Provided by: libbio-coordinate-perl_1.7.1-2_all bug


       Bio::Coordinate::Graph - Finds shortest path between nodes in a graph.


       version 1.007001


         # get a hash of hashes representing the graph. E.g.:
         my $hash= {
                    '1' => {
                            '2' => 1
                    '2' => {
                            '4' => 1,
                            '3' => 1
                    '3' => undef,
                    '4' => {
                            '5' => 1
                    '5' => undef

         # create the object;
         my $graph = Bio::Coordinate::Graph->new(-graph => $hash);

         # find the shortest path between two nodes
         my $a = 1;
         my $b = 6;
         my @path = $graph->shortest_paths($a);
         print join (", ", @path), "\n";


       This class calculates the shortest path between input and output coordinate systems in a
       graph that defines the relationships between them. This class is primarely designed to
       analyze gene-related coordinate systems. See Bio::Coordinate::GeneMapper.

       Note that this module can not be used to manage graphs.

       Technically the graph implemented here is known as Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). DAG is
       composed of vertices (nodes) and edges (with optional weights) linking them. Nodes of the
       graph are the coordinate systems in gene mapper.

       The shortest path is found using the Dijkstra's algorithm. This algorithm is fast and
       greedy and requires all weights to be positive. All weights in the gene coordinate system
       graph are currently equal (1) making the graph unweighted. That makes the use of
       Dijkstra's algorithm an overkill. A simpler and faster breadth-first would be enough.
       Luckily the difference for small graphs is not significant and the implementation is
       capable of taking weights into account if needed at some later time.

   Input format
       The graph needs to be primed using a hash of hashes where there is a key for each node.
       The second keys are the names of the downstream neighboring nodes and values are the
       weights for reaching them. Here is part of the gene coordiante system graph:

           $hash = {
                    '6' => undef,
                    '3' => {
                            '6' => 1
                    '2' => {
                            '6' => 1,
                            '4' => 1,
                            '3' => 1
                    '1' => {
                            '2' => 1
                    '4' => {
                            '5' => 1
                    '5' => undef

       Note that the names need to be positive integers. Root should be '1' and directness of the
       graph is taken advantage of to speed calculations by assuming that downsream nodes always
       have larger number as name.

       An alternative (shorter) way of describing input is to use hash of arrays. See


        Title   : graph
        Usage   : $obj->graph($my_graph)
        Function: Read/write method for the graph structure
        Example :
        Returns : hash of hashes grah structure
        Args    : reference to a hash of hashes

        Title   : hash_of_arrays
        Usage   : $obj->hash_of_array(%hasharray)
        Function: An alternative method to read in the graph structure.
                  Hash arrays are easier to type. This method converts
                  arrays into hashes and assigns equal values "1" to

        Example : Here is an example of simple structure containing a graph.

                  my $DAG = {
                             6  => [],
                             5  => [],
                             4  => [5],
                             3  => [6],
                             2  => [3, 4, 6],
                             1  => [2]

        Returns : hash of hashes graph structure
        Args    : reference to a hash of arrays

        Title   : shortest_path
        Usage   : $obj->shortest_path($a, $b);
        Function: Method for retrieving the shortest path between nodes.
                  If the start node remains the same, the method is sometimes
                  able to use cached results, otherwise it will recalculate
                  the paths.
        Example :
        Returns : array of node names, only the start node name if no path
        Args    : name of the start node
                : name of the end node

        Title   : dijkstra
        Usage   : $graph->dijkstra(1);
        Function: Implements Dijkstra's algorithm.
                  Returns or sets a list of mappers. The returned path
                  description is always directed down from the root.
                  Called from shortest_path().
        Example :
        Returns : Reference to a hash of hashes representing a linked list
                  which contains shortest path down to all nodes from the start
                  node. E.g.:

                   $res = {
                             '2' => {
                                      'prev' => '1',
                                      'dist' => 1
                             '1' => {
                                      'prev' => undef,
                                      'dist' => 0

        Args    : name of the start node


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       your comments and suggestions preferably to the Bioperl mailing list.  Your participation
       is much appreciated.
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       Please direct usage questions or support issues to the mailing list:

       rather than to the module maintainer directly. Many experienced and reponsive experts will
       be able look at the problem and quickly address it. Please include a thorough description
       of the problem with code and data examples if at all possible.

   Reporting bugs
       Report bugs to the Bioperl bug tracking system to help us keep track of the bugs and their
       resolution. Bug reports can be submitted via the web:


       Heikki Lehvaslaiho <>


       This software is copyright (c) by Heikki Lehvaslaiho.

       This software is available under the same terms as the perl 5 programming language system