which   are   applied   to   the
              imported/exported  keyblock  right  before it will be stored/written.  name defines
              the type of filter to use, expr the expression to evaluate.  The option can be used
              several times which then appends more expression to the same name.

              The available filter types are:

              keep-uid
                     This  filter  will  keep  a  user id packet and its dependent packets in the
                     keyblock if the expression evaluates to true.

              drop-sig
                     This filter drops the selected key signatures on user ids.   Self-signatures
                     are not consideres.  Currently only implemented for --import-filter.

       For the syntax of the expression see the chapter "FILTER EXPRESSIONS".  The property names
       for the expressions depend on the actual filter type and are indicated  in  the  following
       table.

       The available properties are:

              uid    A string with the user id.  (keep-uid)

              mbox   The  addr-spec  part  of a user id with mailbox or the empty string.  (keep-
                     uid)

              primary
                     Boolean indicating whether the user id is the primary one.  (keep-uid)

              sig_created
              sig_created_d
                     The first is the timestamp a signature packet was created.   The  second  is
                     the same but given as an ISO string, e.g. "2016-08-17". (drop-sig)

              sig_algo
                     A number with the public key algorithm of a signature packet. (drop-sig)

              sig_digest_algo
                     A number with the digest algorithm of a signature packet. (drop-sig)

       --export-options parameters
              This  is  a  space or comma delimited string that gives options for exporting keys.
              Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the  opposite  meaning.  The  options
              are:

              export-local-sigs
                     Allow  exporting  key  signatures  marked  as "local". This is not generally
                     useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.  Defaults to no.

              export-attributes
                     Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting. This  is  useful  to
                     export keys if they are going to be used by an OpenPGP program that does not
                     accept attribute user IDs. Defaults to yes.

              export-sensitive-revkeys
                     Include designated revoker  information  that  was  marked  as  "sensitive".
                     Defaults to no.

              export-clean
                     Compact  (remove  all signatures from) user IDs on the key being exported if
                     the user IDs are not usable. Also, do not export any signatures that are not
                     usable.  This  includes  signatures  that  were  issued by keys that are not
                     present on the keyring. This option is the same as  running  the  --edit-key
                     command  "clean"  before export except that the local copy of the key is not
                     modified. Defaults to no.

              export-minimal
                     Export the smallest key possible. This removes  all  signatures  except  the
                     most  recent  self-signature  on  each  user  ID. This option is the same as
                     running the --edit-key command "minimize"  before  export  except  that  the
                     local copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

              export-pka
                     Instead  of  outputting  the key material output PKA records suitable to put
                     into DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line is printed before each record to  allow
                     diverting the records to the corresponding zone file.

              export-dane
                     Instead  of outputting the key material output OpenPGP DANE records suitable
                     to put into DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line is printed before each record to
                     allow diverting the records to the corresponding zone file.

       --with-colons
              Print  key  listings  delimited  by colons. Note that the output will be encoded in
              UTF-8 regardless of any --display-charset setting. This format is useful when GnuPG
              is  called  from  scripts  and  other  programs as it is easily machine parsed. The
              details of this format are documented in the file ‘doc/DETAILS’, which is  included
              in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
              Do not merge primary user ID and primary key in --with-colon listing mode and print
              all timestamps as seconds since 1970-01-01.   Since  GnuPG  2.0.10,  this  mode  is
              always used and thus this option is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.

       --legacy-list-mode
              Revert  to  the pre-2.1 public key list mode.  This only affects the human readable
              output and not the machine interface (i.e. --with-colons).  Note  that  the  legacy
              format does not convey suitable information for elliptic curves.

       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of the output and may
              be used together with another command.

       --with-subkey-fingerprint
              If a fingerprint is printed for the primary key, this option forces printing of the
              fingerprint  for  all  subkeys.   This  could also be achieved by using the --with-
              fingerprint twice but by using this option along with keyid-format "none" a compact
              fingerprint is printed.

       --with-icao-spelling
              Print the ICAO spelling of the fingerprint in addition to the hex digits.

       --with-keygrip
              Include  the keygrip in the key listings.  In --with-colons mode this is implicitly
              enable for secret keys.

       --with-wkd-hash
              Print a Web Key Directory indentifier along with each  user  ID  in  key  listings.
              This is an experimental feature and semantics may change.

       --with-secret
              Include  info  about  the presence of a secret key in public key listings done with
              --with-colons.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode
       --no-textmode
              Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP canonical  text  form  with
              standard  "CRLF"  line  endings.  This  also sets the necessary flags to inform the
              recipient that the encrypted or signed data is text and may need its  line  endings
              converted  back  to  whatever  the  local  system  uses. This option is useful when
              communicating between two platforms that have  different  line  ending  conventions
              (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc). --no-textmode disables this option, and is
              the default.

       --force-v3-sigs
       --no-force-v3-sigs

       --force-v4-certs
       --no-force-v4-certs
              These options are obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG 2.1.

       --force-mdc
              Force the use of encryption with a modification detection code. This is always used
              with  the newer ciphers (those with a blocksize greater than 64 bits), or if all of
              the recipient keys indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
              Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by using this option,
              the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a message modification attack.

       --disable-signer-uid
              By default the user ID of the signing key is embedded in the data signature.  As of
              now this is only done if the signing key has been specified with local-user using a
              mail  address.  This information can be helpful for verifier to locate the key; see
              option --auto-key-retrieve.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg --version to get  a
              list  of  available  algorithms,  and  use  none to set no preference at all.  This
              allows the user to safely override  the  algorithm  chosen  by  the  recipient  key
              preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
              The most highly ranked cipher in  this  list  is  also  used  for  the  --symmetric
              encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set  the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg --version to get a
              list of available algorithms, and use none to  set  no  preference  at  all.   This
              allows  the  user  to  safely  override  the  algorithm chosen by the recipient key
              preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
              The  most  highly  ranked  digest  algorithm in this list is also used when signing
              without encryption (e.g. --clearsign or --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
              Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use gpg  --version  to
              get a list of available algorithms, and use none to set no preference at all.  This
              allows the user to safely override  the  algorithm  chosen  by  the  recipient  key
              preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
              The most highly ranked compression algorithm in this list is also used  when  there
              are no recipient keys to consider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  cipher  algorithm for symmetric encryption with a passphrase if
              --personal-cipher-preferences and --cipher-algo are  not  given.   The  default  is
              AES-128.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  digest  algorithm  used to mangle the passphrases for symmetric
              encryption.  The default is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
              Selects how passphrases for symmetric encryption are mangled. If n  is  0  a  plain
              passphrase  (which  is  in  general  not recommended) will be used, a 1 adds a salt
              (which should not be used) to the passphrase and a 3  (the  default)  iterates  the
              whole process a number of times (see --s2k-count).

       --s2k-count n
              Specify  how  many  times  the  passphrases  mangling  for  symmetric encryption is
              repeated.  This value may range between 1024 and 65011712 inclusive.   The  default
              is  inquired  from  gpg-agent.  Note that not all values in the 1024-65011712 range
              are legal and if an illegal value is selected, GnuPG will round up to  the  nearest
              legal value.  This option is only meaningful if --s2k-mode is set to the default of
              3.

   Compliance options

       These options control what GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these options may be  active
       at a time. Note that the default setting of this is nearly always the correct one. See the
       INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section  below  before  using  one  of  these
       options.

       --gnupg
              Use  standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP behavior (see --openpgp),
              but with some additional workarounds for common compatibility problems in different
              versions  of PGP. This is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but it
              may be useful to override a different compliance option in the gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP  behavior.  Use  this
              option to reset all previous options like --s2k-*, --cipher-algo, --digest-algo and
              --compress-algo to OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880 behavior. Note  that
              this is currently the same thing as --openpgp.

       --rfc4880bis
              Enable experimental features from proposed updates to RFC-4880.  This option can be
              used in addition to the other compliance options.  Warning: The behavior may change
              with any GnuPG release and created keys or data may not be usable with future GnuPG
              versions.

       --rfc2440
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440 behavior.

       --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible. This restricts you to  the
              ciphers  IDEA  (if  the IDEA plugin is installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5,
              SHA1 and RIPEMD160, and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
              --throw-keyids,  and  making  signatures  with  signing  subkeys  as PGP 6 does not
              understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

              This option implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant  as  possible.  This  is  identical  to
              --pgp6  except  that  MDCs  are  not disabled, and the list of allowable ciphers is
              expanded to add AES128, AES192, AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set up all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8 is a lot  closer  to
              the  OpenPGP  standard  than  previous versions of PGP, so all this does is disable
              --throw-keyids and set --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except  for
              the SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n
       --dry-run
              Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
              Changes  the  behaviour  of  some commands. This is like --dry-run but different in
              some cases. The semantic of this command may be extended in the  future.  Currently
              it  only  skips  the actual decryption pass and therefore enables a fast listing of
              the encryption keys.

       -i
       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may be a numeric value  or
              by a keyword:

              none   No  debugging  at  all.   A  value of less than 1 may be used instead of the
                     keyword.

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used  instead  of
                     the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used
                     instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash tracing files is only  enabled
                     if the keyword is used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to  the actual debugging flags is not specified and may
       change with newer releases of this program. They are however carefully  selected  to  best
       aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              Set  debugging  flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given in C syntax (e.g.
              0x0042) or as a comma separated list of flag names.  To get a list of all supported
              flags the single word "help" can be used.

       --debug-all
              Set all useful debugging flags.

       --debug-iolbf
              Set  stdout into line buffered mode.  This option is only honored when given on the
              command line.

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time back  or  forth  to
              epoch  which  is  the number of seconds elapsed since the year 1970.  Alternatively
              epoch may be given as a full ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --enable-progress-filter
              Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows frontends to  display  a
              progress  indicator  while  gpg  is  processing  larger  files.   There is a slight
              performance overhead using it.

       --status-fd n
              Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See the file DETAILS in the
              documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
              Same as --status-fd, except the status data is written to file file.

       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file
       --logger-file file
              Same  as  --logger-fd,  except  the logger data is written to file file.  Note that
              --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
              Write attribute subpackets to the file descriptor n. This is most  useful  for  use
              with  --status-fd, since the status messages are needed to separate out the various
              subpackets from the stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
              Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to file file.

       --comment string
       --no-comments
              Use string as a comment string in clear text signatures and ASCII armored  messages
              or  keys  (see  --armor).  The  default  behavior  is  not to use a comment string.
              --comment may be repeated multiple times to get  multiple  comment  strings.  --no-
              comments  removes  all  comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a single
              comment below 60 characters to avoid problems  with  mail  programs  wrapping  such
              lines.   Note that comment lines, like all other header lines, are not protected by
              the signature.

       --emit-version
       --no-emit-version
              Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII armored output.  If given once  only
              the  name  of the program and the major number is emitted, given twice the minor is
              also emitted, given triple the micro is added, and given quad an  operating  system
              identification  is  also emitted.  --no-emit-version (default) disables the version
              line.

       --sig-notation name=value
       --cert-notation name=value
       -N, --set-notation name=value
              Put the name value pair into the signature as notation  data.   name  must  consist
              only  of  printable  characters  or spaces, and must contain a '@' character in the
              form keyname@domain.example.com (substituting the appropriate  keyname  and  domain
              name,  of course).  This is to help prevent pollution of the IETF reserved notation
              namespace. The --expert flag overrides the '@' check. value may  be  any  printable
              string; it will be encoded in UTF8, so you should check that your --display-charset
              is set correctly. If you prefix name with an exclamation  mark  (!),  the  notation
              data will be flagged as critical (rfc4880:5.2.3.16). --sig-notation sets a notation
              for  data  signatures.  --cert-notation  sets  a  notation   for   key   signatures
              (certifications). --set-notation sets both.

              There  are  special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k" will be expanded
              into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K" into the long key ID of the key being
              signed,  "%f" into the fingerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of
              the key making the signature, "%S" into the long key  ID  of  the  key  making  the
              signature,  "%g"  into the fingerprint of the key making the signature (which might
              be a subkey), "%p" into the fingerprint of the primary key of the  key  making  the
              signature,  "%c"  into  the  signature  count  from the OpenPGP smartcard, and "%%"
              results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are  only  meaningful  when  making  a  key
              signature  (certification),  and  %c  is  only  meaningful  when  using the OpenPGP
              smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url string
       --cert-policy-url string
       --set-policy-url string
              Use string as a Policy URL for signatures (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).   If  you  prefix  it
              with  an  exclamation  mark (!), the policy URL packet will be flagged as critical.
              --sig-policy-url sets a policy url for data signatures.  --cert-policy-url  sets  a
              policy url for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If you prefix it with
              an exclamation mark (!), the keyserver URL packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as well.

       --set-filename string
              Use string as the filename which is stored inside  messages.   This  overrides  the
              default,  which  is  to use the actual filename of the file being encrypted.  Using
              the empty string for string effectively removes the filename from the output.

       --for-your-eyes-only
       --no-for-your-eyes-only
              Set the `for your eyes only' flag in the message. This causes GnuPG  to  refuse  to
              save the file unless the --output option is given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer"
              with a claimed Tempest-resistant font to display the message. This option overrides
              --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.

       --use-embedded-filename
       --no-use-embedded-filename
              Try  to  create a file with a name as embedded in the data. This can be a dangerous
              option as it enables overwriting files. Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
              Use name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the command --version yields
              a  list  of  supported  algorithms.  If  this  is  not used the cipher algorithm is
              selected from the preferences stored with the key. In general, you do not  want  to
              use  this  option  as  it  allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.  --personal-
              cipher-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm. Running  the  program  with  the  command
              --version yields a list of supported algorithms. In general, you do not want to use
              this option as it allows you to violate the  OpenPGP  standard.  --personal-digest-
              preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
              Use  compression  algorithm  name.  "zlib"  is  RFC-1950 ZLIB compression. "zip" is
              RFC-1951 ZIP  compression  which  is  used  by  PGP.   "bzip2"  is  a  more  modern
              compression  scheme  that  can compress some things better than zip or zlib, but at
              the cost of more memory used during compression and  decompression.  "uncompressed"
              or "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the default behavior is
              to examine the recipient key preferences to  see  which  algorithms  the  recipient
              supports. If all else fails, ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB  may  give better compression results than ZIP, as the compression window size
              is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even better compression results than that, but
              will   use   a   significantly  larger  amount  of  memory  while  compressing  and
              decompressing. This may be significant in low  memory  situations.  Note,  however,
              that  PGP  (all  versions) only supports ZIP compression. Using any algorithm other
              than ZIP or "none" will make the message unreadable with PGP. In  general,  you  do
              not  want  to  use  this  option  as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
              --personal-compress-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm used  when  signing  a  key.  Running  the
              program  with the command --version yields a list of supported algorithms. Be aware
              that  if  you  choose  an  algorithm  that  GnuPG  supports   but   other   OpenPGP
              implementations  do not, then some users will not be able to use the key signatures
              you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as cipher  algorithm.   The  given  name  will  not  be
              checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
              Never  allow  the  use of name as public key algorithm.  The given name will not be
              checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still get disabled.

       --throw-keyids
       --no-throw-keyids
              Do not put the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages. This helps  to  hide  the
              receivers  of the message and is a limited countermeasure against traffic analysis.
              ([Using a little social engineering anyone who is able to decrypt the  message  can
              check  whether  one  of  the  other  recipients  is  the one he suspects.])  On the
              receiving side, it may slow down  the  decryption  process  because  all  available
              secret  keys must be tried.  --no-throw-keyids disables this option. This option is
              essentially the same as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
              This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that they can  be  used
              for  patch  files.  You  should not send such an armored file via email because all
              spaces and line endings are hashed too. You can not use this option for data  which
              has  5  dashes  at  the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this. A special
              armor header line tells GnuPG about this cleartext signature option.

       --escape-from-lines
       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because some mailers change lines starting with "From " to ">From " it is  good  to
              handle  such  lines  in a special way when creating cleartext signatures to prevent
              the mail system from breaking the signature. Note that all other PGP versions do it
              this way too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines disables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify  how  many  times  gpg  will request a new passphrase be repeated.  This is
              useful for helping memorize a passphrase.  Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line will be  read  from
              file descriptor n. If you use 0 for n, the passphrase will be read from STDIN. This
              can only be used if only one passphrase is supplied.

              Note that this passphrase is only used if the option --batch has also  been  given.
              This is different from GnuPG version 1.x.

       --passphrase-file file
              Read  the  passphrase  from  file  file. Only the first line will be read from file
              file. This can only be used if  only  one  passphrase  is  supplied.  Obviously,  a
              passphrase  stored  in  a  file is of questionable security if other users can read
              this file. Don't use this option if you can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is
              only  used if the option --batch has also been given.  This is different from GnuPG
              version 1.x.

       --passphrase string
              Use string as the passphrase. This can only be  used  if  only  one  passphrase  is
              supplied.  Obviously, this is of very questionable security on a multi-user system.
              Don't use this option if you can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is only  used
              if  the  option  --batch has also been given.  This is different from GnuPG version
              1.x.

       --pinentry-mode mode
              Set the pinentry mode to mode.  Allowed values for mode are:

              default
                     Use the default of the agent, which is ask.

              ask    Force the use of the Pinentry.

              cancel Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.

              error  Return a Pinentry error (``No Pinentry'').

              loopback
                     Redirect Pinentry queries to the caller.  Note that in contrast to  Pinentry
                     the user is not prompted again if he enters a bad password.

       --command-fd n
              This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.  If this option is
              enabled, user input on questions is not expected from the TTY but  from  the  given
              file  descriptor.  It  should  be  used  together  with  --status-fd.  See the file
              doc/DETAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use it.

       --command-file file
              Same as --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid
       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
              Allow the import and use of keys with user IDs which are not self-signed.  This  is
              not  recommended, as a non self-signed user ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-
              selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while  generating  a  new  one.  This
              option  should  only be used in very special environments as it does not ensure the
              de-facto standard format of user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and signatures  have
              plausible values. However, sometimes a signature seems to be older than the key due
              to clock problems. This  option  makes  these  checks  just  a  warning.  See  also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG  normally does not select and use subkeys created in the future.  This option
              allows the use of such keys and thus exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour.  You  should
              not  use  this  option  unless there is some clock problem. See also --ignore-time-
              conflict for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
              The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum against transmission
              errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled somewhere on the transmission channel but
              the actual content (which is protected by the OpenPGP  protocol  anyway)  is  still
              okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
              This option changes a MDC integrity protection failure into a warning.  This can be
              useful if a message is partially corrupt, but it is necessary to get as  much  data
              as  possible  out  of the corrupt message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection
              failure may also mean that the  message  was  tampered  with  intentionally  by  an
              attacker.

       --allow-weak-digest-algos
              Signatures  made  with  known-weak  digest algorithms are normally rejected with an
              ``invalid digest algorithm'' message.   This  option  allows  the  verification  of
              signatures  made  with  such  weak  algorithms.   MD5  is the only digest algorithm
              considered weak  by  default.   See  also  --weak-digest  to  reject  other  digest
              algorithms.

       --weak-digest name
              Treat  the  specified  digest algorithm as weak.  Signatures made over weak digests
              algorithms are normally rejected. This option can be  supplied  multiple  times  if
              multiple  algorithms should be considered weak.  See also --allow-weak-digest-algos
              to disable rejection of weak digests.  MD5 is always considered weak, and does  not
              need to be listed explicitly.

       --no-default-keyring
              Do  not  add the default keyrings to the list of keyrings. Note that GnuPG will not
              operate without any keyrings, so  if  you  use  this  option  and  do  not  provide
              alternate keyrings via --keyring or --secret-keyring, then GnuPG will still use the
              default public or secret keyrings.

       --no-keyring
              Do not add use any keyrings even if specified as options.

       --skip-verify
              Skip the signature verification step. This may  be  used  to  make  the  decryption
              faster if the signature verification is not needed.

       --with-key-data
              Print  key  listings  delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and print the public
              key data.

       --fast-list-mode
              Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this is achieved by leaving
              some  parts  empty.  Some  applications  don't  need  the  user  ID  and  the trust
              information given in the listings. By using this options  they  can  get  a  faster
              listing.  The exact behaviour of this option may change in future versions.  If you
              are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it might be useful.

       --set-filesize
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it might be useful.

       --show-session-key
              Display the session key used for one message. See  --override-session-key  for  the
              counterpart of this option.

              We  think  that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should have the freedom
              to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal the content of one specific  message
              without compromising all messages ever encrypted for one secret key.

              You  can  also use this option if you receive an encrypted message which is abusive
              or offensive, to prove to the administrators  of  the  messaging  system  that  the
              ciphertext  transmitted  corresponds to an inappropriate plaintext so they can take
              action against the offending user.

       --override-session-key string
              Don't use the public key but the session key string. The format of this  string  is
              the same as the one printed by --show-session-key. This option is normally not used
              but comes handy in case someone forces you to reveal the content  of  an  encrypted
              message; using this option you can do this without handing out the secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire
       --no-ask-sig-expire
              When  making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If this option is not
              specified, the expiration time set via --default-sig-expire is used.  --no-ask-sig-
              expire disables this option.

       --default-sig-expire
              The  default  expiration time to use for signature expiration. Valid values are "0"
              for no expiration, a number followed by the letter d (for days), w (for  weeks),  m
              (for  months),  or y (for years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

       --ask-cert-expire
       --no-ask-cert-expire
              When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If this option  is  not
              specified,  the  expiration  time  set via --default-cert-expire is used. --no-ask-
              cert-expire disables this option.

       --default-cert-expire
              The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.  Valid values  are
              "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the letter d (for days), w (for weeks),
              m (for months), or y (for years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP messages contained in a single file or stream.
              Some programs that call GPG are not prepared to deal with multiple  messages  being
              processed together, so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG prior
              to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as a temporary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
              This options enables a mode in which filenames of the form ‘-&n’, where n is a non-
              negative decimal number, refer to the file descriptor n and not to a file with that
              name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
              Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring back to user read/write only.  Use
              this option only if you really know what you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
              Set the list of default preferences to string. This preference list is used for new
              keys and becomes the default for "setpref" in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
              Set the default keyserver URL to name. This keyserver will be used as the keyserver
              URL  when  writing a new self-signature on a key, which includes key generation and
              changing preferences.

       --list-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This option is intended
              for  external  programs that call GnuPG to perform tasks, and is thus not generally
              useful. See the file ‘doc/DETAILS’ in the source distribution for  the  details  of
              which  configuration items may be listed. --list-config is only usable with --with-
              colons set.

       --list-gcrypt-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of Libgcrypt.

       --gpgconf-list
              This command is similar to --list-config but in general only internally used by the
              gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
              This  is  more  or less dummy action.  However it parses the configuration file and
              returns with failure if the configuration file  would  prevent  gpg  from  startup.
              Thus it may be used to run a syntax check on the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --show-photos
       --no-show-photos
              Causes   --list-keys,   --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-secret-keys,  and
              verifying a signature to also display the photo ID attached to the key, if any. See
              also  --photo-viewer.  These  options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-
              photos and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
              Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which keyring a  given
              key  resides  on.  This  option is deprecated: use --list-options [no-]show-keyring
              instead.

       --always-trust
              Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation
       --no-show-notation
              Show signature notations in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs  listings  as  well  as
              when verifying a signature with a notation in it. These options are deprecated. Use
              --list-options  [no-]show-notation   and/or   --verify-options   [no-]show-notation
              instead.

       --show-policy-url
       --no-show-policy-url
              Show  policy  URLs  in  the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs listings as well as when
              verifying a signature with a policy URL in it. These options  are  deprecated.  Use
              --list-options  [no-]show-policy-url  and/or  --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url
              instead.

EXAMPLES

       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
              make a clear text signature

       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
              show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
              show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile
       gpg --verify sigfile
              Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data.  The  second  form  is
              used for detached signatures, where sigfile is the detached signature (either ASCII
              armored or binary) and are the signed data; if this is not given, the name  of  the
              file holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the extension (".asc" or
              ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the filename.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID

       There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them are only  valid  for
       gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This  format is deduced from the length of the string and its content or 0x prefix.
              The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the low 64 bits of  its  SHA-1  fingerprint.
              The use of key Ids is just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
              should be used.

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
              primary  or  secondary  key and not to try and calculate which primary or secondary
              key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long form as internally
              used  by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the long key ID using the option --with-
              colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This format is deduced from the length of the string and  its  content  or  the  0x
              prefix.   Note,  that  only the 20 byte version fingerprint is available with gpgsm
              (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the certificate).

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
              primary  or  secondary  key and not to try and calculate which primary or secondary
              key to use.

              The best way to specify a key Id is by using  the  fingerprint.   This  avoids  any
              ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       gpgsm  also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits because this is the de-
       facto standard on how to present X.509 fingerprints.  gpg also allows the use of the space
       separated SHA-1 fingerprint as printed by the key listing commands.

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This  is  denoted  by  a  leading  equal  sign.  It  does  not make sense for X.509
              certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This is indicated by enclosing the email address in the usual  way  with  left  and
              right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By partial match on an email address.
              This  is indicated by prefixing the search string with an @.  This uses a substring
              search but considers only the mail address (i.e. inside the angle brackets).

         @heinrichh

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded  DN
              of  the subject.  Note that you can't use the string printed by "gpgsm --list-keys"
              because that one as been reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-
              colons to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This  is  indicated  by  a leading hash mark, directly followed by a slash and then
              directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of the issuer.  This should return  the
              Root cert of the issuer.  See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal representation of the
              serial number, then followed by a slash and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the  issuer.
              See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
              This  is  indicated  by  an  ampersand  followed by the 40 hex digits of a keygrip.
              gpgsm prints the keygrip when using the command --dump-cert.  It does not yet  work
              for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This  is  the default mode but applications may want to explicitly indicate this by
              putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       . and + prefixes
              These prefixes are reserved for looking up mails anchored at the end and for a word
              search mode.  They are not yet implemented and using them is undefined.

              Please  note  that  we  have  reused the hash mark identifier which was used in old
              GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It  is  not  anymore  used  and
              there should be no conflict when used with X.509 stuff.

              Using  the  RFC-2253  format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possible to map
              them back to the original encoding, however we don't have to do  this  because  our
              key database stores this encoding as meta data.

FILTER EXPRESSIONS

       The  options  --import-filter and --export-filter use expressions with this syntax (square
       brackets indicate an optional part and curly braces a repetition, white space between  the
       elements are allowed):

                  [lc] {[{flag}] PROPNAME op VALUE [lc]}

       The  name  of  a  property (PROPNAME) may only consist of letters, digits and underscores.
       The description for the filter  type  describes  which  properties  are  defined.   If  an
       undefined  property is used it evaluates to the empty string.  Unless otherwise noted, the
       VALUE must always be given and may not be the empty string.  No quoting is defined for the
       value,  thus  the  value  may  not contain the strings && or ||, which are used as logical
       connection operators.  The flag -- can be used to remove this restriction.

       Numerical values are computed as long int; standard C notation applies.  lc is the logical
       connection  operator;  either && for a conjunction or || for a disjunction.  A conjunction
       is assumed at the begin of  an  expression.   Conjunctions  have  higher  precedence  than
       disjunctions.  If VALUE starts with one of the characters used in any op a space after the
       op is required.

       The supported operators (op) are:

       =~     Substring must match.

       !~     Substring must not match.

       =      The full string must match.

       <>     The full string must not match.

       ==     The numerical value must match.

       !=     The numerical value must not match.

       <=     The numerical value of the field must be LE than the value.

       <      The numerical value of the field must be LT than the value.

       >=     The numerical value of the field must be GT than the value.

       >=     The numerical value of the field must be GE than the value.

       -n     True if value is not empty (no value allowed).

       -z     True if value is empty (no value allowed).

       -t     Alias for "PROPNAME != 0" (no value allowed).

       -f     Alias for "PROPNAME == 0" (no value allowed).

       Values for flag must be space separated.  The supported flags are:

       --     VALUE spans to the end of the expression.

       -c     The string match in this part is done case-sensitive.

       The filter options concatenate several specifications for a filter of the same type.   For
       example the four options in this example:

                 --import-option keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa"
                 --import-option keep-uid="&& uid !~ Test"
                 --import-option keep-uid="|| uid =~ Alpha"
                 --import-option keep-uid="uid !~ Test"

       which is equivalent to

                 --import-option \
                  keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa" && uid !~ Test" || uid =~ Alpha" && "uid !~ Test"

       imports  only  the  user ids of a key containing the strings "Alfa" or "Alpha" but not the
       string "test".

FILES

       There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of gpg's operation.  Unless
       noted, they are expected in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
              This is the standard configuration file read by gpg on startup.  It may contain any
              valid long option; the leading two dashes may not be entered and the option may not
              be  abbreviated.   This default name may be changed on the command line (see: [gpg-
              option --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files into the directory
       ‘/etc/skel/.gnupg’ so that newly created users start up with a working configuration.  For
       existing  users  a  small  helper  script  is  provided  to  create  these   files   (see:
       [addgnupghome]).

       For internal purposes gpg creates and maintains a few other files; They all live in in the
       current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).  Only the gpg program may  modify  these
       files.

       ~/.gnupg
              This  is  the  default  home  directory  which  is  used if neither the environment
              variable GNUPGHOME nor the option --homedir is given.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
              The public keyring using a different format.  This file is sharred with gpgsm.  You
              should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock
              The lock file for ‘pubring.kbx’.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              A secret keyring as used by GnuPG versions before 2.1.  It is not used by GnuPG 2.1
              and later.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/.gpg-v21-migrated
              File indicating that a migration to GnuPG 2.1 has been done.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is better  to  backup
              the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
              A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/
              This  is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated revocation certificates.  The
              file name corresponds to the OpenPGP fingerprint of  the  respective  key.   It  is
              suggested to backup those certificates and if the primary private key is not stored
              on the disk to move them to an external storage  device.   Anyone  who  can  access
              theses  files  is able to revoke the corresponding key.  You may want to print them
              out.  You should backup all files in this directory and  take  care  to  keep  this
              backup closed away.

       /usr/share/gnupg/options.skel
              The skeleton options file.

       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
              If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              This variable is obsolete; it was used by GnuPG versions before 2.1.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This  value  is  passed  via  gpg-agent  to pinentry.  It is useful to convey extra
              information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS
       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
              Apart from its use by GNU, it is used in the W32 version to override  the  language
              selection  done  through  the  Registry.   If used and set to a valid and available
              language name (langid), the file with the translation is loaded from

              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory  out  of  which  the  gpg
              binary  has  been  loaded.  If it can't be loaded the Registry is tried and as last
              resort the native Windows locale system is used.

BUGS

       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This  is  necessary  to
       lock  memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the operating system from writing memory
       pages (which may contain passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you  get  no
       warning message about insecure memory your operating system supports locking without being
       root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked memory is allocated.

       Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to ``suspend  to  disk''
       (also  known  as  ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').  This writes all memory to disk before
       going into a low power or even powered  off  mode.   Unless  measures  are  taken  in  the
       operating  system to protect the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before you report a bug you should first search the  mailing  list  archives  for  similar
       problems  and second check whether such a bug has already been reported to our bug tracker
       at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

SEE ALSO

       gpgv(1), gpgsm(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If GnuPG and  the
       info program are properly installed at your site, the command

         info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.