Provided by: libalias-perl_2.32-11build4_amd64 bug


       alias - declare symbolic aliases for perl data

       attr  - auto-declare hash attributes for convenient access

       const - define compile-time scalar constants


           use Alias qw(alias const attr);
           alias TEN => $ten, Ten => \$ten, Ten => \&ten,
                 Ten => \@ten, Ten => \%ten, TeN => \*ten;
              local @Ten;
              my $ten = [1..10];
              alias Ten => $ten;   # local @Ten

           const pi => 3.14, ten => 10;

           package Foo;
           use Alias;
           sub new { bless {foo => 1, _bar => [2, 3]}, $_[0] }
           sub a_method {
              my $s = attr shift;
              # $foo, @_bar are now local aliases for
              # $_[0]{foo}, @{$_[0]{_bar}} etc.

           sub b_method {
             local $Alias::KeyFilter = "_";
             local $Alias::AttrPrefix = "main::";
             my $s = attr shift;
             # local @::_bar is now available, ($foo, $::foo are not)

           sub c_method {
             local $Alias::KeyFilter = sub { $_ = shift; return (/^_/ ? 1 : 0) };
             local $Alias::AttrPrefix = sub {
                                              $_ = shift;
                                              return $_
             my $s = attr shift;
             # local @::bar is now available, ($foo, $::foo are not)


       Provides general mechanisms for aliasing perl data for convenient access.

       This module works by putting some values on the symbol table with user-supplied names.
       Values that are references will get dereferenced into their base types.  This means that a
       value of "[1,2,3]" with a name of "foo" will be made available as @foo, not $foo.

       The exception to this rule is the default behavior of the "attr" function, which will not
       dereference values which are blessed references (aka objects).  See $Alias::Deref for how
       to change this default behavior.

           Given a list of name => value pairs, declares aliases in the "caller"s namespace. If
           the value supplied is a reference, the alias is created for the underlying value
           instead of the reference itself (there is no need to use this module to alias
           references--they are automatically "aliased" on assignment).  This allows the user to
           alias most of the basic types.

           If the value supplied is a scalar compile-time constant, the aliases become read-only.
           Any attempt to write to them will fail with a run time error.

           Aliases can be dynamically scoped by pre-declaring the target variable as "local".
           Using "attr" for this purpose is more convenient, and recommended.

           Given a hash reference, aliases the values of the hash to the names that correspond to
           the keys.  It always returns the supplied value.  The aliases are local to the
           enclosing block. If any of the values are unblessed references, they are available as
           their dereferenced types.  Thus the action is similar to saying:

               alias %{$_[0]}

           but, in addition, also localizes the aliases, and does not dereference objects.
           Dereferencing of objects can be forced by setting the "Deref" option.  See

           This can be used for convenient access to hash values and hash-based object

           Note that this makes available the semantics of "local" subroutines and methods.  That
           makes for some nifty possibilities.  We could make truly private methods by putting
           anonymous subs within an object.  These subs would be available within methods where
           we use "attr", and will not be visible to the outside world as normal methods.  We
           could forbid recursion in methods by always putting an empty sub in the object hash
           with the same key as the method name. This would be useful where a method has to run
           code from other modules, but cannot be certain whether that module will call it back

           The default behavior is to create aliases for all the entries in the hash, in the
           callers namespace.  This can be controlled by setting a few options.  See
           "Configuration Variables" for details.

           This is simply a function alias for "alias", described above.  Provided on demand at
           "use" time, since it reads better for constant declarations.  Note that hashes and
           arrays cannot be so "const"rained.

   Configuration Variables
       The following configuration variables can be used to control the behavior of the "attr"
       function.  They are typically set after the "use Alias;" statement.  Another typical usage
       is to "local"ize them in a block so that their values are only effective within that

           Specifies the key prefix used for determining which hash entries will be interned by
           "attr".  Can be a CODE reference, in which case it will be called with the key, and
           the boolean return value will determine if that hash entry is a candidate attribute.

           Specifies a prefix to prepend to the names of localized attributes created by "attr".
           Can be a CODE reference, in which case it will be called with the key, and the result
           will determine the full name of the attribute.  The value can have embedded package
           delimiters ("::" or "'"), which cause the attributes to be interned in that namespace
           instead of the "caller"s own namespace. For example, setting it to "main::" makes "use
           strict 'vars';" somewhat more palatable (since we can refer to the attributes as
           $::foo, etc., without actually declaring the attributes).

           Controls the implicit dereferencing behavior of "attr".  If it is set to "" or 0,
           "attr" will not dereference blessed references.  If it is a true value (anything but
           "", 0, or a CODE reference), all references will be made available as their
           dereferenced types, including values that may be objects.  The default is "".

           This option can be used as a filter if it is set to a CODE reference, in which case it
           will be called with the key and the value (whenever the value happens to be a
           reference), and the boolean return value will determine if that particular reference
           must be dereferenced.



       Run these code snippets and observe the results to become more familiar with the features
       of this module.

           use Alias qw(alias const attr);
           $ten = 10;
           alias TEN => $ten, Ten => \$ten, Ten => \&ten,
                 Ten => \@ten, Ten => \%ten;
           alias TeN => \*ten;  # same as *TeN = *ten

           # aliasing basic types
           $ten = 20;
           print "$TEN|$Ten|$ten\n";   # should print "20|20|20"
           sub ten { print "10\n"; }
           @ten = (1..10);
           %ten = (a..j);
           &Ten;                       # should print "10"
           print @Ten, "|", %Ten, "\n";

           # this will fail at run time
           const _TEN_ => 10;
           eval { $_TEN_ = 20 };
           print $@ if $@;

           # dynamically scoped aliases
           @DYNAMIC = qw(m n o);
              my $tmp = [ qw(a b c d) ];
              local @DYNAMIC;
              alias DYNAMIC => $tmp, PERM => $tmp;

              $DYNAMIC[2] = 'zzz';
              # prints "abzzzd|abzzzd|abzzzd"
              print @$tmp, "|", @DYNAMIC, "|", @PERM, "\n";

              @DYNAMIC = qw(p q r);
              # prints "pqr|pqr|pqr"
              print @$tmp, "|", @DYNAMIC, "|", @PERM, "\n";

           # prints "mno|pqr"
           print @DYNAMIC, "|", @PERM, "\n";

           # named closures
           my($lex) = 'abcd';
           $closure = sub { print $lex, "\n" };
           alias NAMEDCLOSURE => \&$closure;
           NAMEDCLOSURE();            # prints "abcd"
           $lex = 'pqrs';
           NAMEDCLOSURE();            # prints "pqrs"

           # hash/object attributes
           package Foo;
           use Alias;
           sub new {
               { foo => 1,
                 bar => [2,3],
                 buz => { a => 4},
                 privmeth => sub { "private" },
                 easymeth => sub { die "to recurse or to die, is the question" },
               }, $_[0];

           sub easymeth {
             my $s = attr shift;    # localizes $foo, @bar, %buz etc with values
             eval { $s->easymeth }; # should fail
             print $@ if $@;

             # prints "1|2|3|a|4|private|"
             print join '|', $foo, @bar, %buz, $s->privmeth, "\n";

           $foo = 6;
           @bar = (7,8);
           %buz = (b => 9);
           Foo->new->easymeth;       # this will not recurse endlessly

           # prints "6|7|8|b|9|"
           print join '|', $foo, @bar, %buz, "\n";

           # this should fail at run-time
           eval { Foo->new->privmeth };
           print $@ if $@;


       It is worth repeating that the aliases created by "alias" and "const" will be created in
       the "caller"s namespace (we can use the "AttrPrefix" option to specify a different
       namespace for "attr").  If that namespace happens to be "local"ized, the aliases created
       will be local to that block.  "attr" localizes the aliases for us.

       Remember that references will be available as their dereferenced types.

       Aliases cannot be lexical, since, by neccessity, they live on the symbol table.

       Lexicals can be aliased. Note that this provides a means of reversing the action of
       anonymous type generators "\", "[]" and "{}".  This allows us to anonymously construct
       data or code and give it a symbol-table presence when we choose.

       Any occurrence of "::" or "'" in names will be treated as package qualifiers, and the
       value will be interned in that namespace.

       Remember that aliases are very much like references, only we don't have to dereference
       them as often.  Which means we won't have to pound on the dollars so much.

       We can dynamically make subroutines and named closures with this scheme.

       It is possible to alias packages, but that might be construed as abuse.

       Using this module will dramatically reduce noise characters in object-oriented perl code.


       "use strict 'vars';" is not very usable, since we depend so much on the symbol table.  You
       can declare the attributes with "use vars" to avoid warnings.  Setting $Alias::AttrPrefix
       to "main::" is one way to avoid "use vars" and frustration.

       Tied variables cannot be aliased properly, yet.


       Version 2.32       30 Apr 1999


       Gurusamy Sarathy      

       Copyright (c) 1995-99 Gurusamy Sarathy. All rights reserved.  This program is free
       software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.