Provided by: nplan_0.30_amd64 bug


       netplan - YAML network configuration abstraction for various backends


       Distribution  installers, cloud instantiation, image builds for particular devices, or any
       other way to deploy an operating system put its desired network  configuration  into  YAML
       configuration file(s).  During early boot, the netplan "network renderer" runs which reads
       /{lib,etc,run}/netplan/*.yaml and writes configuration to /run  to  hand  off  control  of
       devices to the specified networking daemon.

       · Configured  devices get handled by systemd-networkd by default, unless explicitly marked
         as managed by a specific renderer (NetworkManager)

       · Devices not covered by the network config do not get touched at all.

       · Usable in initramfs (few dependencies and fast)

       · No persistent generated config, only original YAML config

       · Parser supports multiple config files to allow  applications  like  libvirt  or  lxd  to
         package  up  expected  network  config (virbr0, lxdbr0), or to change the global default
         policy to use NetworkManager for everything.

       · Retains  the  flexibility  to  change  backends/policy  later  or  adjust  to   removing
         NetworkManager, as generated configuration is ephemeral.

General structure

       netplan's configuration files use the YAML ( format.
       All  /{lib,etc,run}/netplan/*.yaml  are   considered.    Lexicographically   later   files
       (regardless  of  in  which  directory they are) amend (new mapping keys) or override (same
       mapping keys) previous ones.  A file in /run/netplan completely shadows a file  with  same
       name  in  /etc/netplan,  and a file in either of those directories shadows a file with the
       same name in /lib/netplan.

       The top-level node in a netplan configuration file is a  network:  mapping  that  contains
       version: 2  (the  YAML currently being used by curtin, MaaS, etc.  is version 1), and then
       device definitions grouped by their type, such as ethernets:, wifis:, or bridges:.   These
       are the types that our renderer can understand and are supported by our backends.

       Each type block contains device definitions as a map where the keys (called "configuration
       IDs") are defined as below.

Device configuration IDs

       The key names below the per-device-type  definition  maps  (like  ethernets:)  are  called
       "ID"s.   They  must  be  unique  throughout  the entire set of configuration files.  Their
       primary purpose is to serve  as  anchor  names  for  composite  devices,  for  example  to
       enumerate the members of a bridge that is currently being defined.

       There  are two physically/structurally different classes of device definitions, and the ID
       field has a different interpretation for each:

       Physical devices
              (Examples: ethernet, wifi) These can dynamically come and go  between  reboots  and
              even  during  runtime  (hotplugging).  In the generic case, they can be selected by
              match: rules on desired properties, such as name/name pattern, MAC address, driver,
              or  device  paths.   In general these will match any number of devices (unless they
              refer to properties which are unique such as the full  path  or  MAC  address),  so
              without  further  knowledge about the hardware these will always be considered as a

              It is valid to specify no match rules at all, in which case the ID field is  simply
              the interface name to be matched.  This is mostly useful if you want to keep simple
              cases simple, and it's how network device configuration has been done  for  a  long

              If  there are match: rules, then the ID field is a purely opaque name which is only
              being used for references from definitions of compound devices in the config.

       Virtual devices
              (Examples: veth, bridge, bond) These are fully under  the  control  of  the  config
              file(s)  and the network stack.  I.  e.  these devices are being created instead of
              matched.  Thus match: and set-name: are not applicable for these, and the ID  field
              is the name of the created virtual device.

Common properties for physical device types

       match (mapping)
              This selects a subset of available physical devices by various hardware properties.
              The following configuration will then apply to all matching  devices,  as  soon  as
              they appear.  All specified properties must match.

              name (scalar)
                     Current  interface  name.  Globs are supported, and the primary use case for
                     matching on names, as selecting one fixed name can be more  easily  achieved
                     with  having  no match: at all and just using the ID (see above).  Note that
                     currently only networkd supports globbing, NetworkManager does not.

              macaddress (scalar)
                     Device's MAC  address  in  the  form  "XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX".   Globs  are  not

              driver (scalar)
                     Kernel  driver  name,  corresponding to the DRIVER udev property.  Globs are
                     supported.  Matching on driver is only supported with networkd.


              · all cards on second PCI bus:

                         name: enp2*

              · fixed MAC address:

                         macaddress: 11:22:33:AA:BB:FF

              · first card of driver ixgbe:

                         driver: ixgbe
                         name: en*s0

       set-name (scalar)
              When matching on unique  properties  such  as  path  or  MAC,  or  with  additional
              assumptions  such  as "there will only ever be one wifi device", match rules can be
              written so that they only match one device.  Then this property can be used to give
              that  device  a  more  specific/desirable/nicer  name  than the default from udev's
              ifnames.  Any additional device that satisfies the match rules will  then  fail  to
              get renamed and keep the original kernel name (and dmesg will show an error).

       wakeonlan (bool)
              Enable wake on LAN.  Off by default.

Common properties for all device types

       renderer (scalar)
              Use  the  given  networking  backend  for this definition.  Currently supported are
              networkd and NetworkManager.  This property can be specified globally in networks:,
              for  a  device  type (in e.  g.  ethernets:) or for a particular device definition.
              Default is networkd.

       dhcp4 (bool)
              Enable DHCP for IPv4.  Off by default.

       dhcp6 (bool)
              Enable DHCP for IPv6.  Off by default.

       accept-ra (bool)
              Accept Router Advertisement that would have the kernel configure  IPv6  by  itself.
              On by default.

       addresses (sequence of scalars)
              Add static addresses to the interface in addition to the ones received through DHCP
              or  RA.   Each  sequence  entry  is  in  CIDR  notation,  i.   e.   of   the   form
              addr/prefixlen.   addr is an IPv4 or IPv6 address as recognized by inet_pton(3) and
              prefixlen the number of bits of the subnet.

              Example: addresses: [, 2001:1::1/64]

       gateway4, gateway6 (scalar)
              Set default gateway for IPv4/6, for manual address  configuration.   This  requires
              setting addresses too.  Gateway IPs must be in a form recognized by inet_pton(3).

              Example for IPv4: gateway4:
              Example for IPv6: gateway6: 2001:4::1

       nameservers (mapping)
              Set  DNS  servers  and search domains, for manual address configuration.  There are
              two supported fields: addresses: is a list of IPv4 or  IPv6  addresses  similar  to
              gateway*, and search: is a list of search domains.


                           search: [lab, home]
                           addresses: [, FEDC::1]

Properties for device type ethernets:

       Ethernet  device definitions do not support any specific properties beyond the common ones
       described above.

Properties for device type wifis:

       Note that systemd-networkd does not natively  support  wifi,  so  you  need  wpasupplicant
       installed if you let the networkd renderer handle wifi.

       access-points (mapping)
              This provides pre-configured connections to NetworkManager.  Note that users can of
              course select other access points/SSIDs.  The keys of the mapping  are  the  SSIDs,
              and the values are mappings with the following supported properties:

              password (scalar)
                     Enable WPA2 authentication and set the passphrase for it.  If not given, the
                     network is assumed to be open.  Other authentication modes are not currently

              mode (scalar)
                     Possible  access point modes are infrastructure (the default), ap (create an
                     access point to which other devices can connect), and adhoc  (peer  to  peer
                     networks  without  a  central  access  point).   ap  is  only supported with

Properties for device type bridges:

       interfaces (sequence of scalars)
              All devices matching this ID list will be added to the bridge.


                           match: {name: "enp2*"}
                           interfaces: [switchports]

       parameters (mapping)
              Customization parameters for special bridging options.   Using  the  NetworkManager
              renderer,  parameter values for time intervals should be expressed in milliseconds;
              for the systemd renderer, they should be in seconds unless otherwise specified.

              ageing-time (scalar)
                     Set the period of time to keep a MAC  address  in  the  forwarding  database
                     after a packet is received.

              priority (scalar)
                     Set  the  priority  value  for  the  bridge.  This value should be an number
                     between 0 and 65535.  Lower values mean higher priority.   The  bridge  with
                     the higher priority will be elected as the root bridge.

              forward-delay (scalar)
                     Specify  the period of time the bridge will remain in Listening and Learning
                     states before getting to the Forwarding state.  This value should be set  in
                     seconds  for the systemd backend, and in milliseconds for the NetworkManager

              hello-time (scalar)
                     Specify the interval between two hello packets being sent out from the  root
                     and  designated  bridges.   Hello  packets communicate information about the
                     network topology.

              max-age (scalar)
                     Set the maximum age of a hello packet.  If the last hello  packet  is  older
                     than that value, the bridge will attempt to become the root bridge.

              path-cost (scalar)
                     Set the cost of a path on the bridge.  Faster interfaces should have a lower
                     cost.  This allows a finer control on  the  network  topology  so  that  the
                     fastest paths are available whenever possible.

              stp (bool)
                     Define  whether  the  bridge should use Spanning Tree Protocol.  The default
                     value is "true", which means that Spanning Tree should be used.

Properties for device type bonds:

       interfaces (sequence of scalars)
              All devices matching this ID list will be added to the bond.


                           match: {name: "enp2*"}
                           interfaces: [switchports]

       parameters (mapping)
              Customization parameters for special bonding  options.   Using  the  NetworkManager
              renderer,  parameter  values for intervals should be expressed in milliseconds; for
              the systemd renderer, they should be in seconds unless otherwise specified.

              mode (scalar)
                     Set the bonding mode used for the interfaces.   The  default  is  balance-rr
                     (round  robin).  Possible values are balance-rr, active-backup, balance-xor,
                     broadcast, 802.3ad, balance-tlb, and balance-alb.

              lacp-rate (scalar)
                     Set the rate at which LACPDUs are  transmitted.   This  is  only  useful  in
                     802.3ad  mode.   Possible  values  are  slow (30 seconds, default), and fast
                     (every second).

              mii-monitor-interval (scalar)
                     Specifies the interval for MII monitoring (verifying if an interface of  the
                     bond has carrier).  The default is 0; which disables MII monitoring.

              min-links (scalar)
                     The  minimum  number of links up in a bond to consider the bond interface to
                     be up.

              transmit-hash-policy (scalar)
                     Specifies the transmit hash policy for the selection  of  slaves.   This  is
                     only  useful in balance-xor, 802.3ad and balance-tlb modes.  Possible values
                     are layer2, layer3+4, layer2+3, encap2+3, and encap3+4.

              ad-select (scalar)
                     Set the aggregation selection mode.  Possible values are stable,  bandwidth,
                     and count.  This option is only used in 802.3ad mode.

              all-slaves-active (bool)
                     If  the  bond  should  drop duplicate frames received on inactive ports, set
                     this option to false.  If they should be delivered, set this option to true.
                     The  default  value  is  false,  and  is  the  desirable  behavior  in  most

              arp-interval (scalar)
                     Set the interval value for how frequently ARP link monitoring should happen.
                     The default value is 0, which disables ARP monitoring.

              arp-ip-targets (sequence of scalars)
                     IPs of other hosts on the link which should be sent ARP requests in order to
                     validate that a slave is up.  This option is only used when arp-interval  is
                     set  to a value other than 0.  At least one IP address must be given for ARP
                     link monitoring to function.  Only IPv4 addresses are  supported.   You  can
                     specify up to 16 IP addresses.  The default value is an empty list.

              arp-validate (scalar)
                     Configure  how  ARP  replies  are  to  be  validated  when  using  ARP  link
                     monitoring.  Possible values are none, active, backup, and all.

              arp-all-targets (scalar)
                     Specify whether to use any ARP IP target being up as sufficient for a  slave
                     to  be  considered  up; or if all the targets must be up.  This is only used
                     for active-backup mode when arp-validate is enabled.   Possible  values  are
                     any and all.

              up-delay (scalar)
                     Specify  the  delay  before  enabling a link once the link is physically up.
                     The default value is 0.

              down-delay (scalar)
                     Specify the delay before disabling a link once the link has been lost.   The
                     default value is 0.

              fail-over-mac-policy (scalar)
                     Set  whether  to  set all slaves to the same MAC address when adding them to
                     the bond, or how else the system should handle MAC addresses.  The  possible
                     values are none, active, and follow.

              gratuitious-arp (scalar)
                     Specify how many ARP packets to send after failover.  Once a link is up on a
                     new slave, a notification is sent and possibly repeated if this value is set
                     to  a  number  greater  than 1.  The default value is 1 and valid values are
                     between 1 and 255.  This only affects active-backup mode.

              packets-per-slave (scalar)
                     In balance-rr mode, specifies the number of packets to transmit on  a  slave
                     before  switching  to  the  next.   When  this value is set to 0, slaves are
                     chosen at random.  Allowable values are between 0 and  65535.   The  default
                     value is 1.  This setting is only used in balance-rr mode.

              primary-reselect-policy (scalar)
                     Set  the reselection policy for the primary slave.  On failure of the active
                     slave, the system will use this policy to decide how the  new  active  slave
                     will  be  chosen  and how recovery will be handled.  The possible values are
                     always, better, and failure.

              learn-packet-interval (scalar)
                     Specify the interval between sending learning packets to  each  slave.   The
                     value  range  is  between  1  and 0x7fffffff.  The default value is 1.  This
                     option only affects balance-tlb and balance-alb modes.

              primary (scalar)
                     Specify a device to be used as a primary slave, or preferred device  to  use
                     as  a  slave  for the bond (ie.  the preferred device to send data through),
                     whenever it is available.  This only affects active-backup, balance-alb, and
                     balance-tlb modes.

Properties for device type vlans:

       id (scalar)
              VLAN ID, a number between 0 and 4094.

       link (scalar)
              netplan ID of the underlying device definition on which this VLAN gets created.


                eno1: {...}
                  id: 1
                  link: eno1
                  dhcp4: yes
                  id: 2
                  link: eno1
                  address: ...


       Configure an ethernet device with networkd, identified by its name, and enable DHCP:

                version: 2
                    dhcp4: true

       This is a complex example which shows most available features:

                version: 2
                # if specified, can only realistically have that value, as networkd cannot
                # render wifi/3G.
                renderer: NetworkManager
                  # opaque ID for physical interfaces, only referred to by other stanzas
                      macaddress: 00:11:22:33:44:55
                    wakeonlan: true
                    dhcp4: true
                      - 2001:1::1/64
                    gateway6: 2001:1::2
                      search: [foo.local, bar.local]
                      addresses: []
                      driver: ixgbe
                    # you are responsible for setting tight enough match rules
                    # that only match one device if you use set-name
                    set-name: lom1
                    dhcp6: true
                    # all cards on second PCI bus; unconfigured by themselves, will be added
                    # to br0 below
                      name: enp2*
                    mtu: 1280
                    # useful on a system where you know there is only ever going to be one device
                    match: {}
                      "Joe's home":
                        # mode defaults to "infrastructure" (client)
                        password: "s3kr1t"
                  # this creates an AP on wlp1s0 using hostapd; no match rules, thus ID is
                  # the interface name
                         mode: ap
                         channel: 11
                         # no WPA config implies default of open
                  # the key name is the name for virtual (created) interfaces; no match: and
                  # set-name: allowed
                    # IDs of the components; switchports expands into multiple interfaces
                    interfaces: [wlp1s0, switchports]
                    dhcp4: true
                 - to:
                   metric: 3


       Mathieu Trudel-Lapierre (<>); Martin Pitt (<>).