Provided by: gpgsm_2.1.15-1ubuntu8_amd64 bug

NAME

       gpgsm - CMS encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS

       gpgsm [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION

       gpgsm is a tool similar to gpg to provide digital encryption and signing services on X.509
       certificates and the CMS protocol.  It is  mainly  used  as  a  backend  for  S/MIME  mail
       processing.   gpgsm  includes a full featured certificate management and complies with all
       rules defined for the German Sphinx project.

COMMANDS

       Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that only one  command  is
       allowed.

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print  the  program  version  and  licensing  information.   Note  that  you cannot
              abbreviate this command.

       --help, -h
              Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line options.  Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --dump-options
              Print  a  list  of  all  available  options  and  commands.   Note  that you cannot
              abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --encrypt
              Perform an encryption.  The keys the data is encrypted too must be  set  using  the
              option --recipient.

       --decrypt
              Perform a decryption; the type of input is automatically determined.  It may either
              be in binary form or PEM encoded; automatic determination of  base-64  encoding  is
              not done.

       --sign Create  a  digital  signature.   The  key  used is either the fist one found in the
              keybox or those set with the --local-user option.

       --verify
              Check a signature file  for  validity.   Depending  on  the  arguments  a  detached
              signature may also be checked.

       --server
              Run in server mode and wait for commands on the stdin.

       --call-dirmngr command [args]
              Behave  as  a  Dirmngr client issuing the request command with the optional list of
              args.  The output of the Dirmngr is printed stdout.  Please note  that  file  names
              given  as  arguments  should  have  an  absolute  file name (i.e. commencing with /
              because they are passed verbatim to the Dirmngr and the working  directory  of  the
              Dirmngr  might  not  be  the  same  as the one of this client.  Currently it is not
              possible to pass data via stdin to the Dirmngr.  command should not contain spaces.

              This is command is required for certain maintaining tasks of the  dirmngr  where  a
              dirmngr must be able to call back to gpgsm.  See the Dirmngr manual for details.

       --call-protect-tool arguments
              Certain  maintenance  operations  are done by an external program call gpg-protect-
              tool; this is usually not installed in a directory listed  in  the  PATH  variable.
              This  command  provides a simple wrapper to access this tool.  arguments are passed
              verbatim to this command; use '--help' to get a list of supported operations.

   How to manage the certificates and keys

       --gen-key
              This command allows the creation of a certificate signing request or a  self-signed
              certificate.   It  is  commonly  used  along  with  the --output option to save the
              created CSR or certificate into a file.  If used with the --batch a parameter  file
              is  used to create the CSR or certificate and it is further possible to create non-
              self-signed certificates.

       --list-keys
       -k     List all available certificates stored in the local key database.   Note  that  the
              displayed  data  might  be  reformatted  for  better  human readability and illegal
              characters are replaced by safe substitutes.

       --list-secret-keys
       -K     List all  available  certificates  for  which  a  corresponding  a  secret  key  is
              available.

       --list-external-keys pattern
              List  certificates  matching  pattern  using an external server.  This utilizes the
              dirmngr service.

       --list-chain
              Same as --list-keys but also prints all keys making up the chain.

       --dump-cert
       --dump-keys
              List all available certificates stored in the local key  database  using  a  format
              useful mainly for debugging.

       --dump-chain
              Same as --dump-keys but also prints all keys making up the chain.

       --dump-secret-keys
              List all available certificates for which a corresponding a secret key is available
              using a format useful mainly for debugging.

       --dump-external-keys pattern
              List certificates matching pattern using an external  server.   This  utilizes  the
              dirmngr service.  It uses a format useful mainly for debugging.

       --keydb-clear-some-cert-flags
              This  is  a debugging aid to reset certain flags in the key database which are used
              to cache certain certificate stati.  It is especially useful if  a  bad  CRL  or  a
              weird  running  OCSP  responder  did  accidentally revoke certificate.  There is no
              security issue with this command because gpgsm always make sure that  the  validity
              of a certificate is checked right before it is used.

       --delete-keys pattern
              Delete  the  keys  matching  pattern.   Note that there is no command to delete the
              secret part of the key directly.  In case you need to do this, you should  run  the
              command  gpgsm  --dump-secret-keys KEYID before you delete the key, copy the string
              of hex-digits in the ``keygrip'' line and delete the file consisting of these  hex-
              digits  and  the suffix .key from the ‘private-keys-v1.d’ directory below our GnuPG
              home directory (usually ‘~/.gnupg’).

       --export [pattern]
              Export all certificates stored in the Keybox or those  specified  by  the  optional
              pattern.  Those pattern consist of a list of user ids (see: [how-to-specify-a-user-
              id]).  When used along with the  --armor  option  a  few  informational  lines  are
              prepended  before  each  block.   There  is one limitation: As there is no commonly
              agreed upon way to pack more than one certificate  into  an  ASN.1  structure,  the
              binary  export  (i.e.  without  using  armor)  works  only  for  the  export of one
              certificate.  Thus it is required to specify a pattern  which  yields  exactly  one
              certificate.   Ephemeral  certificate are only exported if all pattern are given as
              fingerprints or keygrips.

       --export-secret-key-p12 key-id
              Export the private key and the  certificate  identified  by  key-id  in  a  PKCS#12
              format.  When  used with the --armor option a few informational lines are prepended
              to the output.  Note, that the PKCS#12 format is not very secure and  this  command
              is  only  provided  if  there  is  no  other way to exchange the private key. (see:
              [option --p12-charset])

       --export-secret-key-p8 key-id
       --export-secret-key-raw key-id
              Export the private key of the certificate identified by key-id with any  encryption
              stripped.  The ...-raw command exports in PKCS#1 format; the ...-p8 command exports
              in PKCS#8 format.  When used with the --armor option a few informational lines  are
              prepended  to  the output.  These commands are useful to prepare a key for use on a
              TLS server.

       --import [files]
              Import the certificates from the PEM or  binary  encoded  files  as  well  as  from
              signed-only  messages.  This command may also be used to import a secret key from a
              PKCS#12 file.

       --learn-card
              Read information  about  the  private  keys  from  the  smartcard  and  import  the
              certificates  from  there.   This  command  utilizes  the gpg-agent and in turn the
              scdaemon.

       --passwd user_id
              Change the passphrase of the private key belonging to the certificate specified  as
              user_id.   Note,  that  changing  the  passphrase/PIN  of  a  smartcard  is not yet
              supported.

OPTIONS

       GPGSM features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to change the default
       configuration.

   How to change the configuration

       These  options  are  used  to change the configuration and are usually found in the option
       file.

       --options file
              Reads configuration from file instead of from the  default  per-user  configuration
              file.   The  default  configuration  file is named ‘gpgsm.conf’ and expected in the
              ‘.gnupg’ directory directly below the home directory of the user.

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is  not  used,  the  home
              directory  defaults to ‘~/.gnupg’.  It is only recognized when given on the command
              line.  It also overrides any home directory stated through the environment variable
              ‘GNUPGHOME’   or   (on   Windows   systems)   by   means   of  the  Registry  entry
              HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

              On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable  application.   In
              this case only this command line option is considered, all other ways to set a home
              directory are ignored.

              To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an empty file name
              ‘gpgconf.ctl’  in  the  same  directory as the tool ‘gpgconf.exe’.  The root of the
              installation is than that  directory;  or,  if  ‘gpgconf.exe’  has  been  installed
              directly  below  a  directory  named ‘bin’, its parent directory.  You also need to
              make sure that the following directories exist and are  writable:  ‘ROOT/home’  for
              the GnuPG home and ‘ROOT/var/cache/gnupg’ for internal cache files.

       -v

       --verbose
              Outputs  additional  information  while running.  You can increase the verbosity by
              giving several verbose commands to gpgsm, such as '-vv'.

       --policy-file filename
              Change the default name of the policy file to filename.

       --agent-program file
              Specify an agent program to be used for secret key operations.  The  default  value
              is  determined  by  running  the command gpgconf.  Note that the pipe symbol (|) is
              used for a regression test suite hack and may thus not be used in the file name.

       --dirmngr-program file
              Specify a dirmngr program to  be  used  for  CRL  checks.   The  default  value  is
              ‘/usr/bin/dirmngr’.

       --prefer-system-dirmngr
              If  a  system  wide dirmngr is running in daemon mode, first try to connect to this
              one.  Fallback to a pipe based server if this does not work.   Under  Windows  this
              option is ignored because the system dirmngr is always used.

       --disable-dirmngr
              Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

       --no-autostart
              Do  not  start  the gpg-agent or the dirmngr if it has not yet been started and its
              service is required.  This option is mostly useful on machines where the connection
              to  gpg-agent  has  been redirected to another machines.  If dirmngr is required on
              the remote machine, it may be started manually using gpgconf --launch dirmngr.

       --no-secmem-warning
              Do not print a warning when the so called "secure memory" cannot be used.

       --log-file file
              When running in server mode, append all logging output to file.

   Certificate related options

       --enable-policy-checks
       --disable-policy-checks
              By default policy checks are enabled.  These options may be used to change it.

       --enable-crl-checks
       --disable-crl-checks
              By default the CRL checks are enabled and the DirMngr is used to check for  revoked
              certificates.   The  disable  option  is  most  useful  with  an  off-line  network
              connection to suppress this check.

       --enable-trusted-cert-crl-check
       --disable-trusted-cert-crl-check
              By default the CRL for trusted root certificates are checked  like  for  any  other
              certificates.   This  allows  a CA to revoke its own certificates voluntary without
              the need of putting all ever issued certificates into a CRL.   The  disable  option
              may  be  used  to  switch  this  extra  check  off.  Due to the caching done by the
              Dirmngr, there will not be any noticeable performance gain.  Note, that  this  also
              disables  possible  OCSP checks for trusted root certificates.  A more specific way
              of disabling this check is by adding the ``relax'' keyword to the root CA  line  of
              the ‘trustlist.txt--force-crl-refresh
              Tell  the  dirmngr to reload the CRL for each request.  For better performance, the
              dirmngr will actually optimize this by  suppressing  the  loading  for  short  time
              intervals (e.g. 30 minutes). This option is useful to make sure that a fresh CRL is
              available for certificates hold in the keybox.  The suggested way of doing this  is
              by  using  it  along  with  the option --with-validation for a key listing command.
              This option should not be used in a configuration file.

       --enable-ocsp
       --disable-ocsp
              By default OCSP checks are disabled.  The enable option may be used to enable  OCSP
              checks  via  Dirmngr.   If  CRL  checks  are  also  enabled, CRLs will be used as a
              fallback if for some reason an OCSP request will not succeed.  Note, that you  have
              to  allow  OCSP  requests  in Dirmngr's configuration too (option --allow-ocsp) and
              configure Dirmngr properly.  If you do not do so you will get the error  code  'Not
              supported'.

       --auto-issuer-key-retrieve
              If  a  required  certificate is missing while validating the chain of certificates,
              try to load that certificate from an external location.  This  usually  means  that
              Dirmngr  is  employed to search for the certificate.  Note that this option makes a
              "web bug" like behavior possible.  LDAP server operators can  see  which  keys  you
              request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand new key (which you naturally
              will not have on your local keybox), the operator can tell both your IP address and
              the time when you verified the signature.

       --validation-model name
              This  option  changes  the  default validation model.  The only possible values are
              "shell" (which is the default), "chain" which forces the use of the chain model and
              "steed"  for  a new simplified model.  The chain model is also used if an option in
              the ‘trustlist.txt’ or an attribute of the certificate requests  it.   However  the
              standard model (shell) is in that case always tried first.

       --ignore-cert-extension oid
              Add  oid  to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The oid is expected to be
              in dotted decimal form, like 2.5.29.3.  This option may be  used  more  than  once.
              Critical  flagged  certificate  extensions matching one of the OIDs in the list are
              treated as if they are actually handled  and  thus  the  certificate  will  not  be
              rejected  due  to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option with care because
              extensions are usually flagged as critical for a reason.

   Input and Output

       --armor
       -a     Create PEM encoded output.  Default is binary output.

       --base64
              Create Base-64 encoded output; i.e. PEM without the header lines.

       --assume-armor
              Assume the input data is PEM encoded.  Default is to autodetect  the  encoding  but
              this is may fail.

       --assume-base64
              Assume the input data is plain base-64 encoded.

       --assume-binary
              Assume the input data is binary encoded.

       --p12-charset name
              gpgsm  uses  the  UTF-8 encoding when encoding passphrases for PKCS#12 files.  This
              option may be used to force the passphrase to be encoded in the specified  encoding
              name.   This  is  useful if the application used to import the key uses a different
              encoding and thus will not be able to import a file generated by  gpgsm.   Commonly
              used  values  for  name are Latin1 and CP850.  Note that gpgsm itself automagically
              imports any file with a passphrase encoded to the most commonly used encodings.

       --default-key user_id
              Use user_id as the standard key for signing.  This key is used if no other key  has
              been defined as a signing key.  Note, that the first --local-users option also sets
              this key if it has not yet been set; however --default-key always overrides this.

       --local-user user_id

       -u user_id
              Set the user(s) to be used for signing.  The default is the first secret key  found
              in the database.

       --recipient name
       -r     Encrypt  to  the user id name.  There are several ways a user id may be given (see:
              [how-to-specify-a-user-id]).

       --output file
       -o file
              Write output to file.  The default is to write it to stdout.

       --with-key-data
              Displays extra information with the --list-keys commands.  Especially a line tagged
              grp  is  printed  which tells you the keygrip of a key.  This string is for example
              used as the file name of the secret key.

       --with-validation
              When doing a key listing, do a full validation check for each  key  and  print  the
              result.   This  is  usually  a  slow operation because it requires a CRL lookup and
              other operations.

              When used along with --import, a validation of the certificate to  import  is  done
              and  only  imported  if  it  succeeds  the test.  Note that this does not affect an
              already available certificate in the DB.  This option is therefore useful to simply
              verify a certificate.

       --with-md5-fingerprint
              For standard key listings, also print the MD5 fingerprint of the certificate.

       --with-keygrip
              Include  the  keygrip  in  standard  key listings.  Note that the keygrip is always
              listed in --with-colons mode.

       --with-secret
              Include info about the presence of a secret key in public key  listings  done  with
              --with-colons.

   How to change how the CMS is created.

       --include-certs n
              Using  n  of  -2 includes all certificate except for the root cert, -1 includes all
              certs, 0 does not include any certs, 1 includes only the signers cert and all other
              positive  values  include  up to n certificates starting with the signer cert.  The
              default is -2.

       --cipher-algo oid
              Use the cipher algorithm with the ASN.1 object identifier oid for encryption.   For
              convenience  the  strings  3DES,  AES and AES256 may be used instead of their OIDs.
              The default is AES (2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.2).

       --digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm.  Usually this algorithm is  deduced  from
              the  respective  signing  certificate.   This  option  forces  the use of the given
              algorithm and may lead to severe interoperability problems.

   Doing things one usually do not want to do.

       --extra-digest-algo name
              Sometimes signatures are broken in that they announce a different digest  algorithm
              than  actually used.  gpgsm uses a one-pass data processing model and thus needs to
              rely on the announced digest algorithms to properly hash the data.  As a workaround
              this option may be used to tell gpg to also hash the data using the algorithm name;
              this slows processing down a little bit but  allows  verification  of  such  broken
              signatures.   If  gpgsm prints an error like ``digest algo 8 has not been enabled''
              you may want to try this option, with 'SHA256' for name.

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time back  or  forth  to
              epoch  which  is  the number of seconds elapsed since the year 1970.  Alternatively
              epoch may be given as a full ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --with-ephemeral-keys
              Include ephemeral flagged keys in the output of key listings.  Note that  they  are
              included  anyway  if the key specification for a listing is given as fingerprint or
              keygrip.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may be a numeric value  or
              by a keyword:

              none   No  debugging  at  all.   A  value of less than 1 may be used instead of the
                     keyword.

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used  instead  of
                     the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used
                     instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash tracing files is only  enabled
                     if the keyword is used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to  the actual debugging flags is not specified and may
       change with newer releases of this program. They are however carefully  selected  to  best
       aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              This  option  is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may change at any time
              without notice; using --debug-levels is the preferred method to  select  the  debug
              verbosity.  FLAGS are bit encoded and may be given in usual C-Syntax. The currently
              defined bits are:

              0 (1)  X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data

              1 (2)  values of big number integers

              2 (4)  low level crypto operations

              5 (32) memory allocation

              6 (64) caching

              7 (128)
                     show memory statistics.

              9 (512)
                     write hashed data to files named dbgmd-000*

              10 (1024)
                     trace Assuan protocol

       Note, that all flags set using this option may get overridden by --debug-level.

       --debug-all
              Same as --debug=0xffffffff

       --debug-allow-core-dump
              Usually gpgsm tries to avoid dumping core by well written  code  and  by  disabling
              core  dumps  for  security reasons.  However, bugs are pretty durable beasts and to
              squash them it is sometimes useful to have a core dump.  This option  enables  core
              dumps unless the Bad Thing happened before the option parsing.

       --debug-no-chain-validation
              This  is  actually  not  a debugging option but only useful as such.  It lets gpgsm
              bypass all certificate chain validation checks.

       --debug-ignore-expiration
              This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as  such.   It  lets  gpgsm
              ignore all notAfter dates, this is used by the regression tests.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read  the  passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line will be read from
              file descriptor n. If you use 0 for n, the passphrase will be read from STDIN. This
              can only be used if only one passphrase is supplied.

              Note that this passphrase is only used if the option --batch has also been given.

       --pinentry-mode mode
              Set the pinentry mode to mode.  Allowed values for mode are:

              default
                     Use the default of the agent, which is ask.

              ask    Force the use of the Pinentry.

              cancel Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.

              error  Return a Pinentry error (``No Pinentry'').

              loopback
                     Redirect  Pinentry queries to the caller.  Note that in contrast to Pinentry
                     the user is not prompted again if he enters a bad password.

       --no-common-certs-import
              Suppress the import of common certificates on keybox creation.

       All the long options may also be given in the configuration file after stripping  off  the
       two leading dashes.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID

       There  are  different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them are only valid for
       gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This format is deduced from the length of the string and its content or 0x  prefix.
              The  key  Id  of an X.509 certificate are the low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.
              The use of key Ids is just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
              should be used.

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
              primary or secondary key and not to try and calculate which  primary  or  secondary
              key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long form as internally
              used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the long key ID using the option  --with-
              colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This  format  is  deduced  from  the length of the string and its content or the 0x
              prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version fingerprint is  available  with  gpgsm
              (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the certificate).

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
              primary or secondary key and not to try and calculate which  primary  or  secondary
              key to use.

              The  best  way  to  specify  a key Id is by using the fingerprint.  This avoids any
              ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       gpgsm also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits because this is the  de-
       facto standard on how to present X.509 fingerprints.  gpg also allows the use of the space
       separated SHA-1 fingerprint as printed by the key listing commands.

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This is denoted by a  leading  equal  sign.  It  does  not  make  sense  for  X.509
              certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This  is  indicated  by  enclosing the email address in the usual way with left and
              right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By partial match on an email address.
              This is indicated by prefixing the search string with an @.  This uses a  substring
              search but considers only the mail address (i.e. inside the angle brackets).

         @heinrichh

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This  is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded DN
              of the subject.  Note that you can't use the string printed by "gpgsm  --list-keys"
              because that one as been reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-
              colons to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by  a  slash  and  then
              directly  followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of the issuer.  This should return the
              Root cert of the issuer.  See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal representation of the
              serial  number, then followed by a slash and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer.
              See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
              This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the  40  hex  digits  of  a  keygrip.
              gpgsm  prints the keygrip when using the command --dump-cert.  It does not yet work
              for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly indicate  this  by
              putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       . and + prefixes
              These prefixes are reserved for looking up mails anchored at the end and for a word
              search mode.  They are not yet implemented and using them is undefined.

              Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier  which  was  used  in  old
              GnuPG  versions  to  indicate  the  so called local-id.  It is not anymore used and
              there should be no conflict when used with X.509 stuff.

              Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not  possible  to  map
              them  back  to  the original encoding, however we don't have to do this because our
              key database stores this encoding as meta data.

EXAMPLES

         $ gpgsm -er goo@bar.net <plaintext >ciphertext

FILES

       There are a few configuration files to  control  certain  aspects  of  gpgsm's  operation.
       Unless noted, they are expected in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpgsm.conf
              This  is  the standard configuration file read by gpgsm on startup.  It may contain
              any valid long option; the leading two dashes may not be entered and the option may
              not  be  abbreviated.   This  default name may be changed on the command line (see:
              [gpgsm-option --options]).  You should backup this file.

       policies.txt
              This is a  list  of  allowed  CA  policies.   This  file  should  list  the  object
              identifiers  of  the  policies line by line.  Empty lines and lines starting with a
              hash mark are ignored.  Policies missing in this file and not marked as critical in
              the  certificate  will  print  only a warning; certificates with policies marked as
              critical and not listed in this file will fail  the  signature  verification.   You
              should backup this file.

              For example, to allow only the policy 2.289.9.9, the file should look like this:

                # Allowed policies
                2.289.9.9

       qualified.txt
              This  is  the  list of root certificates used for qualified certificates.  They are
              defined as certificates capable of creating legally binding signatures in the  same
              way as handwritten signatures are.  Comments start with a hash mark and empty lines
              are ignored.  Lines do have a length limit but this is not a serious limitation  as
              the  format of the entries is fixed and checked by gpgsm: A non-comment line starts
              with optional whitespace, followed by exactly 40 hex character, white space  and  a
              lowercased  2 letter country code.  Additional data delimited with by a white space
              is current ignored but might late be used for other purposes.

              Note that even if a certificate is listed in this file, this does not mean that the
              certificate  is trusted; in general the certificates listed in this file need to be
              listed also in ‘trustlist.txt’.

              This  is   a   global   file   an   installed   in   the   data   directory   (e.g.
              ‘/usr/share/gnupg/qualified.txt’).   GnuPG  installs  a  suitable  file  with  root
              certificates as used in Germany.  As new Root-CA certificates may  be  issued  over
              time,  these  entries  may  need  to be updated; new distributions of this software
              should come with an updated  list  but  it  is  still  the  responsibility  of  the
              Administrator to check that this list is correct.

              Everytime  gpgsm  uses  a certificate for signing or verification this file will be
              consulted to check whether the  certificate  under  question  has  ultimately  been
              issued by one of these CAs.  If this is the case the user will be informed that the
              verified signature represents a legally binding  (``qualified'')  signature.   When
              creating a signature using such a certificate an extra prompt will be issued to let
              the user confirm that such a legally binding signature shall really be created.

              Because this software has not yet been approved for  use  with  such  certificates,
              appropriate notices will be shown to indicate this fact.

       help.txt
              This  is  plain  text  file with a few help entries used with pinentry as well as a
              large list of help items for gpg and gpgsm.  The standard  file  has  English  help
              texts;  to  install  localized  versions  use  filenames like ‘help.LL.txt’ with LL
              denoting the locale.  GnuPG comes with a set of predefined help files in  the  data
              directory  (e.g. ‘/usr/share/gnupg/gnupg/help.de.txt’) and allows overriding of any
              help item by  help  files  stored  in  the  system  configuration  directory  (e.g.
              ‘/etc/gnupg/help.de.txt’).   For  a reference of the help file's syntax, please see
              the installed ‘help.txt’ file.

       com-certs.pem
              This file is a collection of common certificates used to populated a newly  created
              ‘pubring.kbx’.   An  administrator  may  replace  this file with a custom one.  The
              format is a concatenation of PEM encoded X.509 certificates.  This global  file  is
              installed in the data directory (e.g. ‘/usr/share/gnupg/com-certs.pem’).

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files into the directory
       ‘/etc/skel/.gnupg/’ so that newly created users start up  with  a  working  configuration.
       For  existing  users  a  small  helper  script  is  provided  to  create these files (see:
       [addgnupghome]).

       For internal purposes gpgsm creates and maintains a few other files; they all live  in  in
       the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).  Only gpgsm may modify these files.

       pubring.kbx
              This  a  database  file  storing the certificates as well as meta information.  For
              debugging purposes the tool kbxutil may be used to show the internal  structure  of
              this file.  You should backup this file.

       random_seed
              This  content  of  this  file  is used to maintain the internal state of the random
              number generator across invocations.  The same file is used by  other  programs  of
              this software too.

       S.gpg-agent
              If  this  file  exists gpgsm will first try to connect to this socket for accessing
              gpg-agent before starting a new gpg-agent  instance.   Under  Windows  this  socket
              (which  in  reality be a plain file describing a regular TCP listening port) is the
              standard way of connecting the gpg-agent.

SEE ALSO

       gpg2(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If GnuPG and  the
       info program are properly installed at your site, the command

         info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.