Provided by: zsh-common_5.4.2-3ubuntu3_all bug

NAME

       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

       Some  shell  builtin  commands  take options as described in individual entries; these are
       often referred to in the list below as `flags' to  avoid  confusion  with  shell  options,
       which  may also have an effect on the behaviour of builtin commands.  In this introductory
       section, `option' always has the meaning of an option to a command that should be familiar
       to most command line users.

       Typically,  options  are  single  letters  preceded by a hyphen (-).  Options that take an
       argument accept it either immediately following the option letter or  after  white  space,
       for  example `print -C3 *' or `print -C 3 *' are equivalent.  Arguments to options are not
       the same as arguments to the command; the documentation indicates which is which.  Options
       that  do  not take an argument may be combined in a single word, for example `print -ca *'
       and `print -c -a *' are equivalent.

       Some shell builtin commands also take options that begin with `+'  instead  of  `-'.   The
       list below makes clear which commands these are.

       Options  (together  with their individual arguments, if any) must appear in a group before
       any non-option arguments; once the  first  non-option  argument  has  been  found,  option
       processing is terminated.

       All builtin commands other than precommand modifiers, even those that have no options, can
       be given the argument `--' to  terminate  option  processing.   This  indicates  that  the
       following  words  are  non-option  arguments, but is otherwise ignored.  This is useful in
       cases where arguments to the command may begin with `-'.   For  historical  reasons,  most
       builtin  commands  also  recognize  a single `-' in a separate word for this purpose; note
       that this is less standard and use of `--' is recommended.

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell  looks  in  the
              components  of  $path  to find the directory containing file.  Files in the current
              directory are not read unless `.' appears somewhere in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file, and is the compiled form (created with the
              zcompile builtin) of file, then commands are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg are given, they become  the  positional  parameters;  the  old
              positional parameters are restored when the file is done executing.  However, if no
              arguments are given, the positional parameters remain those of the calling context,
              and no restoring is done.

              If  file  was not found the return status is 127; if file was found but contained a
              syntax error the return status is 126; else the return status is the exit status of
              the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions is performed which
              may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For each name with a corresponding value, define  an  alias  with  that  value.   A
              trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion.  If
              the -g flag is present, define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even  if
              they do not occur in command position.

              If  the -s flag is present, define a suffix alias: if the command word on a command
              line is in the form `text.name', where text is any non-empty string, it is replaced
              by  the text `value text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string, not
              a pattern.  A trailing space in value is not special in this case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv *.ps'.  As alias  expansion  is
              carried  out  earlier  than  globbing,  the  `*.ps'  will then be expanded.  Suffix
              aliases constitute a different name space from  other  aliases  (so  in  the  above
              example  it  is  still  possible to create an alias for the command ps) and the two
              sets are never listed together.

              For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any.  With  no  arguments,
              print  all  currently defined aliases other than suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is
              given the arguments are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to  preserve  them
              from  being  interpreted as glob patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns
              are printed.  When printing aliases and one of the -g, -r or -s flags  is  present,
              restrict the printing to global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular
              alias is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'  instead  of
              `-',  or  ending  the  option  list  with  a single `+', prevents the values of the
              aliases from being printed.

              If the -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable  for  putting
              in a startup script.  The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given
              for which no alias has been defined.

              For more  on  aliases,  include  common  problems,  see  the  section  ALIASING  in
              zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}RTUXdkmrtWz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              See  the section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for full details.  The fpath
              parameter will be searched to find the function definition  when  the  function  is
              first referenced.

              If name consists of an absolute path, the function is defined to load from the file
              given (searching as usual for dump files in the given location).  The name  of  the
              function is the basename (non-directory part) of the file.  It is normally an error
              if the function is not found in the given location; however, if the  option  -d  is
              given,  searching  for the function defaults to $fpath.  If a function is loaded by
              absolute path, any functions loaded from it that are marked for autoload without an
              absolute  path  have  the load path of the parent function temporarily prepended to
              $fpath.

              If the option -r or -R is given, the function is searched for immediately  and  the
              location  is  recorded internally for use when the function is executed; a relative
              path is expanded using the value of $PWD.  This protects against a change to $fpath
              after  the call to autoload.  With -r, if the function is not found, it is silently
              left unresolved until execution; with -R, an error message is printed  and  command
              processing  aborted  immediately  the  search  fails,  i.e. at the autoload command
              rather than at function execution..

              The flag -X may be used only inside  a  shell  function.   It  causes  the  calling
              function  to  be  marked  for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed,
              with the current array of positional parameters as arguments.   This  replaces  the
              previous  definition of the function.  If no function definition is found, an error
              is printed and the function remains undefined and marked for  autoloading.   If  an
              argument  is given, it is used as a directory (i.e. it does not include the name of
              the function) in which the function is to be found; this may be combined  with  the
              -d  option  to  allow  the function search to default to $fpath if it is not in the
              given location.

              The flag +X attempts to load each name as an  autoloaded  function,  but  does  not
              execute  it.   The exit status is zero (success) if the function was not previously
              defined and a definition for it was found.  This  does  not  replace  any  existing
              definition  of  the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if the function
              was already defined or when no definition  was  found.   In  the  latter  case  the
              function remains undefined and marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style autoloading is
              enabled, the function created will contain the contents of the file plus a call  to
              the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal ksh autoloading behaviour on
              the first call to the function.  If the -m flag is also given each name is  treated
              as  a  pattern and all functions already marked for autoload that match the pattern
              are loaded.

              With the -t flag, turn on execution tracing; with -T,  turn  on  execution  tracing
              only for the current function, turning it off on entry to any called functions that
              do not also have tracing enabled.

              With the -U flag, alias expansion is suppressed when the function is loaded.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the  zcompile
              builtin, and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading.

              The  flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the zsh or ksh style,
              as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD were unset or  were  set,  respectively.   The  flags
              override the setting of the option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note  that  the  autoload  command makes no attempt to ensure the shell options set
              during the loading or execution of the file have any particular value.   For  this,
              the emulate command can be used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges  that  when  func is loaded the shell is in native zsh emulation, and this
              emulation is also applied when func is run.

              Some of the functions of autoload are also provided by functions  -u  or  functions
              -U, but autoload is a more comprehensive interface.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit  from  an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop. If an arithmetic
              expression n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory.  In the first form, change the current  directory  to
              arg,  or  to  the value of $HOME if arg is not specified.  If arg is `-', change to
              the previous directory.

              Otherwise, if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the directory given  by
              arg.

              If  arg  does  not begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on whether the current
              directory `.' occurs in the list of directories contained in  the  shell  parameter
              cdpath.   If  it  does  not, first attempt to change to the directory arg under the
              current directory, and if that fails but cdpath is set and contains  at  least  one
              element  attempt  to  change to the directory arg under each component of cdpath in
              turn until successful.  If `.' occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is  searched  strictly
              in order so that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The order of testing cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD is set, as described
              in the documentation for the option.

              If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a parameter named  arg
              exists  whose value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory.  In that
              case, the parameter is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name  of
              the current directory, and tries to change to this new directory.

              The  third  form  of  cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to
              that directory.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by  counting
              from  the  left  of  the  list  shown  by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An
              argument of the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set,
              the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
              the array chpwd_functions are not called.  This is useful for calls to cd  that  do
              not change the environment seen by an interactive user.

              If  the  -s  option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the
              given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P option is  given  or  the  CHASE_LINKS
              option  is set, symbolic links are resolved to their true values.  If the -L option
              is given symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not resolved) regardless
              of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The  simple  command argument is taken as an external command instead of a function
              or builtin and is executed. If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also
              be  executed  but  certain  special  properties of them are suppressed. The -p flag
              causes a default path to be searched instead of that in $path. With  the  -v  flag,
              command is similar to whence and with -V, it is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume  the  next  iteration  of  the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat
              loop. If an arithmetic expression n is specified, break out of n-1 loops and resume
              at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With  no  arguments,  print  the  contents of the directory stack.  Directories are
              added to this stack with the pushd  command,  and  removed  with  the  cd  or  popd
              commands.   If  arguments  are  specified,  load  them  onto  the  directory stack,
              replacing anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~  expressions  (see
                     Dynamic and Static named directories in zshexpn(1)).

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Temporarily  disable  the named hash table elements or patterns.  The default is to
              disable builtin commands.  This allows you to use an external command with the same
              name  as  a  builtin  command.   The  -a option causes disable to act on regular or
              global aliases.  The -s option causes disable to act on  suffix  aliases.   The  -f
              option  causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options causes disable to
              act on reserved words.  Without arguments all disabled hash table elements from the
              corresponding  hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken as
              patterns  (which  should  be  quoted  to  prevent  them  from  undergoing  filename
              expansion),  and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching
              these patterns are disabled.  Disabled objects  can  be  enabled  with  the  enable
              command.

              With  the  option  -p,  name ... refer to elements of the shell's pattern syntax as
              described in the section `Filename Generation'.  Certain elements can  be  disabled
              separately, as given below.

              Note   that   patterns  not  allowed  by  the  current  settings  for  the  options
              EXTENDED_GLOB, KSH_GLOB and SH_GLOB are never enabled, regardless  of  the  setting
              here.   For  example,  if EXTENDED_GLOB is not active, the pattern ^ is ineffective
              even if `disable -p "^"' has not been issued.  The list below indicates any  option
              settings  that  restrict  the  use of the pattern.  It should be noted that setting
              SH_GLOB has a wider effect than merely disabling patterns as  certain  expressions,
              in particular those involving parentheses, are parsed differently.

              The following patterns may be disabled; all the strings need quoting on the command
              line to prevent them  from  being  interpreted  immediately  as  patterns  and  the
              patterns are shown below in single quotes as a reminder.

              '?'    The  pattern  character  ?  wherever  it  occurs, including when preceding a
                     parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '*'    The pattern character * wherever it occurs, including recursive globbing and
                     when preceding a parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '['    Character classes.

              '<' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Numeric ranges.

              '|' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Alternation  in grouped patterns, case statements, or KSH_GLOB parenthesised
                     expressions.

              '(' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Grouping using single parentheses.  Disabling this does not disable the  use
                     of  parentheses  for  KSH_GLOB  where  they  are  introduced  by  a  special
                     character, nor  for  glob  qualifiers  (use  `setopt  NO_BARE_GLOB_QUAL'  to
                     disable glob qualifiers that use parentheses only).

              '~' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A~B.

              '^' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A^B.

              '#' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     The  pattern  character  #  wherever  it  occurs,  both  for repetition of a
                     previous pattern and for indicating globbing flags.

              '?(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form ?(...).  Note this is also disabled if '?' is disabled.

              '*(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form *(...).  Note this is also disabled if '*' is disabled.

              '+(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form +(...).

              '!(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form !(...).

              '@(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form @(...).

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their
              status,  and  will  not  complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them
              running or stopped.  If no job is specified, disown the current job.

              If the jobs are currently stopped and  the  AUTO_CONTINUE  option  is  not  set,  a
              warning is printed containing information about how to make them running after they
              have been disowned.  If one of  the  latter  two  forms  is  used,  the  jobs  will
              automatically  be  made  running,  independent  of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one.  If the -n
              flag  is  not  present,  print a newline at the end.  echo recognizes the following
              escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress subsequent characters and final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences.
              In the latter case, -e flag can be used to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -lLR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With  single  argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as much as
              possible.  csh will never be fully emulated.  If the argument is  not  one  of  the
              shells  listed  above,  zsh  will  be  used as a default; more precisely, the tests
              performed on the argument are the same as those used to determine the emulation  at
              startup  based  on  the  shell  name, see the section COMPATIBILITY in zsh(1) .  In
              addition to setting shell options, the command also restores the pristine state  of
              pattern enables, as if all patterns had been enabled using enable -p.

              If  the emulate command occurs inside a function that has been marked for execution
              tracing with functions -t then the xtrace option will be turned  on  regardless  of
              emulation  mode  or  other options.  Note that code executed inside the function by
              the ., source, or eval commands is not considered to be running directly  from  the
              function, hence does not provoke this behaviour.

              If  the  -R  switch is given, all settable options are reset to their default value
              corresponding  to  the  specified  emulation  mode,  except  for  certain   options
              describing  the  interactive  environment;  otherwise, only those options likely to
              cause portability problems in scripts and functions are altered.  If the -L  switch
              is  given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS, LOCAL_PATTERNS and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as
              well, causing the effects of the emulate command and  any  setopt,  disable  -p  or
              enable  -p,  and  trap  commands  to  be local to the immediately surrounding shell
              function, if any; normally these options are turned  off  in  all  emulation  modes
              except ksh. The -L switch is mutually exclusive with the use of -c in flags.

              If there is a single argument and the -l switch is given, the options that would be
              set or unset (the latter indicated with the prefix `no') are  listed.   -l  can  be
              combined  with -L or -R and the list will be modified in the appropriate way.  Note
              the list does not depend on the current setting of options, i.e.  it  includes  all
              options that may in principle change, not just those that would actually change.

              The  flags  may  be  any  of  the  invocation-time  flags  described in the section
              INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o VI' may not  be  used.   Flags
              such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may be prohibited in some circumstances.

              If  -c  arg  appears  in  flags,  arg is evaluated while the requested emulation is
              temporarily in effect.  In this  case  the  emulation  mode  and  all  options  are
              restored  to  their  previous  values  before  emulate  returns.  The -R switch may
              precede the name of the shell to emulate; note this has  a  meaning  distinct  from
              including -R in flags.

              Use  of  -c  enables  `sticky'  emulation  mode  for  functions  defined within the
              evaluated expression:   the  emulation  mode  is  associated  thereafter  with  the
              function so that whenever the function is executed the emulation (respecting the -R
              switch, if present) and all options are set (and pattern disables  cleared)  before
              entry  to  the  function, and the state is restored after exit.  If the function is
              called when the sticky emulation is already in effect, either  within  an  `emulate
              shell  -c'  expression  or  within another function with the same sticky emulation,
              entry and exit from the function do not cause options to be altered (except due  to
              standard  processing  such  as  the  LOCAL_OPTIONS  option).   This also applies to
              functions marked for autoload within the sticky emulation; the appropriate  set  of
              options  will  be applied at the point the function is loaded as well as when it is
              run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The two functions fni and fno are defined with sticky sh emulation.   fno  is  then
              executed,  causing  options associated with emulations to be set to their values in
              sh.  fno then calls fni; because fni is also marked for  sticky  sh  emulation,  no
              option  changes  take  place  on  entry  to  or  exit  from  it.   Hence the option
              cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will be turned on within fni and remain on
              return  to  fno.   On  exit  from  fno,  the emulation mode and all options will be
              restored to the state they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above  is  typically  sufficient  for  the  intended  purpose  of
              executing  code designed for other shells in a suitable environment.  More detailed
              rules follow.
              1.     The sticky emulation environment provided by `emulate shell -c' is identical
                     to  that  provided  by  entry to a function marked for sticky emulation as a
                     consequence of being defined in such an environment.   Hence,  for  example,
                     the  sticky  emulation is inherited by subfunctions defined within functions
                     with sticky emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from functions that are
                     not  marked  for sticky emulation, other than those that would normally take
                     place, even if those functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No special handling is provided for functions marked for  autoload  nor  for
                     functions present in wordcode created by the zcompile command.
              4.     The presence or absence of the -R switch to emulate corresponds to different
                     sticky emulation modes, so for example `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R  sh  -c'
                     and `emulate csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition to the basic emulation also
                     mean the sticky emulations are different, so for example  `emulate  zsh  -c'
                     and `emulate zsh -o cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named  hash  table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable.
              The default is to enable builtin commands.  The -a option causes enable to  act  on
              regular  or  global aliases.  The -s option causes enable to act on suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option causes enable
              to  act  on reserved words.  Without arguments all enabled hash table elements from
              the corresponding hash table are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken
              as  patterns  (should be quoted) and all hash table elements from the corresponding
              hash table matching these patterns are enabled.  Enabled objects  can  be  disabled
              with the disable builtin command.

              enable  -p  reenables  patterns  disabled  with  disable -p.  Note that it does not
              override globbing options; for example, `enable -p "~"' does not cause the  pattern
              character  ~  to  be active unless the EXTENDED_GLOB option is also set.  To enable
              all possible patterns (so that they may be individually disabled with disable  -p),
              use `setopt EXTENDED_GLOB KSH_GLOB NO_SH_GLOB'.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read  the  arguments  as input to the shell and execute the resulting command(s) in
              the current shell process.  The return status is the same as if  the  commands  had
              been  executed  directly  by  the  shell;  if  there are no args or they contain no
              commands (i.e. are an empty string or whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] [ command [ arg ... ] ]
              Replace the current shell with command rather than forking.  If command is a  shell
              builtin command or a shell function, the shell executes it, then immediately exits.

              With  -c  clear  the  environment;  with  -l prepend - to the argv[0] string of the
              command executed (to simulate a login shell); with -a argv0 set the argv[0]  string
              of the command executed.  See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

              If  the  option  POSIX_BUILTINS  is  set,  command  is never interpreted as a shell
              builtin command or shell function.  This means further precommand modifiers such as
              builtin  and  noglob  are  also not interpreted within the shell.  Hence command is
              always found by searching the command path.

              If command is omitted but any redirections are  specified,  then  the  redirections
              will take effect in the current shell.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit  the  shell  with  the exit status specified by an arithmetic expression n; if
              none is specified, use the exit status from the  last  command  executed.   An  EOF
              condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

              See notes at the end of the section JOBS in zshmisc(1) for some possibly unexpected
              interactions of the exit command with jobs.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified  names  are  marked  for  automatic  export  to  the  environment  of
              subsequently  executed  commands.   Equivalent  to  typeset  -gx.   If  a parameter
              specified does not already exist, it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -LI ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -LI ] [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              The fc command controls the interactive history mechanism.  Note that  reading  and
              writing  of history options is only performed if the shell is interactive.  Usually
              this is detected automatically, but it can be forced  by  setting  the  interactive
              option when starting the shell.

              The  first  two  forms  of this command select a range of events from first to last
              from the history list.  The arguments first and last may be specified as  a  number
              or  as  a  string.   A  negative number is used as an offset to the current history
              event number.  A string specifies the most recent event beginning  with  the  given
              string.   All  substitutions old=new, if any, are then performed on the text of the
              events.

              In addition to the number range,
              -I     restricts to only internal events (not from $HISTFILE)
              -L     restricts to only local events (not from other shells, see SHARE_HISTORY  in
                     zshoptions(1)  --  note  that  $HISTFILE  is  considered  local when read at
                     startup)
              -m     takes the first argument as a  pattern  (should  be  quoted)  and  only  the
                     history events matching this pattern are considered

              If  first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent event), or to -16
              if the -l flag is given.  If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or  to
              -1 if the -l flag is given.  However, if the current event has added entries to the
              history with `print -s' or `fc -R', then the default last for -l includes  all  new
              history entries since the current event began.

              When  the  -l  flag  is  given, the resulting events are listed on standard output.
              Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked on a file  containing  these  history
              events.   If ename is not given, the value of the parameter FCEDIT is used; if that
              is not set the value of the parameter EDITOR is used; if that is not set a  builtin
              default,  usually  `vi'  is  used.   If  ename  is `-', no editor is invoked.  When
              editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the events  and  the  flag  -n  suppresses  event
              numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each event
              -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm' format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European `dd.mm.yyyy hh:mm' format
              -i     prints full time-date stamps in ISO8601 `yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints  time  and date stamps in the given format; fmt is formatted with the
                     strftime function with the  zsh  extensions  described  for  the  %D{string}
                     prompt  format  in  the section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).
                     The resulting formatted string must be no more than 256 characters  or  will
                     not be printed
              -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined with one of the options above

              `fc  -p' pushes the current history list onto a stack and switches to a new history
              list.  If the -a option is also specified, this history list will be  automatically
              popped  when  the current function scope is exited, which is a much better solution
              than creating a trap function to call  `fc  -P'  manually.   If  no  arguments  are
              specified,  the  history  list  is  left empty, $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE &
              $SAVEHIST are set to their default values.  If one argument is given, $HISTFILE  is
              set  to  that  filename,  $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the history
              file is read in (if it exists) to initialize the new list.  If a second argument is
              specified,  $HISTSIZE  &  $SAVEHIST are instead set to the single specified numeric
              value.  Finally, if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to  a  separate
              value  from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment values for the new
              history list however you desire in order to manipulate the new history list.

              `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc -p'.  The  current
              list  is saved to its $HISTFILE before it is destroyed (assuming that $HISTFILE and
              $SAVEHIST are set appropriately, of course).  The values of  $HISTFILE,  $HISTSIZE,
              and  $SAVEHIST  are  restored to the values they had when `fc -p' was called.  Note
              that this restoration can conflict with making these  variables  "local",  so  your
              best  bet  is to avoid local declarations for these variables in functions that use
              `fc -p'.  The one other guaranteed-safe combination is declaring these variables to
              be  local  at the top of your function and using the automatic option (-a) with `fc
              -p'.  Finally, note that it is legal to manually pop a push  marked  for  automatic
              popping if you need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc  -R'  reads  the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes the history out to
              the given file, and `fc -A' appends the history out  to  the  given  file.   If  no
              filename  is specified, the $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is added to -R,
              only those events that are not already contained within the internal  history  list
              are  added.   If the -I option is added to -A or -W, only those events that are new
              since last incremental append/write to the history file are  appended/written.   In
              any case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job is specified, resume
              the current job.

       float [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZ [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E, except that options irrelevant to floating point  numbers
              are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UkmtTuWz ] [ -x num ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M [-s] mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn ...
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -f,  with the exception of the -x, -M and -W options.  For
              functions -u and functions -U, see autoload, which provides additional options.

              The -x option indicates that any functions output will have each  leading  tab  for
              indentation,  added by the shell to show syntactic structure, expanded to the given
              number num of spaces.  num can also be 0 to suppress all indentation.

              The -W option turns on  the  option  WARN_NESTED_VAR  for  the  named  function  or
              functions  only.   The option is turned off at the start of nested functions (apart
              from anonoymous functions) unless the called function also has the -W attribute.

              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options handled by typeset
              -f.

              functions  -M  mathfn  defines  mathfn  as  the  name  of  a  mathematical function
              recognised in all forms of arithmetical expressions; see  the  section  `Arithmetic
              Evaluation'   in   zshmisc(1).    By   default   mathfn  may  take  any  number  of
              comma-separated arguments.  If min is given, it must have exactly min args; if  min
              and max are both given, it must have at least min and at most max args.  max may be
              -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By default the function is implemented by a shell function of  the  same  name;  if
              shellfn  is  specified  it gives the name of the corresponding shell function while
              mathfn remains the name used in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function
              in  $0  is  mathfn  (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the option
              FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters  in  the  shell  function
              correspond  to  the arguments of the mathematical function call.  The result of the
              last arithmetical expression evaluated inside the shell function (even if it  is  a
              form  that  normally  only  returns  a status) gives the result of the mathematical
              function.

              If the additional option -s is given to functions -M, the argument to the  function
              is  a  single string: anything between the opening and matching closing parenthesis
              is passed to the function as a single argument, even if it includes commas or white
              space.   The  minimum and maximum argument specifiers must therefore be 1 if given.
              An empty argument list is passed as a zero-length string.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined functions  in  the  same
              form  as  a definition.  With the additional option -m and a list of arguments, all
              functions whose mathfn matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the additional  option
              -m the arguments are treated as patterns and all functions whose mathfn matches the
              pattern are removed.  Note that the shell function implementing  the  behaviour  is
              not removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

              The  following  string  function  takes a single argument, including the commas, so
              prints 11:

                     stringfn() { (( $#1 )) }
                     functions -Ms stringfn
                     print $(( stringfn(foo,bar,rod) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the  shell  parameter  name.
              Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks  the  args  for  legal options.  If the args are omitted, use the positional
              parameters.  A valid option argument begins with a `+' or a `-'.  An  argument  not
              beginning with a `+' or a `-', or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a
              single `-' is not considered a  valid  option  argument.   optstring  contains  the
              letters  that  getopts  recognizes.   If a letter is followed by a `:', that option
              requires an argument.  The options can be separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places the option letter it  finds  in  the  shell
              parameter  name, prepended with a `+' when arg begins with a `+'.  The index of the
              next arg is stored in OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning  to  OPTIND.
              OPTIND  has  an  initial value of 1, and is normally set to 1 upon entry to a shell
              function and restored upon exit (this is disabled by  the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option).
              OPTARG is not reset and retains its value from the most recent call to getopts.  If
              either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and the index  or
              option  argument  is not stored.  The option itself is still stored in name in this
              case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option
              in  OPTARG, and to set name to `?' for an unknown option and to `:' when a required
              argument is missing.  Otherwise, getopts sets name  to  `?'  and  prints  an  error
              message  when  an  option is invalid.  The exit status is nonzero when there are no
              more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command hash table, and the
              named  directory  hash  table.  Normally one would modify these tables by modifying
              one's PATH (for the command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters
              (for  the  named  directory  hash  table).   The choice of hash table to work on is
              determined by the -d option; without the option the command hash table is used, and
              with the option the named directory hash table is used.

              Given  no arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the selected hash table will
              be listed in full.

              The -r  option  causes  the  selected  hash  table  to  be  emptied.   It  will  be
              subsequently rebuilt in the normal fashion.  The -f option causes the selected hash
              table to be fully rebuilt immediately.  For the command hash table this hashes  all
              the  absolute  directories in the PATH, and for the named directory hash table this
              adds all users' home directories.  These  two  options  cannot  be  used  with  any
              arguments.

              The -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be quoted)
              and the elements of the hash table matching those patterns are  printed.   This  is
              the only way to display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For  each  name  with a corresponding value, put `name' in the selected hash table,
              associating it with the pathname `value'.  In the command hash  table,  this  means
              that  whenever  `name' is used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute
              the file given by `value'.  In the named directory  hash  table,  this  means  that
              `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For  each  name with no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table,
              checking what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for  that  hash  table.
              If an appropriate value can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The  -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit
              specification.  If has no effect if used with -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the form  of  a
              call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghlprtux ] [ {+|-}LRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -i,  except  that  options  irrelevant to integers are not
              permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists information about each given job, or all jobs if job is omitted.  The -l flag
              lists  process  IDs,  and  the  -p  flag  lists  process groups.  If the -r flag is
              specified only running jobs will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped
              jobs  are  shown.   If  the  -d flag is given, the directory from which the job was
              started (which may not be the current directory of the job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces the shell's argument and environment space  with  the  given
              string, truncated if necessary to fit.  This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1))
              listings.  This feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends either SIGTERM or the specified  signal  to  the  given  jobs  or  processes.
              Signals  are given by number or by names, with or without the `SIG' prefix.  If the
              signal being sent is not `KILL' or `CONT', then the  job  will  be  sent  a  `CONT'
              signal  if  it  is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a job not in
              the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig  is  not  specified  the  signal
              names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the corresponding signal
              number is listed.  For each sig that is a signal number or  a  number  representing
              the  exit  status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal the name
              of the signal is printed.

              On some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few  signals.   Typical
              examples  are  SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and SIGIO, assuming they correspond to
              the same signal number.  kill -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l
              alt will show if the alternative form corresponds to a signal number.  For example,
              under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output 29, hence  kill  -IO  and  kill
              -POLL have the same effect.

              Many  systems will allow process IDs to be negative to kill a process group or zero
              to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg  as  an  arithmetic  expression.   See  the  section  `Arithmetic
              Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for a description of arithmetic expressions.  The exit
              status is 0 if the value of the last expression is nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and  2
              if an error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set  or  display  resource  limits.  Unless the -s flag is given, the limit applies
              only the children of the shell.  If  -s  is  given  without  other  arguments,  the
              resource  limits  of the current shell is set to the previously set resource limits
              of the children.

              If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed  on  resource,  otherwise
              set  the  limit  to  the specified value.  If the -h flag is given, use hard limits
              instead of soft limits.  If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over multiple resources,  the  shell  will  abort  immediately  if  it
              detects  a  badly  formed  argument.   However, if it fails to set a limit for some
              other reason it will continue trying to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              kqueues
                     Maximum number of kqueues allocated.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              posixlocks
                     Maximum number of POSIX locks per user.
              pseudoterminals
                     Maximum number of pseudo-terminals.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              swapsize
                     Maximum amount of swap used.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the system.   resource  can
              be  abbreviated  to  any  unambiguous  prefix.   It  can  also be an integer, which
              corresponds to the integer defined for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of  the  range  of  the  resources
              configured  into  the  shell, the shell will try to read or write the limit anyway,
              and will report an error if this fails.  As the shell does not store such resources
              internally, an attempt to set the limit will fail unless the -s option is present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              ng     gigabytes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The  limit command is not made available by default when the shell starts in a mode
              emulating another shell.  It can be made available with the  command  `zmodload  -F
              zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AHUahlprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Same  as  typeset,  except  that the options -g, and -f are not permitted.  In this
              case the -x option does not force the use of -g, i.e. exported  variables  will  be
              local to functions.

       log    List  all  users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the
              watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers' in zshmisc(1).

       popd [ -q ] [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove an entry from the  directory  stack,  and  perform  a  cd  to  the  new  top
              directory.  With no argument, the current top entry is removed.  An argument of the
              form `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list  shown  by
              the  dirs  command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n counts from the
              right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings  of  `+'  and  `-'  in  this
              context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
              the array $chpwd_functions are not called, and  the  new  directory  stack  is  not
              printed.   This is useful for calls to popd that do not change the environment seen
              by an interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
             [ -v name ] [ -xX tabstop ] [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With the `-f' option the arguments are printed as described  by  printf.   With  no
              flags  or  with  the  flag `-', the arguments are printed on the standard output as
              described by echo, with the following differences: the escape sequence  `\M-x'  (or
              `\Mx')  metafies the character x (sets the highest bit), `\C-x' (or `\Cx') produces
              a control character (`\C-@' and `\C-?' give the  characters  NULL  and  delete),  a
              character  code in octal is represented by `\NNN' (instead of `\0NNN'), and `\E' is
              a synonym for `\e'.  Finally, if  not  in  an  escape  sequence,  `\'  escapes  the
              following character and is not printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only useful with the -c
                     and -C options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see  the
                     section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

              -c     Print  the  arguments  in  columns.   Unless -a is also given, arguments are
                     printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also given, arguments are
                     printed with the row incrementing first.

              -D     Treat   the   arguments  as  paths,  replacing  directory  prefixes  with  ~
                     expressions corresponding to directory names, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces.

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it  from
                     the  argument list together with subsequent arguments that do not match this
                     pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform prompt expansion (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in  zshmisc(1)).
                     In  combination  with  `-f',  prompt escape sequences are parsed only within
                     interpolated arguments, not within the format string.

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate the BSD echo command, which does not process escape sequences unless
                     the  -e  flag  is given.  The -n flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only
                     the -e and -n flags are recognized after -R; all other arguments and options
                     are printed.

              -s     Place  the  results  in  the history list instead of on the standard output.
                     Each argument to the print command is  treated  as  a  single  word  in  the
                     history, regardless of its content.

              -S     Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output.  In
                     this case only a single argument is allowed; it will be split into words  as
                     if  it were a full shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
                     line from a history file with the HIST_LEX_WORDS option active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -v name
                     Store the printed arguments as the value of the parameter name.

              -x tab-stop
                     Expand leading tabs on each line of output in the printed string assuming  a
                     tab stop every tab-stop characters.  This is appropriate for formatting code
                     that may be indented with tabs.  Note that leading tabs of any  argument  to
                     print,  not  just  the first, are expanded, even if print is using spaces to
                     separate arguments (the column count is maintained across arguments but  may
                     be incorrect on output owing to previous unexpanded tabs).

                     The  start of the output of each print command is assumed to be aligned with
                     a tab stop.  Widths of  multibyte  characters  are  handled  if  the  option
                     MULTIBYTE  is in effect.  This option is ignored if other formatting options
                     are in effect, namely column alignment or printf style, or if output is to a
                     special location such as shell history or the command line editor.

              -X tab-stop
                     This  is  similar  to  -x,  except  that  all tabs in the printed string are
                     expanded.  This is appropriate if tabs in the arguments are  being  used  to
                     produce a table format.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces.

              If  any  of  `-m',  `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f' and there are no
              arguments (after the removal process in the case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf [ -v name ] format [ arg ... ]
              Print the arguments according to the format specification. Formatting rules are the
              same  as  used  in  C.  The same escape sequences as for echo are recognised in the
              format. All C  conversion  specifications  ending  in  one  of  csdiouxXeEfgGn  are
              handled.  In  addition  to  this,  `%b' can be used instead of `%s' to cause escape
              sequences in the argument to be recognised and  `%q'  can  be  used  to  quote  the
              argument in such a way that allows it to be reused as shell input. With the numeric
              format specifiers, if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the
              numeric  value of the following character is used as the number to print; otherwise
              the argument is evaluated as an arithmetic expression. See the section  `Arithmetic
              Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions. With `%n',
              the corresponding argument is taken as an identifier which is created as an integer
              parameter.

              Normally,  conversion specifications are applied to each argument in order but they
              can explicitly specify the nth argument is to be used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and
              `*'  by  `*n$'.   It is recommended that you do not mix references of this explicit
              style with the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may be subject to
              future change.

              If  arguments remain unused after formatting, the format string is reused until all
              arguments have been consumed. With the print builtin, this  can  be  suppressed  by
              using  the  -r  option. If more arguments are required by the format than have been
              specified, the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had been specified as the
              argument.

              The  -v  option  causes the output to be stored as the value of the parameter name,
              instead of printed. If name is an array  and  the  format  string  is  reused  when
              consuming  arguments then one array element will be used for each use of the format
              string.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory onto the directory
              stack.   In  the  first  form,  change the current directory to arg.  If arg is not
              specified, change to the second directory on the stack (that is, exchange  the  top
              two  entries), or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is
              only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is interpreted as it would be  by  cd.
              The meaning of old and new in the second form is also the same as for cd.

              The  third  form  of  pushd  changes  directory by rotating the directory list.  An
              argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the
              list  shown  by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form `-n'
              counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of  `+'  and
              `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in
              the array $chpwd_functions are not called, and  the  new  directory  stack  is  not
              printed.  This is useful for calls to pushd that do not change the environment seen
              by an interactive user.

              If the option -q is not specified and the shell option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the
              directory stack will be printed after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the absolute pathname of the current working directory.  If the -r or the -P
              flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the -L flag is  not  given,
              the printed path will not contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
            [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read  one line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators,
              except as noted below.  The first field is assigned to the first name,  the  second
              field to the second name, etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If
              name is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a line does not signify line continuation  and
                     backslashes  in  the  line  don't  quote the following character and are not
                     removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the terminal.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal  and  set  name  to  `y'  if  this
                     character  was  `y'  or  `Y'  and  to `n' otherwise.  With this flag set the
                     return status is zero only if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may
                     be used with a timeout (see -t); if the read times out, or encounters end of
                     file, status 2 is returned.  Input is read from the terminal unless  one  of
                     -u or -p is present.  This option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read  only  one  (or  num)  characters.  All are assigned to the first name,
                     without word splitting.  This flag is ignored when -q is present.  Input  is
                     read  from  the terminal unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may
                     also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that despite the mnemonic `key' this option does read full  characters,
                     which may consist of multiple bytes if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name,
                     without word splitting.  Text is pushed onto the stack with  `print  -z'  or
                     with  push-line  from the line editor (see zshzle(1)).  This flag is ignored
                     when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output.  If the  -e  flag
                     is used, no input is assigned to the parameters.

              -A     The  first  name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned
                     to it.

              -c
              -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion
                     (specified with the -K flag to compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words
                     of the current command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line  is
                     assigned  as  a  scalar.   If  both  flags are present, -l is used and -c is
                     ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on is read.  With -l,
                     the  index of the character the cursor is on is read.  Note that the command
                     name is word number 1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of the line plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input is terminated by the first character of delim instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If num is present, it
                     must begin with a digit and will be evaluated to give a number  of  seconds,
                     which  may  be  a  floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input is not available within this time.  If num is not present, it is taken
                     to  be  zero, so that read returns immediately if no input is available.  If
                     no input is available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor  buffer  with  -z,
                     when  called  from within completion with -c or -l, with -q which clears the
                     input queue before reading, or within zle where other mechanisms  should  be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note  that  read  does  not attempt to alter the input processing mode.  The
                     default mode is canonical input, in which an entire line is read at a  time,
                     so  usually  `read  -t' will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal with -k input  is  processed
                     one key at a time; in this case, only availability of the first character is
                     tested, so that e.g. `read -t -k 2' can still block on the second character.
                     Use two instances of `read -t -k' if this is not what is wanted.

              If  the  first  argument  contains  a  `?', the remainder of this word is used as a
              prompt on standard error when the shell is interactive.

              The value (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is encountered, or when -c
              or  -l  is  present  and  the  command is not called from a compctl function, or as
              described for -q.  Otherwise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z flags is  undefined.
              Presently -q cancels all the others, -p cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z
              cancels both -p and -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.  With the POSIX_BUILTINS option set, same as typeset -gr.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the  invoking  script  with  the
              return  status specified by an arithmetic expression n. If n is omitted, the return
              status is that of the last command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the effect  is  different
              for zero and non-zero return status.  With zero status (or after an implicit return
              at the end of the trap), the shell  will  return  to  whatever  it  was  previously
              processing;  with  a  non-zero  status, the shell will behave as interrupted except
              that the return status of the trap is retained.  Note that the numeric value of the
              signal  which  caused  the  trap  is passed as the first argument, so the statement
              `return $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if  the  signal  had  not  been
              trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ]
           [ arg ... ]
              Set  the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters, or declare and
              set an array.  If the -s option is given, it causes the specified arguments  to  be
              sorted  before assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if
              -A is used).  With +s sort arguments in descending order.  For the meaning  of  the
              other  flags,  see  zshoptions(1).   Flags  may  be  specified by name using the -o
              option. If no option name is supplied  with  -o,  the  current  option  states  are
              printed:   see  the description of setopt below for more information on the format.
              With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input to the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing the given args;  if
              no name is specified, all arrays are printed together with their values.

              If  +A  is  used and name is an array, the given arguments will replace the initial
              elements of that array; if no name is specified, all  arrays  are  printed  without
              their values.

              The  behaviour  of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on whether the option
              KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If it is not set, all arguments following name are  treated  as
              values  for  the  array,  regardless  of  their form.  If the option is set, normal
              option processing continues at that point; only regular arguments  are  treated  as
              values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets  array  to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the array to foo and
              turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there are  arguments  beyond  the  options,  the
              positional  parameters are set.  If the option list (if any) is terminated by `--',
              and there are no further arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values of all  parameters
              are  printed on the standard output.  If the only argument is `+', the names of all
              parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set -  args'  as  `set
              +xv -- args' when in any other emulation mode than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ -m ] [ name ... ]
              Set  the options for the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by name
              are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently set  are  printed.
              The  form  is chosen so as to minimize the differences from the default options for
              the current emulation (the default emulation being native  zsh,  shown  as  <Z>  in
              zshoptions(1)).   Options  that  are on by default for the emulation are shown with
              the prefix no only if they are off, while  other  options  are  shown  without  the
              prefix no and only if they are on.  In addition to options changed from the default
              state by the user, any options activated automatically by the shell  (for  example,
              SHIN_STDIN  or  INTERACTIVE)  will  be  shown  in  the list.  The format is further
              modified by the option KSH_OPTION_PRINT, however the rationale for choosing options
              with or without the no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted
              to protect them from filename expansion), and all options with names matching these
              patterns are set.

              Note that a bad option name does not cause execution of subsequent shell code to be
              aborted; this is behaviour is different from that of `set -o'.  This is because set
              is regarded as a special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ -p ] [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The  positional  parameters  ${n+1}  ...  are  renamed  to  $1  ...,  where n is an
              arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If any names are given then  the  arrays
              with these names are shifted instead of the positional parameters.

              If  the  option  -p  is  given  arguments are instead removed (popped) from the end
              rather than the start of the array.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as `.', except that the current directory is always  searched  and  is  always
              searched first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it receives a SIGCONT.
              Unless the -f option is given, this will refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the  system  version  of  test.   Added  for  compatibility;  use  conditional
              expressions   instead  (see  the  section  `Conditional  Expressions').   The  main
              differences between the conditional expression syntax and the test and  [  builtins
              are:   these  commands  are  not  handled  syntactically,  so  for example an empty
              variable expansion may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax errors cause  status
              2  to be returned instead of a shell error; and arithmetic operators expect integer
              arguments rather than arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts  to  implement  POSIX  and  its  extensions  where  these  are
              specified.   Unfortunately  there  are  intrinsic  ambiguities  in  the  syntax; in
              particular there is no distinction between test operators and strings that resemble
              them.  The standard attempts to resolve these for small numbers of arguments (up to
              four); for five or more arguments compatibility cannot be  relied  on.   Users  are
              urged  wherever  possible  to  use  the  `[[' test syntax which does not have these
              ambiguities.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell  and  for  processes  run
              from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect it from immediate evaluation
              by the shell) to be read and executed when the shell receives any  of  the  signals
              specified  by  one  or more sig args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the
              name of a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,  HUP,  and
              SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If  arg  is  `-', then the specified signals are reset to their defaults, or, if no
              sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If arg is an empty string, then the specified signals are ignored by the shell (and
              by the commands it invokes).

              If  arg  is omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.  the first argument
              is a valid signal number or name), the effect is  the  same  as  if  arg  had  been
              specified as `-'.

              The  trap  command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated with each
              signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command  with  a  nonzero  exit
              status.   ERR  is  an alias for ZERR on systems that have no SIGERR signal (this is
              the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will  be  executed  before  each  command  if  the  option
              DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD  is  set  (as it is by default), else after each command.  Here, a
              `command' is what is described as a `sublist' in the shell grammar, see the section
              SIMPLE  COMMANDS  &  PIPELINES  in  zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set various
              additional features are available.  First, it is possible to skip the next  command
              by  setting  the  option  ERR_EXIT;  see  the description of the ERR_EXIT option in
              zshoptions(1).  Also, the shell  parameter  ZSH_DEBUG_CMD  is  set  to  the  string
              corresponding  to  the  command  to be executed following the trap.  Note that this
              string is reconstructed from the internal format and may not be formatted the  same
              way as the original text.  The parameter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If  sig  is  0  or  EXIT  and  the  trap statement is executed inside the body of a
              function, then the command arg is executed after the function completes.  The value
              of  $?  at  the  start  of  execution is the exit status of the shell or the return
              status of the function exiting.  If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is  not
              executed  inside  the body of a function, then the command arg is executed when the
              shell terminates; the trap runs before any zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.   ZERR  and  DEBUG
              traps are kept within subshells, while other traps are reset.

              Note  that  traps  defined  with the trap builtin are slightly different from those
              defined as `TRAPNAL () { ... }', as the latter have their own function  environment
              (line  numbers,  local variables, etc.) while the former use the environment of the
              command in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will print the line number of a command executed after it has run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed as described under  kill  above.   Defining  a
              trap  under  either  name  causes any trap under an alternative name to be removed.
              However, it is recommended that for consistency users stick exclusively to one name
              or another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl [ -fu ]
              The  -f  option  freezes  the  tty  (i.e.  terminal  or  terminal emulator), and -u
              unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no changes  made  to  the  tty  settings  by
              external  programs  will be honored by the shell, except for changes in the size of
              the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to their  previous  values  as
              soon  as  each command exits or is suspended.  Thus, stty and similar programs have
              no effect when the tty is frozen.  Freezing the tty  does  not  cause  the  current
              state  to  be  remembered:  instead,  it  causes  future changes to the state to be
              blocked.

              Without options it reports whether the terminal is frozen or not.

              Note that, regardless of whether the tty is frozen  or  not,  the  shell  needs  to
              change  the  settings  when  the line editor starts, so unfreezing the tty does not
              guarantee settings made on the command line are preserved.  Strings of commands run
              between  editing  the  command  line will see a consistent tty state.  See also the
              shell variable STTY for a means of initialising the  tty  before  running  external
              commands.

       type [ -wfpamsS ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AHUaghlmprtux ] [ {+|-}EFLRZi [ n ] ]
               [ + ] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Uglprux ] [ {+|-}LRZ [ n ] ]
               [ + | SCALAR[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
       typeset -f [ {+|-}TUkmtuz ] [ + ] [ name ... ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              Except  as  noted  below for control flags that change the behavior, a parameter is
              created for each name that does not already refer to one.  When inside a  function,
              a  new  parameter is created for every name (even those that already exist), and is
              unset again when the function completes.  See `Local  Parameters'  in  zshparam(1).
              The  same  rules  apply  to  special  shell  parameters, which retain their special
              attributes when made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter name is set to value.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remaining name that  refers
              to a parameter that is already set, the name and value of the parameter are printed
              in the form of an assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters,  or
              when  any  attribute  flags  listed below are given along with the name.  Using `+'
              instead of minus to introduce an attribute turns it off.

              If no name is present, the names and values of all parameters are printed.  In this
              case  the  attribute  flags restrict the display to only those parameters that have
              the specified attributes, and using `+' rather  than  `-'  to  introduce  the  flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no parameter name.

              All forms of the command handle scalar assignment.  Array assignment is possible if
              any of the reserved words declare,  export,  float,  integer,  local,  readonly  or
              typeset is matched when the line is parsed (N.B. not when it is executed).  In this
              case the arguments are parsed as assignments, except that the `+=' syntax  and  the
              GLOB_ASSIGN  option  are  not  supported,  and  scalar values after = are not split
              further into words, even if expanded (regardless of the setting of the  KSH_TYPESET
              option; this option is obsolete).

              Examples of the differences between command and reserved word parsing:

                     # Reserved word parsing
                     typeset svar=$(echo one word) avar=(several words)

              The  above  creates  a  scalar parameter svar and an array parameter avar as if the
              assignments had been

                     svar="one word"
                     avar=(several words)

              On the other hand:

                     # Normal builtin interface
                     builtin typeset svar=$(echo two words)

              The builtin keyword causes the above to  use  the  standard  builtin  interface  to
              typeset  in  which  argument  parsing  is  performed  in  the same way as for other
              commands.  This example creates a scalar svar containing the value two and  another
              scalar  parameter  words  with  no value.  An array value in this case would either
              cause an error or be treated as an obscure set of glob qualifiers.

              Arbitrary arguments are allowed if they take the form of assignments after  command
              line expansion; however, these only perform scalar assignment:

                     var='svar=val'
                     typeset $var

              The  above sets the scalar parameter svar to the value val.  Parentheses around the
              value within var would not cause array  assignment  as  they  will  be  treated  as
              ordinary  characters  when  $var  is substituted.  Any non-trivial expansion in the
              name part of the assignment causes the argument to be treated in this fashion:

                     typeset {var1,var2,var3}=name

              The above syntax is valid, and  has  the  expected  effect  of  setting  the  three
              parameters  to  the  same  value,  but the command line is parsed as a set of three
              normal command line arguments to typeset after expansion.  Hence it is not possible
              to assign to multiple arrays by this means.

              Note  that  each  interface  to any of the commands my be disabled separately.  For
              example, `disable -r typeset' disables the  reserved  word  interface  to  typeset,
              exposing the builtin interface, while `disable typeset' disables the builtin.  Note
              that disabling the reserved word interface for typeset may cause problems with  the
              output  of  `typeset -p', which assumes the reserved word interface is available in
              order to restore array and associative array values.

              Unlike parameter assignment statements, typeset's exit status on an assignment that
              involves  a  command  substitution  does not reflect the exit status of the command
              substitution.  Therefore, to test for an error in a command substitution,  separate
              the declaration of the parameter from its initialization:

                     # WRONG
                     typeset var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

                     # RIGHT
                     typeset var1 && var1=$(exit 1) || echo "Trouble with var1"

              To  initialize  a  parameter  param  to  a command output and mark it readonly, use
              typeset -r param or readonly param after the parameter assignment statement.

              If no attribute flags are given, and either no name arguments are  present  or  the
              flag  +m  is  used,  then  each parameter name printed is preceded by a list of the
              attributes  of  that  parameter  (array,  association,  exported,  float,  integer,
              readonly,  or  undefined  for autoloaded parameters not yet loaded).  If +m is used
              with attribute flags, and all those flags  are  introduced  with  +,  the  matching
              parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              The following control flags change the behavior of typeset:

              +      If  `+'  appears  by  itself in a separate word as the last option, then the
                     names of all parameters (functions with -f)  are  printed,  but  the  values
                     (function bodies) are not.  No name arguments may appear, and it is an error
                     for any other options to follow `+'.   The  effect  of  `+'  is  as  if  all
                     attribute flags which precede it were given with a `+' prefix.  For example,
                     `typeset -U +' is equivalent to `typeset +U' and displays the names  of  all
                     arrays  having  the uniqueness attribute, whereas `typeset -f -U +' displays
                     the names of all autoloadable functions.  If + is the only option, then type
                     information  (array,  readonly, etc.) is also printed for each parameter, in
                     the same manner as `typeset +m "*"'.

              -g     The -g (global) means that any resulting parameter will not be restricted to
                     local  scope.   Note  that this does not necessarily mean that the parameter
                     will be global, as the flag will apply to any existing  parameter  (even  if
                     unset)  from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect the parameter
                     after creation, hence it has no effect when listing existing parameters, nor
                     does the flag +g have any effect except in combination with -m (see below).

              -m     If  the  -m  flag  is  given  the  name arguments are taken as patterns (use
                     quoting to prevent these from being interpreted as file patterns).  With  no
                     attribute  flags,  all  parameters  (or  functions  with  the  -f flag) with
                     matching names are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not  used  in
                     this case).

                     If  the  +g  flag  is combined with -m, a new local parameter is created for
                     every matching parameter that is not already local.   Otherwise  -m  applies
                     all other flags or assignments to the existing parameters.

                     Except  when  assignments  are  made  with  name=value,  using +m forces the
                     matching parameters and their  attributes  to  be  printed,  even  inside  a
                     function.  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns are given, so `typeset -m'
                     displays attributes but `typeset -a +m' does not.

              -p     If the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed in the form  of
                     a typeset command with an assignment, regardless of other flags and options.
                     Note that the -H flag on parameters is respected; no value will be shown for
                     these parameters.

              -T [ scalar[=value] array[=(value ...)] [ sep ] ]
                     This  flag  has a different meaning when used with -f; see below.  Otherwise
                     the -T option requires zero, two, or three arguments to be present.  With no
                     arguments,  the  list  of parameters created in this fashion is shown.  With
                     two or three arguments, the first two are the name of a  scalar  and  of  an
                     array  parameter (in that order) that will be tied together in the manner of
                     $PATH  and  $path.   The  optional  third  argument  is  a  single-character
                     separator  which  will be used to join the elements of the array to form the
                     scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as with $PATH.  Only the first character
                     of  the  separator  is  significant;  any  remaining characters are ignored.
                     Multibyte characters are not yet supported.

                     Only one of the scalar and array parameters may be assigned an initial value
                     (the restrictions on assignment forms described above also apply).

                     Both  the  scalar  and  the  array  may be manipulated as normal.  If one is
                     unset, the other will automatically be  unset  too.   There  is  no  way  of
                     untying  the variables without unsetting them, nor of converting the type of
                     one of them with another typeset command; +T does  not  work,  assigning  an
                     array to scalar is an error, and assigning a scalar to array sets it to be a
                     single-element array.

                     Note that both `typeset -xT ...'  and `export -T ...'  work,  but  only  the
                     scalar  will  be  marked  for  export.   Setting  the value using the scalar
                     version causes a split on all separators (which cannot be  quoted).   It  is
                     possible  to  apply -T to two previously tied variables but with a different
                     separator character, in which case the variables remain joined as before but
                     the separator is changed.

              Attribute  flags  that  transform  the  final  value  (-L, -R, -Z, -l, -u) are only
              applied to the expanded value at the point  of  a  parameter  expansion  expression
              using  `$'.   They  are not applied when a parameter is retrieved internally by the
              shell for any purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The names refer to associative array parameters; see `Array  Parameters'  in
                     zshparam(1).

              -L [ n ]
                     Left  justify and remove leading blanks from the value when the parameter is
                     expanded.  If n is nonzero, it defines the width of  the  field.   If  n  is
                     zero,  the  width  is  determined  by  the  width  of the value of the first
                     assignment.  In the case of numeric parameters, the length of  the  complete
                     value  assigned  to  the  parameter  is used to determine the width, not the
                     value that would be output.

                     The width is the count of characters, which may be multibyte  characters  if
                     the  MULTIBYTE  option  is  in  effect.   Note  that the screen width of the
                     character is not taken into account; if this is required, use  padding  with
                     parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as described in `Parameter Expansion
                     Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the  right  with  blanks  or
                     truncated  if  necessary  to  fit  the  field.   Note truncation can lead to
                     unexpected results with numeric parameters.  Leading zeros  are  removed  if
                     the -Z flag is also set.

              -R [ n ]
                     Similar  to  -L, except that right justification is used; when the parameter
                     is expanded, the field is left filled with blanks or truncated from the end.
                     May not be combined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For  arrays (but not for associative arrays), keep only the first occurrence
                     of each duplicated value.  This may also be set for colon-separated  special
                     parameters  like  PATH  or  FIGNORE,  etc.   Note  the  flag takes effect on
                     assignment, and the type of the variable being assigned to is determinative;
                     for variables with shared values it is therefore recommended to set the flag
                     for all interfaces, e.g. `typeset -U PATH path'.

                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see below.

              -Z [ n ]
                     Specially handled if set along with the -L flag.  Otherwise, similar to  -R,
                     except  that  leading  zeros  are  used for padding instead of blanks if the
                     first non-blank character is a  digit.   Numeric  parameters  are  specially
                     handled:  they  are  always eligible for padding with zeroes, and the zeroes
                     are inserted at an appropriate place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter may be created this
                     way, but it may be assigned to in the typeset statement only if the reserved
                     word form of typeset is enabled (as it is  by  default).   When  displaying,
                     both normal and associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No assignments can be
                     made, and the only other valid flags are -t, -T, -k, -u,  -U  and  -z.   The
                     flag  -t  turns on execution tracing for this function; the flag -T does the
                     same, but turns off tracing for any named (not  anonymous)  function  called
                     from  the present one, unless that function also has the -t or -T flag.  The
                     -u and -U flags cause the function to be marked  for  autoloading;  -U  also
                     causes  alias  expansion  to be suppressed when the function is loaded.  See
                     the description of the `autoload' builtin for details.

                     Note that the builtin functions provides  the  same  basic  capabilities  as
                     typeset  -f  but gives access to a few extra options; autoload gives further
                     additional options for the case typeset -fu and typeset -fU.

              -h     Hide: only useful for special parameters (those marked `<S>' in the table in
                     zshparam(1)),  and  for  local  parameters  with  the same name as a special
                     parameter, though harmless  for  others.   A  special  parameter  with  this
                     attribute  will  not  retain its special effect when made local.  Thus after
                     `typeset -h PATH', a function  containing  `typeset  PATH'  will  create  an
                     ordinary   local   parameter   without   the   usual   behaviour   of  PATH.
                     Alternatively, the local parameter may itself be given this attribute; hence
                     inside  a function `typeset -h PATH' creates an ordinary local parameter and
                     the special PATH parameter is not altered in any way.  It is  also  possible
                     to create a local parameter using `typeset +h special', where the local copy
                     of special will retain its special properties regardless of  having  the  -h
                     attribute.   Global  special parameters loaded from shell modules (currently
                     those in zsh/mapfile and  zsh/parameter)  are  automatically  given  the  -h
                     attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide  value:  specifies  that  typeset  will  not  display  the value of the
                     parameter when listing parameters; the display for such parameters is always
                     as  if  the  `+'  flag  had  been  given.   Use of the parameter is in other
                     respects normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is specified
                     by  name,  or  by pattern with the -m option.  This is on by default for the
                     parameters in the zsh/parameter and  zsh/mapfile  modules.   Note,  however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for non-special parameters.

              -i [ n ]
                     Use  an  internal  integer  representation.   If n is nonzero it defines the
                     output arithmetic base, otherwise it is determined by the first  assignment.
                     Bases from 2 to 36 inclusive are allowed.

              -E [ n ]
                     Use  an  internal double-precision floating point representation.  On output
                     the variable will be converted to scientific notation.  If n is  nonzero  it
                     defines the number of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F [ n ]
                     Use  an  internal double-precision floating point representation.  On output
                     the variable will be converted to fixed-point decimal  notation.   If  n  is
                     nonzero  it defines the number of digits to display after the decimal point;
                     the default is ten.

              -l     Convert the result to lower case whenever the parameter  is  expanded.   The
                     value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The  given  names  are  marked  readonly.   Note  that  if name is a special
                     parameter, the readonly attribute can be  turned  on,  but  cannot  then  be
                     turned off.

                     If  the  POSIX_BUILTINS  option  is  set,  the  readonly  attribute  is more
                     restrictive: unset variables can be marked readonly and cannot then be  set;
                     furthermore,  the  readonly  attribute  cannot be removed from any variable.
                     Note that in zsh (unlike other shells) it is  still  possible  to  create  a
                     local  variable  of the same name as this is considered a different variable
                     (though this variable, too, can be marked readonly).

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning to the shell.  This
                     flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert  the  result  to upper case whenever the parameter is expanded.  The
                     value is not converted when assigned.  This flag  has  a  different  meaning
                     when used with -f; see above.

              -x     Mark  for  automatic  export  to  the  environment  of subsequently executed
                     commands.  If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT is set, this implies the  option  -g,
                     unless +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter is not made
                     local to the enclosing function.  This is for  compatibility  with  previous
                     versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ -HSa ] [ { -bcdfiklmnpqrsTtvwx | -N resource } [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes started by the shell.
              The value of limit can be a number in the unit specified below or one of the values
              `unlimited',  which  removes  the  limit on the resource, or `hard', which uses the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H  flag  is  given  use  hard
              limits  instead  of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together with the -H flag
              set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources are printed.  When
              more  than one resource value is printed, the limit name and unit is printed before
              each value.

              When looping over multiple resources,  the  shell  will  abort  immediately  if  it
              detects  a  badly  formed  argument.   However, if it fails to set a limit for some
              other reason it will continue trying to set the remaining limits.

              Not all the following resources are supported on all systems.   Running  ulimit  -a
              will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -k     The number of kqueues allocated.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -p     The number of pseudo-terminals.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -r     Maximum  real  time  priority.  On some systems where this is not available,
                     such as NetBSD, this has the same effect as -T for compatibility with sh.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -T     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems this refers to the
                     limit called `address space'.
              -w     Kilobytes on the size of swapped out memory.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A  resource  may  also  be  specified  by  integer in the form `-N resource', where
              resource corresponds to the integer defined  for  the  resource  by  the  operating
              system.   This may be used to set the limits for resources known to the shell which
              do not correspond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by  number  in  the
              output of `ulimit -a'.

              The number may alternatively be out of the range of limits compiled into the shell.
              The shell will try to read or write the limit anyway, and will report an  error  if
              this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The  umask  is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or a symbolic value
              as described in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted, the current value is  printed.   The
              -S  option  causes the mask to be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask
              is printed as an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permissions  you
              specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied) to the users specified.

       unalias [ -ams ] name ...
              Removes  aliases.   This  command  works  the same as unhash -a, except that the -a
              option removes all regular or global aliases, or with -s  all  suffix  aliases:  in
              this  case no name arguments may appear.  The options -m (remove by pattern) and -s
              without -a (remove listed suffix aliases) behave as for unhash -a.  Note  that  the
              meaning of -a is different between unalias and unhash.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove  the  element named name from an internal hash table.  The default is remove
              elements from the command hash table.   The  -a  option  causes  unhash  to  remove
              regular  or  global  aliases; note when removing a global aliases that the argument
              must be quoted to prevent it  from  being  expanded  before  being  passed  to  the
              command.   The  -s  option  causes  unhash to remove suffix aliases.  The -f option
              causes unhash to remove shell functions.  The -d options causes  unhash  to  remove
              named  directories.   If  the  -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all elements of the corresponding hash table  with  matching
              names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The  resource  limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.  If the -h flag is
              given and the shell has appropriate privileges, the hard resource  limit  for  each
              resource is removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if the -s
              flag is given.

              The unlimit command is not made available by default when the  shell  starts  in  a
              mode  emulating another shell.  It can be made available with the command `zmodload
              -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local parameters remain local even if  unset;  they
              appear  unset  within  scope,  but  the previous value will still reappear when the
              scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset by using subscript
              syntax on name, which should be quoted (or the entire command prefixed with noglob)
              to protect the subscript from filename generation.

              If the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns (should be  quoted)
              and  all  parameters  with matching names are unset.  Note that this cannot be used
              when unsetting associative array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part
              of the pattern.

              The  -v  flag  specifies  that  name  refers  to  parameters.  This  is the default
              behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options specified either  with  flags  or  by
              name  are  unset.  If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
              unset are printed.  If the -m flag is given the arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
              (which  should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted as glob patterns),
              and all options with names matching these patterns are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given then  all  currently
              active  child processes are waited for.  Each job can be either a job specification
              or the process ID of a job in the job table.  The exit status from this command  is
              that of the job waited for.

              It  is  possible to wait for recent processes (specified by process ID, not by job)
              that were running in the background even if the process has exited.  Typically  the
              process  ID  will be recorded by capturing the value of the variable $! immediately
              after the process has been started.  There is a limit on the number of process  IDs
              remembered  by  the  shell;  this is given by the value of the system configuration
              parameter CHILD_MAX.  When this limit is reached, older process IDs are  discarded,
              least recently started processes first.

              Note  there  is  no protection against the process ID wrapping, i.e. if the wait is
              not executed soon enough there is a chance the process waited for is the wrong one.
              A  conflict  implies  both  process  IDs have been generated by the shell, as other
              processes are not recorded, and that the user is potentially interested in both, so
              this problem is intrinsic to process IDs.

       whence [ -vcwfpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name.

              whence  is most useful when name is only the last path component of a command, i.e.
              does not include a `/'; in particular, pattern matching only succeeds if  just  the
              non-directory component of the command is passed.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes precedence over -v.

              -w     For  each  name,  print  `name:  word'  where word is one of alias, builtin,
                     command, function, hashed, reserved or none, according as  name  corresponds
                     to  an  alias,  a built-in command, an external command, a shell function, a
                     command  defined  with  the  hash  builtin,  a  reserved  word,  or  is  not
                     recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and -c.

              -f     Causes  the  contents  of  a  shell  function  to  be displayed, which would
                     otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were used.

              -p     Do a path search for name even if it  is  an  alias,  reserved  word,  shell
                     function or builtin.

              -a     Do  a  search  for  all  occurrences  of  name  throughout the command path.
                     Normally only the first occurrence is printed.

              -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (pattern characters should  be  quoted),
                     and  the  information  is  displayed  for each command matching one of these
                     patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free pathname as well.

              -S     As -s, but if  the  pathname  had  to  be  resolved  by  following  multiple
                     symlinks,  the intermediate steps are printed, too.  The symlink resolved at
                     each step might be anywhere in the path.

              -x num Expand tabs when outputting shell functions using the -c option.   This  has
                     the same effect as the -x option to the functions builtin.

       where [ -wpmsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpamsS ] [ -x num ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This  builtin  command  can  be  used  to compile functions or scripts, storing the
              compiled form in a file, and to examine files containing the compiled  form.   This
              allows  faster autoloading of functions and sourcing of scripts by avoiding parsing
              of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a compiled file.  If only
              the  file  argument  is  given, the output file has the name `file.zwc' and will be
              placed in the same directory as the file.  The shell will load  the  compiled  file
              instead  of  the  normal  function  file  when  the function is autoloaded; see the
              section `Autoloading Functions' in zshmisc(1) for a description of  how  autoloaded
              functions are searched.  The extension .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If  there  is at least one name argument, all the named files are compiled into the
              output file given as the first argument.  If  file  does  not  end  in  .zwc,  this
              extension  is automatically appended.  Files containing multiple compiled functions
              are called `digest' files,  and  are  intended  to  be  used  as  elements  of  the
              FPATH/fpath special array.

              The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled definitions for all
              the named functions into file.  For -c,  the  names  must  be  functions  currently
              defined  in  the shell, not those marked for autoloading.  Undefined functions that
              are marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in which case the
              fpath  is searched and the contents of the definition files for those functions, if
              found, are compiled into file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both  defined
              functions  and  functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In either case, the
              functions in files written with the -c or -a option will be autoloaded  as  if  the
              KSH_AUTOLOAD option were unset.

              The  reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with different options
              is that some definition files for autoloading define multiple functions,  including
              the  function  with the same name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.
              In such cases the output of `zcompile -c' does not include the additional functions
              defined  in the file, and any other initialization code in the file is lost.  Using
              `zcompile -a' captures all this extra information.

              If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used as patterns and  all
              functions  whose  names  match one of these patterns will be written. If no name is
              given, the definitions of all functions currently defined or marked  as  autoloaded
              will be written.

              Note  the  second  form  cannot  be  used  for  compiling  functions  that  include
              redirections as part of the definition rather than within the body of the function;
              for example

                     fn1() { { ... } >~/logfile }

              can be compiled but

                     fn1() { ... } >~/logfile

              cannot.   It  is possible to use the first form of zcompile to compile autoloadable
              functions that include the full function definition instead of just the body of the
              function.

              The  third  form,  with the -t option, examines an existing compiled file.  Without
              further arguments, the names of the original files compiled  into  it  are  listed.
              The first line of output shows the version of the shell which compiled the file and
              how the file will be used (i.e. by reading  it  directly  or  by  mapping  it  into
              memory).  With arguments, nothing is output and the return status is set to zero if
              definitions for all names were found in the compiled  file,  and  non-zero  if  the
              definition for at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When  the  compiled  file  is read, its contents are copied into the shell's
                     memory, rather than memory-mapped (see -M).  This happens  automatically  on
                     systems that do not support memory mapping.

                     When  compiling  scripts  instead  of  autoloadable  functions,  it is often
                     desirable to use this option; otherwise the whole file, including  the  code
                     to  define  functions  which  have already been defined, will remain mapped,
                     consequently wasting memory.

              -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when read. This is  done
                     in  such a way that multiple instances of the shell running on the same host
                     will share this mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is  given,  the  zcompile
                     builtin decides what to do based on the size of the compiled file.

              -k
              -z     These  options  are used when the compiled file contains functions which are
                     to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the function will be autoloaded as if  the
                     KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  is not set, even if it is set at the time the compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will be  loaded  as  if
                     KSH_AUTOLOAD  is  set.  These options also take precedence over any -k or -z
                     options specified to the autoload builtin. If neither of  these  options  is
                     given,  the  function  will  be  loaded  as determined by the setting of the
                     KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the compiled file is read.

                     These options may also appear as many times as necessary between the  listed
                     names  to  specify  the  loading style of all following functions, up to the
                     next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the  compiled  format,  one
                     for  big-endian  machines  and one for small-endian machines.  The upshot of
                     this is that the compiled file is machine independent and if it is  read  or
                     mapped, only one half of the file is actually used (and mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ -s ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -alLme -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs  operations  relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading of modules while
              the shell is running (`dynamical  loading')  is  not  available  on  all  operating
              systems,  or  on  all  installations on a particular operating system, although the
              zmodload command itself is always available and can be used to  manipulate  modules
              built into versions of the shell executable without dynamical loading.

              Without  arguments  the  names  of all currently loaded binary modules are printed.
              The -L option causes this list to be in the form of a series of zmodload  commands.
              Forms with arguments are:

              zmodload [ -is ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In the simplest case, zmodload loads a binary module.  The module must be in
                     a file with a name consisting of the specified name followed by  a  standard
                     suffix,  usually  `.so'  (`.sl'  on  HPUX).   If  the module to be loaded is
                     already loaded the duplicate module is  ignored.   If  zmodload  detects  an
                     inconsistency,  such  as an invalid module name or circular dependency list,
                     the current code block is aborted.  If it is available, the module is loaded
                     if  necessary,  while  if  it  is not available, non-zero status is silently
                     returned.  The option -i is accepted for compatibility but has no effect.

                     The named module is searched for  in  the  same  way  a  command  is,  using
                     $module_path  instead  of $path.  However, the path search is performed even
                     when the module name contains a `/', which it usually does.  There is no way
                     to prevent the path search.

                     If  the  module  supports features (see below), zmodload tries to enable all
                     features when loading a module.  If the module was successfully  loaded  but
                     not all features could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     If  the  option  -s  is  given,  no  error  is printed if the module was not
                     available (though other errors indicating a  problem  with  the  module  are
                     printed).   The  return  status indicates if the module was loaded.  This is
                     appropriate if the caller considers the module optional.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must  be  given  that  was
                     given  when the module was loaded, but it is not necessary for the module to
                     exist in the file system.  The -i option suppresses the error if the  module
                     is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each  module  has  a  boot  and  a cleanup function.  The module will not be
                     loaded if its boot function fails.  Similarly a module can only be  unloaded
                     if its cleanup function runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [ [+-]feature ... ]
                     zmodload  -F  allows  more  selective  control over the features provided by
                     modules.  With no options apart from -F, the module named module is  loaded,
                     if  it  was  not  already  loaded,  and  the  list of features is set to the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module is loaded,  if  it
                     was  not  already  loaded,  but  the  state  of features is unchanged.  Each
                     feature may be preceded by a + to turn the feature on, or - to turn it  off;
                     the  +  is  assumed  if  neither  character  is  present.   Any  feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if  the  module  was  not
                     previously  loaded  this  means any such features will remain disabled.  The
                     return status is zero if all features were set, 1 if the  module  failed  to
                     load,  and  2  if  some  features could not be set (for example, a parameter
                     couldn't be added because there was a different parameter of the same  name)
                     but the module was loaded.

                     The   standard  features  are  builtins,  conditions,  parameters  and  math
                     functions; these are indicated by the prefix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for  an  infix
                     condition),  `p:'  and  `f:',  respectively,  followed  by the name that the
                     corresponding feature would have in the shell.   For  example,  `b:strftime'
                     indicates  a builtin named strftime and p:EPOCHSECONDS indicates a parameter
                     named EPOCHSECONDS.  The module may provide other (`abstract')  features  of
                     its own as indicated by its documentation; these have no prefix.

                     With -l or -L, features provided by the module are listed.  With -l alone, a
                     list of features together with their states is shown, one feature per  line.
                     With  -L  alone,  a zmodload -F command that would cause enabled features of
                     the module to be turned on is shown.  With -lL, a zmodload -F  command  that
                     would  cause all the features to be set to their current state is shown.  If
                     one of these combinations is  given  with  the  option  -P  param  then  the
                     parameter  param  is  set  to an array of features, either features together
                     with their state or (if -L alone is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may  be  omitted;  then  a  list  of  all
                     enabled  features  for all modules providing features is printed in the form
                     of zmodload -F commands.  If -l is also given, the state of both enabled and
                     disabled features is output in that form.

                     A  set of features may be provided together with -l or -L and a module name;
                     in that case only the state of those features is considered.   Each  feature
                     may  be  preceded  by  + or - but the character has no effect.  If no set of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With -e, the command first tests that the module is loaded; if  it  is  not,
                     status  1  is returned.  If the module is loaded, the list of features given
                     as an argument is examined.  Any feature given  with  no  prefix  is  simply
                     tested  to  see if the module provides it; any feature given with a prefix +
                     or - is tested to see if is provided and in the given state.  If  the  tests
                     on all features in the list succeed, status 0 is returned, else status 1.

                     With  -m,  each entry in the given list of features is taken as a pattern to
                     be matched against the list of features provided by the module.  An  initial
                     +  or  -  must  be  given  explicitly.  This may not be combined with the -a
                     option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With -a, the given  list  of  features  is  marked  for  autoload  from  the
                     specified  module,  which  may  not yet be loaded.  An optional + may appear
                     before the feature name.  If the feature is prefixed with  -,  any  existing
                     autoload  is  removed.  The options -l and -L may be used to list autoloads.
                     Autoloading is specific to individual features; when the  module  is  loaded
                     only  the  requested feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if
                     the module is subsequently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload  -Fa  module
                     -feature'  is  issued.   It  is  not  an  error to request an autoload for a
                     feature of a module that is already loaded.

                     When the module is loaded each autoload  is  checked  against  the  features
                     actually provided by the module; if the feature is not provided the autoload
                     request is deleted.  A warning message is output; if  the  module  is  being
                     loaded  to  provide  a  different  feature, and that autoload is successful,
                     there is no effect on the status of the current command.  If the  module  is
                     already  loaded  at  the  time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload -Fa can be used with the -l, -L, -e and -P options for listing  and
                     testing  the existence of autoloadable features.  In this case -l is ignored
                     if -L is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no module name lists  autoloads  for
                     all modules.

                     Note that only standard features as described above can be autoloaded; other
                     features require the module to be loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.  The modules named
                     in  the  second  and  subsequent  arguments will be loaded before the module
                     named in the first argument.

                     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that module are listed.  With
                     -d and no arguments, all module dependencies are listed.  This listing is by
                     default in a Makefile-like format.  The -L option changes this format  to  a
                     list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If  -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If only one argument
                     is given, all dependencies for that module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option  defines  autoloaded  builtins.   It  defines  the  specified
                     builtins.  When any of those builtins is called, the module specified in the
                     first argument is loaded and all its features  are  enabled  (for  selective
                     control  of  features use `zmodload -F -a' as described above).  If only the
                     name is given, one builtin is defined, with the same name as the module.  -i
                     suppresses  the  error  if the builtin is already defined or autoloaded, but
                     not if another builtin of the same name is already defined.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded  builtins  are  listed,  with  the
                     module name (if different) shown in parentheses after the builtin name.  The
                     -L option changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the -u option, it  removes  builtins  previously
                     defined  with  -ab.  This is only possible if the builtin is not yet loaded.
                     -i suppresses the  error  if  the  builtin  is  already  removed  (or  never
                     existed).

                     Autoload  requests are retained if the module is subsequently unloaded until
                     an explicit `zmodload -ub builtin' is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The -ac option is used  to  define  autoloaded  condition  codes.  The  cond
                     strings give the names of the conditions defined by the module. The optional
                     -I option is used to define  infix  condition  names.  Without  this  option
                     prefix condition names are defined.

                     If  given  no  condition names, all defined names are listed (as a series of
                     zmodload commands if the -L option is given).

                     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded conditions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c options,  but  makes  zmodload  work  on
                     autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The -f option is like the -b, -p, and -c options, but makes zmodload work on
                     autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules; if the  -A  option
                     is  also  given,  module  aliases  corresponding  to loaded modules are also
                     shown.  If arguments are provided, nothing is printed; the return status  is
                     set  to  zero  if all strings given as arguments are names of loaded modules
                     and to one if at least on string is not the name of a loaded  module.   This
                     can  be  used to test for the availability of things implemented by modules.
                     In this case, any aliases are automatically resolved and the -A flag is  not
                     used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given, define modalias to
                     be an alias  for  the  module  module.   If  the  module  modalias  is  ever
                     subsequently  requested,  either  via  a call to zmodload or implicitly, the
                     shell will attempt to load module instead.  If module is not given, show the
                     definition  of modalias.  If no arguments are given, list all defined module
                     aliases.  When listing, if the -L flag was also given, list  the  definition
                     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The  existence  of  aliases for modules is completely independent of whether
                     the name resolved is actually loaded as a module: while  the  alias  exists,
                     loading and unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same effect
                     as using the resolved name, and does not affect the connection  between  the
                     alias and the resolved name which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by
                     redefining the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first resolved name
                     is  itself  an  alias)  are valid so long as these are not circular.  As the
                     aliases take the  same  format  as  module  names,  they  may  include  path
                     separators:   in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the path
                     named  to  exist  as  the  alias  will  be  resolved  first.   For  example,
                     `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies  added  to  aliased  modules are actually added to the resolved
                     module; these remain if the alias is removed.  It  is  valid  to  create  an
                     alias  whose name is one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to
                     a different module.  However, if a module has dependencies, it will  not  be
                     possible  to  use  the module name as an alias as the module will already be
                     marked as a loadable module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload  command  anywhere
                     module  names  are required.  However, aliases will not be shown in lists of
                     loaded modules with a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as a module alias via
                     zmodload  -A,  delete the alias.  If any was not defined, an error is caused
                     and the remainder of the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were linked into the  shell
              and  modules that are loaded dynamically. In both cases this builtin command has to
              be used to make available the builtins and other things defined by modules  (unless
              the  module is autoloaded on these definitions). This is true even for systems that
              don't support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).