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NAME

       write - write to a file descriptor

SYNOPSIS

       #include <unistd.h>

       ssize_t write(int fd, const void *buf, size_t count);

DESCRIPTION

       write()  writes  up  to count bytes from the buffer pointed buf to the file referred to by
       the file descriptor fd.

       The number of bytes written may be less than count if, for example, there is  insufficient
       space on the underlying physical medium, or the RLIMIT_FSIZE resource limit is encountered
       (see setrlimit(2)), or the call was interrupted by a signal handler after  having  written
       less than count bytes.  (See also pipe(7).)

       For  a  seekable  file (i.e., one to which lseek(2) may be applied, for example, a regular
       file) writing takes place at the file offset, and the file offset is  incremented  by  the
       number  of  bytes  actually  written.   If  the file was open(2)ed with O_APPEND, the file
       offset is first set to the end of the file before writing.  The  adjustment  of  the  file
       offset and the write operation are performed as an atomic step.

       POSIX  requires  that  a  read(2) that can be proved to occur after a write() has returned
       will return the new data.  Note that not all filesystems are POSIX conforming.

       According to POSIX.1, if count is greater than SSIZE_MAX, the  result  is  implementation-
       defined; see NOTES for the upper limit on Linux.

RETURN VALUE

       On  success, the number of bytes written is returned (zero indicates nothing was written).
       It is not an error if this number is smaller than the number of bytes requested; this  may
       happen for example because the disk device was filled.  See also NOTES.

       On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

       If count is zero and fd refers to a regular file, then write() may return a failure status
       if one of the errors below is detected.  If no errors are detected, or error detection  is
       not  performed, 0 will be returned without causing any other effect.  If count is zero and
       fd refers to a file other than a regular file, the results are not specified.

ERRORS

       EAGAIN The file descriptor fd refers to a file other than a socket  and  has  been  marked
              nonblocking  (O_NONBLOCK),  and  the  write  would  block.  See open(2) for further
              details on the O_NONBLOCK flag.

       EAGAIN or EWOULDBLOCK
              The file descriptor  fd  refers  to  a  socket  and  has  been  marked  nonblocking
              (O_NONBLOCK),  and  the  write would block.  POSIX.1-2001 allows either error to be
              returned for this case, and does not require  these  constants  to  have  the  same
              value, so a portable application should check for both possibilities.

       EBADF  fd is not a valid file descriptor or is not open for writing.

       EDESTADDRREQ
              fd  refers  to  a  datagram  socket for which a peer address has not been set using
              connect(2).

       EDQUOT The user's quota of disk blocks on the filesystem containing the file  referred  to
              by fd has been exhausted.

       EFAULT buf is outside your accessible address space.

       EFBIG  An attempt was made to write a file that exceeds the implementation-defined maximum
              file size or the process's file size limit, or to write  at  a  position  past  the
              maximum allowed offset.

       EINTR  The call was interrupted by a signal before any data was written; see signal(7).

       EINVAL fd is attached to an object which is unsuitable for writing; or the file was opened
              with the O_DIRECT flag,  and  either  the  address  specified  in  buf,  the  value
              specified in count, or the file offset is not suitably aligned.

       EIO    A low-level I/O error occurred while modifying the inode.

       ENOSPC The device containing the file referred to by fd has no room for the data.

       EPERM  The operation was prevented by a file seal; see fcntl(2).

       EPIPE  fd is connected to a pipe or socket whose reading end is closed.  When this happens
              the writing process will also receive a SIGPIPE signal.  (Thus,  the  write  return
              value is seen only if the program catches, blocks or ignores this signal.)

       Other errors may occur, depending on the object connected to fd.

CONFORMING TO

       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

       Under  SVr4  a write may be interrupted and return EINTR at any point, not just before any
       data is written.

NOTES

       The types size_t and ssize_t are, respectively, unsigned and  signed  integer  data  types
       specified by POSIX.1.

       A  successful return from write() does not make any guarantee that data has been committed
       to disk.  In fact, on some buggy implementations, it does not even  guarantee  that  space
       has  successfully been reserved for the data.  The only way to be sure is to call fsync(2)
       after you are done writing all your data.

       If a write() is interrupted by a signal handler before any bytes  are  written,  then  the
       call  fails  with  the  error EINTR; if it is interrupted after at least one byte has been
       written, the call succeeds, and returns the number of bytes written.

       On  Linux,  write()  (and  similar  system  calls)  will  transfer  at   most   0x7ffff000
       (2,147,479,552)  bytes, returning the number of bytes actually transferred.  (This is true
       on both 32-bit and 64-bit systems.)

BUGS

       According to POSIX.1-2008/SUSv4 Section XSI 2.9.7 ("Thread Interactions with Regular  File
       Operations"):

           All  of  the  following  functions  shall  be atomic with respect to each other in the
           effects specified in POSIX.1-2008 when they  operate  on  regular  files  or  symbolic
           links: ...

       Among  the APIs subsequently listed are write() and writev(2).  And among the effects that
       should be atomic across threads (and processes) are updates of the file offset.   However,
       on  Linux  before version 3.14, this was not the case: if two processes that share an open
       file description (see open(2)) perform a write() (or writev(2)) at the same time, then the
       I/O operations were not atomic with respect updating the file offset, with the result that
       the blocks of data output by the two processes might (incorrectly) overlap.  This  problem
       was fixed in Linux 3.14.

SEE ALSO

       close(2),  fcntl(2), fsync(2), ioctl(2), lseek(2), open(2), pwrite(2), read(2), select(2),
       writev(2), fwrite(3)

COLOPHON

       This page is part of release 4.13 of the Linux man-pages project.  A  description  of  the
       project,  information  about  reporting  bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be
       found at https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.