Provided by: apparmor_2.12-4ubuntu5_amd64 bug

NAME

       apparmor.d - syntax of security profiles for AppArmor.

DESCRIPTION

       AppArmor profiles describe mandatory access rights granted to given programs and are fed
       to the AppArmor policy enforcement module using apparmor_parser(8). This man page
       describes the format of the AppArmor configuration files; see apparmor(7) for an overview
       of AppArmor.

FORMAT

       The following is a BNF-style description of AppArmor policy configuration files; see below
       for an example AppArmor policy file.  AppArmor configuration files are line-oriented; #
       introduces a comment, similar to shell scripting languages. The exception to this rule is
       that #include will include the contents of a file inline to the policy; this behaviour is
       modelled after cpp(1).

           PROFILE FILE = ( [ PREAMBLE ] [ PROFILE ] )*

           PREAMBLE = ( COMMENT | VARIABLE ASSIGNMENT | ALIAS RULE | INCLUDE )*
             Variable assignment and alias rules must come before the profile.

           VARIABLE ASSIGNMENT = VARIABLE ('=' | '+=') (space separated values)

           VARIABLE = '@{' ALPHA [ ( ALPHANUMERIC | '_' ) ... ] '}'

           ALIAS RULE = 'alias' ABS PATH '->' REWRITTEN ABS PATH ','

           INCLUDE = '#include' ( ABS PATH | MAGIC PATH )

           ABS PATH = '"' path '"' (the path is passed to open(2))

           MAGIC PATH = '<' relative path '>'
             The path is relative to /etc/apparmor.d/.

           COMMENT = '#' TEXT [ '\r' ] '\n'

           TEXT = any characters

           PROFILE = ( PROFILE HEAD ) [ ATTACHMENT SPECIFICATION ] [ PROFILE FLAG CONDS ] '{' (
           RULES )* '}'

           PROFILE HEAD = [ 'profile' ] FILEGLOB | 'profile' PROFILE NAME

           PROFILE NAME ( UNQUOTED PROFILE NAME | QUOTED PROFILE NAME )

           QUOTED PROFILE NAME = '"' UNQUOTED PROFILE NAME '"'

           UNQUOTED PROFILE NAME = (must start with alphanumeric character (after variable
           expansion), or '/' AARE have special meanings; see below. May include VARIABLE. Rules
           with embedded spaces or tabs must be quoted.)

           ATTACHMENT SPECIFICATION = FILEGLOB

           PROFILE FLAG CONDS =  [ 'flags=' ] '(' comma or white space separated list of PROFILE
           FLAGS ')'

           PROFILE FLAGS = 'complain' | 'audit' | 'enforce' | 'mediate_deleted' |
           'attach_disconnected' | 'chroot_relative'

           RULES = [ ( LINE RULES | COMMA RULES ',' | BLOCK RULES )

           LINE RULES = ( COMMENT | INCLUDE ) [ '\r' ] '\n'

           COMMA RULES = ( CAPABILITY RULE | NETWORK RULE | MOUNT RULE | PIVOT ROOT RULE | UNIX
           RULE | FILE RULE | LINK RULE | CHANGE_PROFILE RULE | RLIMIT RULE | DBUS RULE )

           BLOCK RULES = ( SUBPROFILE | HAT | QUALIFIER BLOCK )

           SUBPROFILE = 'profile' PROFILE NAME [ ATTACHMENT SPECIFICATION ] [ PROFILE FLAG CONDS
           ] '{' ( RULES )* '}'

           HAT = ('hat' | '^') HATNAME [ PROFILE FLAG CONDS ] '{' ( RULES )* '}'

           HATNAME = (must start with alphanumeric character. See aa_change_hat(2) for a
           description of how this "hat" is used. If '^' is used to start a hat then there is no
           space between the '^' and HATNAME)

           QUALIFIER BLOCK = QUALIFIERS BLOCK

           ACCESS TYPE = ( 'allow' | 'deny' )

           QUALIFIERS = [ 'audit' ] [ ACCESS TYPE ]

           CAPABILITY RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'capability' [ CAPABILITY LIST ]

           CAPABILITY LIST = ( CAPABILITY )+

           CAPABILITY = (lowercase capability name without 'CAP_' prefix; see capabilities(7))

           NETWORK RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'network' [ DOMAIN ] [ TYPE | PROTOCOL ]

           DOMAIN = ( 'inet' | 'ax25' | 'ipx' | 'appletalk' | 'netrom' | 'bridge' | 'atmpvc' |
           'x25' | 'inet6' | 'rose' | 'netbeui' | 'security' | 'key' | 'packet' | 'ash' |
           'econet' | 'atmsvc' | 'sna' | 'irda' | 'pppox' | 'wanpipe' | 'bluetooth' | 'netlink' |
           'unix' | 'rds' | 'llc' | 'can' | 'tipc' | 'iucv' | 'rxrpc' | 'isdn' | 'phonet' |
           'ieee802154' | 'caif' | 'alg' | 'nfc' | 'vsock' | 'mpls' | 'ib' | 'kcm' | 'smc' ) ','

           TYPE = ( 'stream' | 'dgram' | 'seqpacket' |  'rdm' | 'raw' | 'packet' )

           PROTOCOL = ( 'tcp' | 'udp' | 'icmp' )

           MOUNT RULE = ( MOUNT | REMOUNT | UMOUNT )

           MOUNT = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'mount' [ MOUNT CONDITIONS ] [ SOURCE FILEGLOB ] [ '->' [
           MOUNTPOINT FILEGLOB ]

           REMOUNT = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'remount' [ MOUNT CONDITIONS ] MOUNTPOINT FILEGLOB

           UMOUNT = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'umount' [ MOUNT CONDITIONS ] MOUNTPOINT FILEGLOB

           MOUNT CONDITIONS = [ ( 'fstype' | 'vfstype' ) ( '=' | 'in' ) MOUNT FSTYPE EXPRESSION ]
           [ 'options' ( '=' | 'in' ) MOUNT FLAGS EXPRESSION ]

           MOUNT FSTYPE EXPRESSION = ( MOUNT FSTYPE LIST | MOUNT EXPRESSION )

           MOUNT FSTYPE LIST = Comma separated list of valid filesystem and virtual filesystem
           types (eg ext4, debugfs, devfs, etc)

           MOUNT FLAGS EXPRESSION = ( MOUNT FLAGS LIST | MOUNT EXPRESSION )

           MOUNT FLAGS LIST = Comma separated list of MOUNT FLAGS.

           MOUNT FLAGS = ( 'ro' | 'rw' | 'nosuid' | 'suid' | 'nodev' | 'dev' | 'noexec' | 'exec'
           | 'sync' | 'async' | 'remount' | 'mand' | 'nomand' | 'dirsync' | 'noatime' | 'atime' |
           'nodiratime' | 'diratime' | 'bind' | 'rbind' | 'move' | 'verbose' | 'silent' | 'loud'
           | 'acl' | 'noacl' | 'unbindable' | 'runbindable' | 'private' | 'rprivate' | 'slave' |
           'rslave' | 'shared' | 'rshared' | 'relatime' | 'norelatime' | 'iversion' |
           'noiversion' | 'strictatime' | 'nouser' | 'user' )

           MOUNT EXPRESSION = ( ALPHANUMERIC | AARE ) ...

           PIVOT ROOT RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] pivot_root [ oldroot=OLD PUT FILEGLOB ] [ NEW ROOT
           FILEGLOB ] [ '->' PROFILE NAME ]

           SOURCE FILEGLOB = FILEGLOB

           MOUNTPOINT FILEGLOB = FILEGLOB

           OLD PUT FILEGLOB = FILEGLOB

           PTRACE_RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'ptrace' [ PTRACE ACCESS PERMISSIONS ] [ PTRACE PEER ]

           PTRACE ACCESS PERMISSIONS = PTRACE ACCESS | PTRACE ACCESS LIST

           PTRACE ACCESS LIST = '(' Comma or space separated list of PTRACE ACCESS ')'

           PTRACE ACCESS = ( 'r' | 'w' | 'rw' | 'read' | 'readby' | 'trace' | 'tracedby' )

           PTRACE PEER = 'peer' '=' AARE

           SIGNAL_RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'signal' [ SIGNAL ACCESS PERMISSIONS ] [ SIGNAL SET ] [
           SIGNAL PEER ]

           SIGNAL ACCESS PERMISSIONS = SIGNAL ACCESS | SIGNAL ACCESS LIST

           SIGNAL ACCESS LIST = '(' Comma or space separated list of SIGNAL ACCESS ')'

           SIGNAL ACCESS = ( 'r' | 'w' | 'rw' | 'read' | 'write' | 'send' | 'receive' )

           SIGNAL SET = 'set' '=' '(' SIGNAL LIST ')'

           SIGNAL LIST = Comma or space separated list of SIGNALS

           SIGNALS = ( 'hup' | 'int' | 'quit' | 'ill' | 'trap' | 'abrt' | 'bus' | 'fpe' | 'kill'
           | 'usr1' | 'segv' | 'usr2' | 'pipe' | 'alrm' | 'term' | 'stkflt' | 'chld' | 'cont' |
           'stop' | 'stp' | 'ttin' | 'ttou' | 'urg' | 'xcpu' | 'xfsz' | 'vtalrm' | 'prof' |
           'winch' | 'io' | 'pwr' | 'sys' | 'emt' | 'exists' | 'rtmin+0' ... 'rtmin+32' )

           SIGNAL PEER = 'peer' '=' AARE

           DBUS RULE = ( DBUS MESSAGE RULE | DBUS SERVICE RULE | DBUS EAVESDROP RULE | DBUS
           COMBINED RULE )

           DBUS MESSAGE RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'dbus' [ DBUS ACCESS EXPRESSION ] [ DBUS BUS ] [
           DBUS PATH ] [ DBUS INTERFACE ] [ DBUS MEMBER ] [ DBUS PEER ]

           DBUS SERVICE RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'dbus' [ DBUS ACCESS EXPRESSION ] [ DBUS BUS ] [
           DBUS NAME ]

           DBUS EAVESDROP RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'dbus' [ DBUS ACCESS EXPRESSION ] [ DBUS BUS ]

           DBUS COMBINED RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'dbus' [ DBUS ACCESS EXPRESSION ] [ DBUS BUS ]

           DBUS ACCESS EXPRESSION = ( DBUS ACCESS | '(' DBUS ACCESS LIST ')' )

           DBUS BUS = 'bus' '=' '(' 'system' | 'session' | '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')'

           DBUS PATH = 'path' '=' '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')'

           DBUS INTERFACE = 'interface' '=' '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')'

           DBUS MEMBER = 'member' '=' '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')'

           DBUS PEER = 'peer' '=' '(' [ DBUS NAME ] [ DBUS LABEL ] ')'

           DBUS NAME = 'name' '=' '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')'

           DBUS LABEL = 'label' '=' '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')'

           DBUS ACCESS LIST = Comma separated list of DBUS ACCESS

           DBUS ACCESS = ( 'send' | 'receive' | 'bind' | 'eavesdrop' | 'r' | 'read' | 'w' |
           'write' | 'rw' )
             Some accesses are incompatible with some rules; see below.

           AARE = ?*[]{}^
             See below for meanings.

           UNIX RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] 'unix' [ UNIX ACCESS EXPR ] [ UNIX RULE CONDS ] [ UNIX
           LOCAL EXPR ] [ UNIX PEER EXPR ]

           UNIX ACCESS EXPR = ( UNIX ACCESS | UNIX ACCESS LIST )

           UNIX ACCESS = ( 'create' | 'bind' | 'listen' | 'accept' | 'connect' | 'shutdown' |
           'getattr' | 'setattr' | 'getopt' | 'setopt' | 'send' | 'receive' | 'r' | 'w' | 'rw' )
             Some access modes are incompatible with some rules or require additional parameters.

           UNIX ACCESS LIST = '(' UNIX ACCESS ( [','] UNIX ACCESS )* ')'

           UNIX RULE CONDS = ( TYPE COND | PROTO COND )
             Each cond can appear at most once.

           TYPE COND = 'type' '='  ( AARE | '(' ( '"' AARE '"' | AARE )+ ')' )

           PROTO COND = 'protocol' '='  ( AARE | '(' ( '"' AARE '"' | AARE )+ ')' )

           UNIX LOCAL EXPR = ( UNIX ADDRESS COND | UNIX LABEL COND | UNIX ATTR COND | UNIX OPT
           COND )*
             Each cond can appear at most once.

           UNIX PEER EXPR = 'peer' '=' ( UNIX ADDRESS COND | UNIX LABEL COND )+
             Each cond can appear at most once.

           UNIX ADDRESS COND 'addr' '=' ( AARE | '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')' )

           UNIX LABEL COND 'label' '=' ( AARE | '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')' )

           UNIX ATTR COND 'attr' '=' ( AARE | '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')' )

           UNIX OPT COND 'opt' '=' ( AARE | '(' '"' AARE '"' | AARE ')' )

           RLIMIT RULE = 'set' 'rlimit' [RLIMIT '<=' RLIMIT VALUE ]

           RLIMIT = ( 'cpu' | 'fsize' | 'data' | 'stack' | 'core' | 'rss' | 'nofile' | 'ofile' |
           'as' | 'nproc' | 'memlock' | 'locks' | 'sigpending' | 'msgqueue' | 'nice' | 'rtprio' |
           'rttime' )

           RLIMIT VALUE = ( RLIMIT SIZE | RLIMIT NUMBER | RLIMIT TIME | RLIMIT NICE )

           RLIMIT SIZE = NUMBER ( 'K' | 'M' | 'G' )
             Only applies to RLIMIT of 'fsize', 'data', 'stack', 'core', 'rss', 'as', 'memlock',
           'msgqueue'.

           RLIMIT NUMBER = number from 0 to max rlimit value.
             Only applies to RLIMIT of 'ofile', 'nofile', 'locks', 'sigpending', 'nproc',
           'rtprio'.

           RLIMIT TIME = NUMBER ( 'us' | 'microsecond' | 'microseconds' | 'ms' | 'millisecond' |
           'milliseconds' | 's' | 'sec' | 'second' | 'seconds' | 'min' | 'minute' | 'minutes' |
           'h' | 'hour' | 'hours' | 'd' | 'day' | 'days' | 'week' | 'weeks' )
             Only applies to RLIMIT of 'cpu' and 'rttime'. RLIMIT 'cpu' only allows units >=
           'seconds'.

           RLIMIT NICE = a number between -20 and 19.
             Only applies to RLIMIT of 'nice'.

           FILE RULE = [ QUALIFIERS ] [ 'owner' ] ( 'file' | [ 'file' ] ( FILEGLOB ACCESS  |
           ACCESS FILEGLOB ) [ '->' EXEC TARGET ] )

           FILEGLOB = ( QUOTED FILEGLOB | UNQUOTED FILEGLOB )

           QUOTED FILEGLOB = '"' UNQUOTED FILEGLOB '"'

           UNQUOTED FILEGLOB = (must start with '/' (after variable expansion), AARE have special
           meanings; see below. May include VARIABLE. Rules with embedded spaces or tabs must be
           quoted. Rules must end with '/' to apply to directories.)

           ACCESS = ( 'r' | 'w' | 'a' | 'l' | 'k' | 'm' | EXEC TRANSITION )+  (not all
           combinations are allowed; see below.)

           EXEC TRANSITION =  ( 'ix' | 'ux' | 'Ux' | 'px' | 'Px' | 'cx' | 'Cx' | 'pix' | 'Pix' |
           'cix' | 'Cix' | 'pux' | 'PUx' | 'cux' | 'CUx' | 'x' )
             A bare 'x' is only allowed in rules with the deny qualifier, everything else only
           without the deny qualifier.

           EXEC TARGET = name
             Requires EXEC TRANSITION specified.

           LINK RULE = QUALIFIERS [ 'owner' ] 'link' [ 'subset' ] FILEGLOB ( 'to' | '->' )
           FILEGLOB

           ALPHA = ('a', 'b', 'c', ... 'z', 'A', 'B', ... 'Z')

           ALPHANUMERIC = ('0', '1', '2', ... '9', 'a', 'b', 'c', ... 'z', 'A', 'B', ... 'Z')

           CHANGE_PROFILE RULE = 'change_profile' [ [ EXEC MODE ] EXEC COND ] [ '->' PROFILE NAME
           ]

           EXEC_MODE = ( 'safe' | 'unsafe' )

           EXEC COND = FILEGLOB

       All resources and programs need a full path. There may be any number of subprofiles (aka
       child profiles) in a profile, limited only by kernel memory. Subprofile names are limited
       to 974 characters.  Child profiles can be used to confine an application in a special way,
       or when you want the child to be unconfined on the system, but confined when called from
       the parent.  Hats are a special child profile that can be used with the aa_change_hat(2)
       API call.  Applications written or modified to use aa_change_hat(2) can take advantage of
       subprofiles to run under different confinements, dependent on program logic. Several
       aa_change_hat(2)-aware applications exist, including an Apache module, mod_apparmor(5); a
       PAM module, pam_apparmor; and a Tomcat valve, tomcat_apparmor. Applications written or
       modified to use change_profile(2) transition permanently to the specified profile. libvirt
       is one such application.

   Access Modes
       File permission access modes consists of combinations of the following modes:

       r       - read

       w       - write -- conflicts with append

       a       - append -- conflicts with write

       ux      - unconfined execute

       Ux      - unconfined execute -- scrub the environment

       px      - discrete profile execute

       Px      - discrete profile execute -- scrub the environment

       cx      - transition to subprofile on execute

       Cx      - transition to subprofile on execute -- scrub the environment

       ix      - inherit execute

       pix     - discrete profile execute with inherit fallback

       Pix     - discrete profile execute with inherit fallback -- scrub the environment

       cix     - transition to subprofile on execute with inherit fallback

       Cix     - transition to subprofile on execute with inherit fallback -- scrub the
               environment

       pux     - discrete profile execute with fallback to unconfined

       PUx     - discrete profile execute with fallback to unconfined -- scrub the environment

       cux     - transition to subprofile on execute with fallback to unconfined

       CUx     - transition to subprofile on execute with fallback to unconfined -- scrub the
               environment

       deny x  - disallow execute (in rules with the deny qualifier)

       m       - allow PROT_EXEC with mmap(2) calls

       l       - link

       k       - lock

   Access Modes Details
       r - Read mode
           Allows the program to have read access to the file or directory listing. Read access
           is required for shell scripts and other interpreted content.

       w - Write mode
           Allows the program to have write access to the file. Files and directories must have
           this permission if they are to be unlinked (removed.)  Write mode is not required on a
           directory to rename or create files within the directory.

           This mode conflicts with append mode.

       a - Append mode
           Allows the program to have a limited appending only write access to the file.  Append
           mode will prevent an application from opening the file for write unless it passes the
           O_APPEND parameter flag on open.

           The mode conflicts with Write mode.

       ux - Unconfined execute mode
           Allows the program to execute the program without any AppArmor profile being applied
           to the program.

           This mode is useful when a confined program needs to be able to perform a privileged
           operation, such as rebooting the machine. By placing the privileged section in another
           executable and granting unconfined execution rights, it is possible to bypass the
           mandatory constraints imposed on all confined processes. For more information on what
           is constrained, see the apparmor(7) man page.

           WARNING 'ux' should only be used in very special cases. It enables the designated
           child processes to be run without any AppArmor protection.  'ux' does not scrub the
           environment of variables such as LD_PRELOAD; as a result, the calling domain may have
           an undue amount of influence over the callee.  Use this mode only if the child
           absolutely must be run unconfined and LD_PRELOAD must be used. Any profile using this
           mode provides negligible security. Use at your own risk.

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       Ux - unconfined execute -- scrub the environment
           'Ux' allows the named program to run in 'ux' mode, but AppArmor will invoke the Linux
           Kernel's unsafe_exec routines to scrub the environment, similar to setuid programs.
           (See ld.so(8) for some information on setuid/setgid environment scrubbing.)

           WARNING 'Ux' should only be used in very special cases. It enables the designated
           child processes to be run without any AppArmor protection.  Use this mode only if the
           child absolutely must be run unconfined. Use at your own risk.

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       px - Discrete Profile execute mode
           This mode requires that a discrete security profile is defined for a program executed
           and forces an AppArmor domain transition. If there is no profile defined then the
           access will be denied.

           WARNING 'px' does not scrub the environment of variables such as LD_PRELOAD; as a
           result, the calling domain may have an undue amount of influence over the callee.

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       Px - Discrete Profile execute mode -- scrub the environment
           'Px' allows the named program to run in 'px' mode, but AppArmor will invoke the Linux
           Kernel's unsafe_exec routines to scrub the environment, similar to setuid programs.
           (See ld.so(8) for some information on setuid/setgid environment scrubbing.)

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       cx - Transition to Subprofile execute mode
           This mode requires that a local security profile is defined and forces an AppArmor
           domain transition to the named profile. If there is no profile defined then the access
           will be denied.

           WARNING 'cx' does not scrub the environment of variables such as LD_PRELOAD; as a
           result, the calling domain may have an undue amount of influence over the callee.

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       Cx - Transition to Subprofile execute mode -- scrub the environment
           'Cx' allows the named program to run in 'cx' mode, but AppArmor will invoke the Linux
           Kernel's unsafe_exec routines to scrub the environment, similar to setuid programs.
           (See ld.so(8) for some information on setuid/setgid environment scrubbing.)

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       ix - Inherit execute mode
           Prevent the normal AppArmor domain transition on execve(2) when the profiled program
           executes the named program. Instead, the executed resource will inherit the current
           profile.

           This mode is useful when a confined program needs to call another confined program
           without gaining the permissions of the target's profile, or losing the permissions of
           the current profile. There is no version to scrub the environment because 'ix'
           executions don't change privileges.

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       Profile transition with inheritance fallback execute mode
           These modes attempt to perform a domain transition as specified by the matching
           permission (shown below) and if that transition fails to find the matching profile the
           domain transition proceeds using the 'ix' transition mode.

             'Pix' == 'Px' with fallback to 'ix'
             'pix' == 'px' with fallback to 'ix'
             'Cix' == 'Cx' with fallback to 'ix'
             'cix' == 'cx' with fallback to 'ix'

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       Profile transition with unconfined fallback execute mode
           These modes attempt to perform a domain transition as specified by the matching
           permission (shown below) and if that transition fails to find the matching profile the
           domain transition proceeds using the 'ux' transition mode if 'pux', 'cux' or the 'Ux'
           transition mode if 'PUx', 'CUx' is used.

             'PUx' == 'Px' with fallback to 'Ux'
             'pux' == 'px' with fallback to 'ux'
             'CUx' == 'Cx' with fallback to 'Ux'
             'cux' == 'cx' with fallback to 'ux'

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes and the deny qualifier.

       deny x - Deny execute
           For rules including the deny modifier, only 'x' is allowed to deny execute.

           The 'ix', 'Px', 'px', 'Cx', 'cx' and the fallback modes conflict with the deny
           modifier.

       Directed profile transitions
           The directed ('px', 'Px', 'pix', 'Pix', 'pux', 'PUx') profile and subprofile ('cx',
           'Cx', 'cix', 'Cix', 'cux', 'CUx') transitions normally determine the profile to
           transition to from the executable name. It is however possible to specify the name of
           the profile that the transition should use.

           The name of the profile to transition to is specified using the '->' followed by the
           name of the profile to transition to. Eg.

             /bin/** px -> profile,

           Incompatible with other exec transition modes.

       m - Allow executable mapping
           This mode allows a file to be mapped into memory using mmap(2)'s PROT_EXEC flag. This
           flag marks the pages executable; it is used on some architectures to provide non-
           executable data pages, which can complicate exploit attempts. AppArmor uses this mode
           to limit which files a well-behaved program (or all programs on architectures that
           enforce non-executable memory access controls) may use as libraries, to limit the
           effect of invalid -L flags given to ld(1) and LD_PRELOAD, LD_LIBRARY_PATH, given to
           ld.so(8).

       l - Link mode
           Allows the program to be able to create a link with this name.  When a link is
           created, the new link MUST have a subset of permissions as the original file (with the
           exception that the destination does not have to have link access.) If there is an 'x'
           rule on the new link, it must match the original file exactly.

       k - lock mode
           Allows the program to be able lock a file with this name.  This permission covers both
           advisory and mandatory locking.

       leading OR trailing access permissions
           File rules can be specified with the access permission either leading or trailing the
           file glob. Eg.

             rw /**,               # leading permissions

             /** rw,               # trailing permissions

           When leading permissions are used further rule options and context may be allowed, Eg.

             l /foo -> /bar,       # lead 'l' link permission is equivalent to link rules

   Link rules
       Link rules allow specifying permission to form a hard link as a link target pair.  If the
       subset condition is specified then the permissions to access the link file must be a
       subset of the profiles permissions to access the target file. If there is an 'x' rule on
       the new link, it must match the original file exactly.

       Eg.

         /file1  r,
         /file2  rwk,
         /link*  rw,
         link subset /link* -> /**,

       The link rule allows linking of /link to both /file1 or /file2 by name however because the
       /link file has 'rw' permissions it is not allowed to link to /file1 because that would
       grant an access path to /file1 with more permissions than the 'r' permissions the profile
       specifies.

       A link of /link to /file2 would be allowed because the 'rw' permissions of /link are a
       subset of the 'rwk' permissions for /file1.

       The link rule is equivalent to specifying the 'l' link permission as a leading permission
       with no other file access permissions. When this is done the link rule options can be
       specified.

       The following link rule is equivalent to the 'l' permission file rule

         link /foo -> bar,
         l /foo -> /bar,

       File rules that specify the 'l' permission and don't specify the extend link permissions
       map to link rules as follows.

         /foo l,
         l /foo,
         link subset /foo -> /**,

   Comments
       Comments start with # and may begin at any place within a line. The comment ends when the
       line ends. This is the same comment style as shell scripts.

   Capabilities
       The only capabilities a confined process may use may be enumerated; for the complete list,
       please refer to capabilities(7). Note that granting some capabilities renders AppArmor
       confinement for that domain advisory; while open(2), read(2), write(2), etc., will still
       return error when access is not granted, some capabilities allow loading kernel modules,
       arbitrary access to IPC, ability to bypass discretionary access controls, and other
       operations that are typically reserved for the root user.

   Network Rules
       AppArmor supports simple coarse grained network mediation.  The network rule restrict all
       socket(2) based operations.  The mediation done is a course grained check on whether a
       socket of a given type and family can be created, read, or written.  There is no mediation
       based of port number or protocol beyond tcp, udp, and raw.  Network netlink(7) rules may
       only specify type 'dgram' and 'raw'.

       AppArmor network rules are accumulated so that the granted network permissions are the
       union of all the listed network rule permissions.

       AppArmor network rules are broad and general and become more restrictive as further
       information is specified.

       eg.

        network,               #allow access to all networking
        network tcp,           #allow access to tcp
        network inet tcp,      #allow access to tcp only for inet4 addresses
        network inet6 tcp,     #allow access to tcp only for inet6 addresses
        network netlink raw,   #allow access to AF_NETLINK SOCK_RAW

   Mount Rules
       AppArmor supports mount mediation and allows specifying filesystem types and mount flags.
       The syntax of mount rules in AppArmor is based on the mount(8) command syntax. Mount rules
       must contain one of the mount, remount or umount keywords, but all mount conditions are
       optional. Unspecified optional conditionals are assumed to match all entries (eg, not
       specifying fstype means all fstypes are matched). Due to the complexity of the mount
       command and how options may be specified, AppArmor allows specifying conditionals three
       different ways:

       1.  If a conditional is specified using '=', then the rule only grants permission for
           mounts matching the exactly specified options. For example, an AppArmor policy with
           the following rule:

               mount options=ro /dev/foo -E<gt> /mnt/,

           Would match:

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo /mnt

           but not either of these:

               $ mount -o ro,atime /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o rw /dev/foo /mnt

       2.  If a conditional is specified using 'in', then the rule grants permission for mounts
           matching any combination of the specified options. For example, if an AppArmor policy
           has the following rule:

               mount options in (ro,atime) /dev/foo -> /mnt/,

           all of these mount commands will match:

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o ro,atime /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o atime /dev/foo /mnt

           but none of these will:

               $ mount -o ro,sync /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o ro,atime,sync /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o rw /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o rw,noatime /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount /dev/foo /mnt

       3.  If multiple conditionals are specified in a single mount rule, then the rule grants
           permission for each set of options. This provides a shorthand when writing mount rules
           which might help to logically break up a conditional. For example, if an AppArmor
           policy has the following rule:

               mount options=ro options=atime

           both of these mount commands will match:

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o atime /dev/foo /mnt

           but this one will not:

               $ mount -o ro,atime /dev/foo /mnt

       Note that separate mount rules are distinct and the options do not accumulate.  For
       example, these AppArmor mount rules:

           mount options=ro,

           mount options=atime,

       are not equivalent to either of these mount rules:

           mount options=(ro,atime),

           mount options in (ro,atime),

       To help clarify the flexibility and complexity of mount rules, here are some example rules
       with accompanying matching commands:

       mount,
           the 'mount' rule without any conditionals is the most generic and allows any mount.
           Equivalent to 'mount fstype=** options=** ** -> /**'.

       mount /dev/foo,
           allow mounting of /dev/foo anywhere with any options. Some matching mount commands:

               $ mount /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -t ext3 /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -t vfat /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o ro,atime,noexec,nodiratime /dev/foo /srv/some/mountpoint

       mount options=ro /dev/foo,
           allow mounting of /dev/foo anywhere, as read only. Some matching mount commands:

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo /some/where/else

       mount options=(ro,atime) /dev/foo,
           allow mount of /dev/foo anywhere, as read only and using inode access times.  Some
           matching mount commands:

               $ mount -o ro,atime /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o ro,atime /dev/foo /some/where/else

       mount options in (ro,atime) /dev/foo,
           allow mount of /dev/foo anywhere using some combination of 'ro' and 'atime' (see
           above). Some matching mount commands:

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o atime /dev/foo /some/where/else

               $ mount -o ro,atime /dev/foo /some/other/place

       mount options=ro /dev/foo, mount options=atime /dev/foo,
           allow mount of /dev/foo anywhere as read only, and allow mount of /dev/foo anywhere
           using inode access times. Note this is expressed as two different rules. Matches:

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo /mnt/1

               $ mount -o atime /dev/foo /mnt/2

       mount -> /mnt/**,
           allow mounting anything under a directory in /mnt/**. Some matching mount commands:

               $ mount /dev/foo1 /mnt/1

               $ mount -o ro,atime,noexec,nodiratime /dev/foo2 /mnt/deep/path/foo2

       mount options=ro -> /mnt/**,
           allow mounting anything under /mnt/**, as read only. Some matching mount commands:

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo1 /mnt/1

               $ mount -o ro /dev/foo2 /mnt/deep/path/foo2

       mount fstype=ext3 options=(rw,atime) /dev/sdb1 -> /mnt/stick/,
           allow mounting an ext3 filesystem in /dev/sdb1 on /mnt/stick as read/write and using
           inode access times. Matches only:

               $ mount -o rw,atime /dev/sdb1 /mnt/stick

       mount options=(ro, atime) options in (nodev, user) /dev/foo -> /mnt/,
           allow mounting /dev/foo on /mmt/ read only and using inode access times or allow
           mounting /dev/foo on /mnt/ with some combination of 'nodev' and 'user'.  Matches only:

               $ mount -o ro,atime /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o nodev /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o user /dev/foo /mnt

               $ mount -o nodev,user /dev/foo /mnt

   Pivot Root Rules
       AppArmor mediates changing of the root filesystem through the pivot_root(2) system call.
       The syntax of 'pivot_root' rules in AppArmor is based on the pivot_root(2) system call
       parameters with the notable exception that the ordering is reversed. The path
       corresponding to the put_old parameter of pivot_root(2) is optionally specified in the
       'pivot_root' rule using the 'oldroot=' prefix.

       AppArmor 'pivot_root' rules can specify a profile transition to occur during the
       pivot_root(2) system call. Note that AppArmor will only transition the process calling
       pivot_root(2) to the new profile.

       The paths specified in 'pivot_root' rules must end with '/' since they are directories.

       Here are some example 'pivot_root' rules:

           # Allow any pivot
           pivot_root,

           # Allow pivoting to any new root directory and putting the old root
           # directory at /mnt/root/old/
           pivot_root oldroot=/mnt/root/old/,

           # Allow pivoting the root directory to /mnt/root/
           pivot_root /mnt/root/,

           # Allow pivoting to /mnt/root/ and putting the old root directory at
           # /mnt/root/old/
           pivot_root oldroot=/mnt/root/old/ /mnt/root/,

           # Allow pivoting to /mnt/root/, putting the old root directory at
           # /mnt/root/old/ and transition to the /mnt/root/sbin/init profile
           pivot_root oldroot=/mnt/root/old/ /mnt/root/ -> /mnt/root/sbin/init,

   PTrace rules
       AppArmor supports mediation of ptrace(2). AppArmor PTrace rules are accumulated so that
       the granted PTrace permissions are the union of all the listed PTrace rule permissions.

       AppArmor PTrace permissions are implied when a rule does not explicitly state an access
       list. By default, all PTrace permissions are implied.

       The trace and tracedby permissions govern ptrace(2) while read and readby govern certain
       proc(5) filesystem accesses, kcmp(2), futexes (get_robust_list(2)) and perf trace events.

       For a ptrace operation to be allowed the profile of the tracing process and the profile of
       the target task must both have the correct permissions. For example, the profile of the
       process attaching to another task must have the trace permission for the target task's
       profile, and the task being traced must have the tracedby permission for the tracing
       process' profile.

       Example AppArmor PTrace rules:

           # Allow all PTrace access
           ptrace,

           # Explicitly allow all PTrace access,
           ptrace (read, readby, trace, tracedby),

           # Explicitly deny use of ptrace(2)
           deny ptrace (trace),

           # Allow unconfined processes (eg, a debugger) to ptrace us
           ptrace (readby, tracedby) peer=unconfined,

           # Allow ptrace of a process running under the /usr/bin/foo profile
           ptrace (trace) peer=/usr/bin/foo,

   Signal rules
       AppArmor supports mediation of signal(7). AppArmor signal rules are accumulated so that
       the granted signal permissions are the union of all the listed signal rule permissions.

       AppArmor signal permissions are implied when a rule does not explicitly state an access
       list. By default, all signal permissions are implied.

       For the sending of a signal to be allowed, the profile of the sending process and the
       profile of the target task must both have the correct permissions. For example, the
       profile of a process sending a signal to another task must have the send permission for
       the target task's profile, and the task receiving the signal must have a receive
       permission for the sending process' profile.

       Example AppArmor signal rules:

           # Allow all signal access
           signal,

           # Explicitly deny sending the HUP and INT signals
           deny signal (send) set=(hup, int),

           # Allow unconfined processes to send us signals
           signal (receive) peer=unconfined,

           # Allow sending of signals to a process running under the /usr/bin/foo
           # profile
           signal (send) peer=/usr/bin/foo,

           # Allow checking for PID existence
           signal (receive, send) set=("exists"),

           # Allow us to signal ourselves using the built-in @{profile_name} variable
           signal peer=@{profile_name},

           # Allow two real-time signals
           signal set=(rtmin+0 rtmin+32),

   DBus rules
       AppArmor supports DBus mediation. The mediation is performed in conjunction with the DBus
       daemon. The DBus daemon verifies that communications over the bus are permitted by
       AppArmor policy.

       AppArmor DBus rules are accumulated so that the granted DBus permissions are the union of
       all the listed DBus rule permissions.

       AppArmor DBus rules are broad and general and become more restrictive as further
       information is specified. Policy may be specified down to the interface member level
       (method or signal name), however the contents of messages are not examined.

       Some AppArmor DBus permissions are not compatible with all AppArmor DBus rules.  The
       'bind' permission cannot be used in message rules. The 'send' and 'receive' permissions
       cannot be used in service rules. The 'eavesdrop' permission cannot be used in rules
       containing any conditionals outside of the 'bus' conditional.

       'r' and 'read' are synonyms for 'receive'. 'w' and 'write' are synonyms for 'send'. 'rw'
       is a synonym for both 'send' and 'receive'.

       AppArmor DBus permissions are implied when a rule does not explicitly state an access
       list. By default, all DBus permissions are implied. Only message permissions are implied
       for message rules and only service permissions are implied for service rules.

       Example AppArmor DBus rules:

           # Allow all DBus access
           dbus,

           # Explicitly allow all DBus access,
           dbus (send, receive, bind),

           # Deny send/receive/bind access to the session bus
           deny dbus bus=session,

           # Allow bind access for a particular name on any bus
           dbus bind name=com.example.ExampleName,

           # Allow receive access for a particular path and interface
           dbus receive path=/com/example/path interface=com.example.Interface,

           # Deny send/receive access to the system bus for a particular interface
           deny dbus bus=system interface=com.example.ExampleInterface,

           # Allow send access for a particular path, interface, member, and pair of
           # peer names:
           dbus send
                bus=session
                path=/com/example/path
                interface=com.example.Interface
                member=ExampleMethod
                peer=(name=(com.example.ExampleName1|com.example.ExampleName2)),

           # Allow receive access for all unconfined peers
           dbus receive peer=(label=unconfined)),

           # Allow eavesdropping on the system bus
           dbus eavesdrop bus=system,

           # Allow and audit all eavesdropping
           audit dbus eavesdrop,

   Unix socket rules
       AppArmor supports fine grained mediation of unix domain abstract and anonymous sockets.
       Unix domain sockets with file system paths are mediated via file access rules.

       Abstract unix domain sockets is a nonportable Linux extension of unix domain sockets, see
       unix(7) for more information.

       Unix socket address paths

       The sun_path component (aka the socket address) of a unix domain socket is specified by
       the

         addr=

       conditional. If an address conditional is not specified as part of a rule then the rule
       matches both abstract and anonymous sockets.

       In apparmor the address of an abstract unix domain socket begins with the @ character,
       similar to how they are reported (as paths) by netstat -x. The address then follows and
       may contain pattern matching and any characters including the null character. In apparmor
       null characters must be specified by using an escape sequence \000 or \x00. The pattern
       matching is the same as is used by file path matching so * will not match / even though it
       has no special meaning with in an abstract socket name. Eg.

         unix addr=@*,

       Anonymous unix domain sockets have no sun_path associated with the socket address, however
       it can be specified with the special none keyword to indicate the rule only applies to
       anonymous unix domain sockets. Eg.

         unix addr=none,

       If the address component of a rule is not specified then the rule applies to both abstract
       and anonymous sockets.

       Unix socket permissions

       Unix domain socket rules are accumulated so that the granted unix socket permissions are
       the union of all the listed unix rule permissions.

       Unix domain socket rules are broad and general and become more restrictive as further
       information is specified. Policy may be specified down to the socket address (aka
       sun_path) and label level. The content of the communication is not examined.

       Unix socket rule permissions are implied when a rule does not explicitly state an access
       list. By default if a rule does not have an access list all permissions that are
       compatible with the specified set of local and peer conditionals are implied.

       The create, bind, listen, shutdown, getattr, setattr, getopt, and setopt permissions are
       local socket permissions. They are only applied to the local socket and can't be specified
       in rules that have a peer component. The accept permission applies to the combination of a
       local and peer socket. The connect, send, and receive permissions are peer socket
       permissions.

       Only the peer socket permissions will be applied to rules that don't specify permissions
       and contain a peer component.

       Example Unix domain socket rules:

         # Allow all permissions to unix sockets
         unix,

         # Explicitly allow all unix permissions
         unix (create, listen, accept, connect, send, receive, getattr, setattr, setopt, getopt),

         # Explicitly deny unix socket access
         deny unix,

         # Allow create and use of abstract and anonymous sockets for profile_name
         unix peer=(label=@{profile_name}),

         # Allow receiving via unix sockets from unconfined
         unix (receive) peer=(label=unconfined),

         # Allow getattr and shutdown on anonymous sockets
         unix (getattr, shutdown) addr=none,

         # Allow SOCK_STREAM connect, receive and send on an abstract socket @bar
         # with peer running under profile '/foo'
         unix (connect, receive, send) type=stream peer=(label=/foo,addr="@bar"),

         # Allow accepting connections from and receiving from peer running under
         # profile '/bar' on abstract socket '@foo'
         unix (accept, receive) addr=@foo peer=(label=/bar),

       Abstract unix domain sockets autobind

       Abstract unix domain sockets can autobind to an address. The autobind address is a unique
       5 digit string of decimal numbers, eg. @00001. There is nothing that prevents a task from
       manually binding to addresses with a similar pattern so it is impossible to reliably
       identify autobind addresses from a regular address.

       Interaction of network rules and fine grained unix domain socket rules

       The coarse grained networking rules can be used to control unix domain sockets as well.
       When fine grained unix domain socket mediation is available the coarse grained network
       rule is mapped into the equivalent unix socket rule.

       E.G.

           network unix,  =>  unix,

           network unix stream,   =>  unix stream,

       Fine grained mediation rules however can not be lossly converted back to the coarse
       grained network rule; e.g.

          unix bind addr=@example,

       Has no exact match under coarse grained network rules, the closest match is the much wider
       permission rule of

          network unix,

   change_profile rules
       AppArmor supports self directed profile transitions via the change_profile api.
       Change_profile rules control which permissions for which profiles a confined task can
       transition to.  The profile name can contain apparmor pattern matching to specify
       different profiles.

         change_profile -> **,

       The change_profile api allows the transition to be delayed until when a task executes
       another application. If an exec rule transition is specified for the application and the
       change_profile api is used to make a transition at exec time, the transition specified by
       the change_profile api takes precedence.

       The Change_profile permission can restrict which profiles can be transitioned to based off
       of the executable name by specifying the exec condition.

         change_profile /bin/bash -> new_profile,

       The restricting of the transition profile to a given executable at exec time is only
       useful when then current task is allowed to make dynamic decisions about what confinement
       should be, but the decision set needs to be controlled. A list of profiles or multiple
       rules can be used to specify the profiles in the set. Eg.

         change_profile /bin/bash -> {new_profile1,new_profile2,new_profile3},

       An exec rule can be used to specify a transition for the executable, if the transition
       should be allowed even if the change_profile api has not been used to select a transition
       for those available in the change_profile rule set.  Eg.

         /bin/bash Px -> new_profile1,
         change_profile /bin/bash -> {new_profile1,new_profile2,new_profile3},

       The exec mode dictates whether or not the Linux Kernel's unsafe_exec routines should be
       used to scrub the environment, similar to setuid programs.  (See ld.so(8) for some
       information on setuid/setgid environment scrubbing.) The safe mode sets up environment
       scrubbing to occur when the new application is executed and unsafe mode disables
       AppArmor's requirement for environment scrubbing (the kernel and/or libc may still require
       environment scrubbing). An exec mode can only be specified when an exec condition is
       present.

         change_profile safe /bin/bash -> new_profile,

       Not all kernels support safe mode and the parser will downgrade rules to unsafe mode in
       that situation. If no exec mode is specified, the default is safe mode in kernels that
       support it.

   rlimit rules
       AppArmor can set and control the resource limits associated with a profile as described in
       the setrlimit(2) man page.

       The AppArmor rlimit controls allow setting of limits and restricting changes of them and
       these actions can be audited. Enforcement of the set limits is handled by the standard
       kernel enforcement mechanism for rlimits and will not result in an audited apparmor
       message if the limit is enforced.

       If a profile does not have an rlimit rule associated with a given rlimit then the rlimit
       is left alone and regular access, including changing the limit, is allowed. However if the
       profile sets an rlimit then the current limit is checked and if greater than the limit
       specified in the rule it will be changed to the specified limit.

       AppArmor rlimit rules control the hard limit of an application and ensure that if the hard
       limit is lowered that the soft limit does not exceed the hard limit value.

       Eg.

         set rlimit data <= 100M,
         set rlimit nproc <= 10,
         set rlimit nice <= 5,

   Variables
       AppArmor's policy language allows embedding variables into file rules to enable easier
       configuration for some common (and pervasive) setups.  Variables may have multiple values
       assigned, but any variable assignments must be made before the start of the profile.

       The parser will automatically expand variables to include all values that they have been
       assigned; it is an error to reference a variable without setting at least one value. You
       can use empty quotes ("") to explicitly add an empty value.

       At the time of this writing, the following variables are defined in the provided AppArmor
       policy:

         @{HOME}
         @{HOMEDIRS}
         @{multiarch}
         @{pid}
         @{pids}
         @{PROC}
         @{securityfs}
         @{apparmorfs}
         @{sys}
         @{tid}
         @{XDG_DESKTOP_DIR}
         @{XDG_DOWNLOAD_DIR}
         @{XDG_TEMPLATES_DIR}
         @{XDG_PUBLICSHARE_DIR}
         @{XDG_DOCUMENTS_DIR}
         @{XDG_MUSIC_DIR}
         @{XDG_PICTURES_DIR}
         @{XDG_VIDEOS_DIR}

       These are defined in files in /etc/apparmor.d/tunables and are used in many of the
       abstractions described later.

       You may also add files in /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/home.d for site-specific customization
       of @{HOMEDIRS}, /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/multiarch.d for @{multiarch} and
       /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/xdg-user-dirs.d for @{XDG_*}.

       The special @{profile_name} variable is set to the profile name and may be used in all
       policy.

   Alias rules
       AppArmor also provides alias rules for remapping paths for site-specific layouts. They are
       an alternative form of path rewriting to using variables, and are done after variable
       resolution. Alias rules must occur within the preamble of the profile. System-wide aliases
       are found in /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/alias, which is included by
       /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/global. /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/global is typically included at
       the beginning of an AppArmor profile.

   Globbing
       File resources may be specified with a globbing syntax similar to that used by popular
       shells, such as csh(1), bash(1), zsh(1).

       *   can substitute for any number of characters, excepting '/'

       **  can substitute for any number of characters, including '/'

       ?   can substitute for any single character excepting '/'

       [abc]
           will substitute for the single character a, b, or c

       [a-c]
           will substitute for the single character a, b, or c

       [^a-c]
           will substitute for any single character not matching a, b or c

       {ab,cd}
           will expand to one rule to match ab, one rule to match cd

       When AppArmor looks up a directory the pathname being looked up will end with a slash
       (e.g., /var/tmp/); otherwise it will not end with a slash. Only rules that match a
       trailing slash will match directories. Some examples, none matching the /tmp/ directory
       itself, are:

       /tmp/*
           Files directly in /tmp.

       /tmp/*/
           Directories directly in /tmp.

       /tmp/**
           Files and directories anywhere underneath /tmp.

       /tmp/**/
           Directories anywhere underneath /tmp.

   Rule Qualifiers
       There are several rule qualifiers that can be applied to permission rules.  Rule
       qualifiers can modify the rule and/or permissions within the rule.

       allow
           Specifies that permissions requests that match the rule are allowed. This is the
           default value for rules and does not need to be specified. Conflicts with the deny
           qualifier.

       audit
           Specifies that permissions requests that match the rule should be recorded to the
           audit log.

       deny
           Specifies that permissions requests that match the rule should be denied without
           logging. Can be combined with 'audit' to enable logging. Conflicts with the allow
           qualifier.

       owner
           Specifies that the task must have the same euid/fsuid as the object being referenced
           by the permission check.

       Qualifier Blocks

       Rule Qualifiers can be applied to multiple rules at a time by grouping the rules into a
       rule block.

         audit {
            /foo r,
            network,
         }

   #include mechanism
       AppArmor provides an easy abstraction mechanism to group common file access requirements;
       this abstraction is an extremely flexible way to grant site-specific rights and makes
       writing new AppArmor profiles very simple by assembling the needed building blocks for any
       given program.

       The use of '#include' is modelled directly after cpp(1); its use will replace the
       '#include' statement with the specified file's contents.  #include "/absolute/path"
       specifies that /absolute/path should be used.  #include "relative/path" specifies that
       relative/path should be used, where the path is relative to the current working directory.
       #include <magic/path> is the most common usage; it will load magic/path relative to a
       directory specified to apparmor_parser(8).  /etc/apparmor.d/ is the AppArmor default.

       The supplied AppArmor profiles follow several conventions; the abstractions stored in
       /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/ are some large clusters that are used in most profiles. What
       follows are short descriptions of how some of the abstractions are used.

       abstractions/audio
           Includes accesses to device files used for audio applications.

       abstractions/authentication
           Includes access to files and services typically necessary for services that perform
           user authentication.

       abstractions/base
           Includes files that should be readable and writable in all profiles.

       abstractions/bash
           Includes many files used by bash; useful for interactive shells and programs that call
           system(3).

       abstractions/consoles
           Includes read and write access to the device files controlling the virtual console,
           sshd(8), xterm(1), etc. This abstraction is needed for many programs that interact
           with users.

       abstractions/fonts
           Includes access to fonts and the font libraries.

       abstractions/gnome
           Includes read and write access to GNOME configuration files, as well as read access to
           GNOME libraries.

       abstractions/kde
           Includes read and write access to KDE configuration files, as well as read access to
           KDE libraries.

       abstractions/kerberosclient
           Includes file access rules needed for common kerberos clients.

       abstractions/nameservice
           Includes file rules to allow DNS, LDAP, NIS, SMB, user and group password databases,
           services, and protocols lookups.

       abstractions/perl
           Includes read access to perl modules.

       abstractions/user-download
       abstractions/user-mail
       abstractions/user-manpages
       abstractions/user-tmp
       abstractions/user-write
           Some profiles for typical "user" programs will use these include files to describe
           rights that users have in the system.

       abstractions/wutmp
           Includes write access to files used to maintain wtmp(5) and utmp(5) databases, used
           with the w(1) and associated commands.

       abstractions/X
           Includes read access to libraries, configuration files, X authentication files, and
           the X socket.

       Some of the abstractions rely on variables that are set in files in the
       /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/ directory. These variables are currently @{HOME} and
       @{HOMEDIRS}. Variables cannot be set in profile scope; they can only be set before the
       profile. Therefore, any profiles that use abstractions should either #include
       <tunables/global> or otherwise ensure that @{HOME} and @{HOMEDIRS} are set before starting
       the profile definition. The aa-autodep(8) and aa-genprof(8) utilities will automatically
       emit #include <tunables/global> in generated profiles.

EXAMPLE

       An example AppArmor profile:

               # a variable definition in the preamble
               @{HOME} = /home/*/ /root/

               # a comment about foo.
               /usr/bin/foo {
                 /bin/mount          ux,
                 /dev/{,u}random     r,
                 /etc/ld.so.cache    r,
                 /etc/foo.conf       r,
                 /etc/foo/*          r,
                 /lib/ld-*.so*       rmix,
                 /lib/lib*.so*       r,
                 /proc/[0-9]**       r,
                 /usr/lib/**         r,
                 /tmp/foo.pid        wr,
                 /tmp/foo.*          lrw,
                 /@{HOME}/.foo_file  rw,
                 /usr/bin/baz        Cx -> baz,

                 # a comment about foo's hat (subprofile), bar.
                 ^bar {
                   /lib/ld-*.so*       rmix,
                   /usr/bin/bar        rmix,
                   /var/spool/*        rwl,
                 }

                 # a comment about foo's subprofile, baz.
                 profile baz {
                   #include <abstractions/bash>
                   owner /proc/[0-9]*/stat r,
                   /bin/bash ixr,
                   /var/lib/baz/ r,
                   owner /var/lib/baz/* rw,
                 }
               }

FILES

       /etc/init.d/boot.apparmor
       /etc/apparmor.d/

KNOWN BUGS

       ·   Mount options support the use of pattern matching but mount flags are not correctly
           intersected against specified patterns. Eg, 'mount options=**,' should be equivalent
           to 'mount,', but it is not. (LP: #965690)

       ·   The fstype may not be matched against when certain mount command flags are used.
           Specifically fstype matching currently only works when creating a new mount and not
           remount, bind, etc.

       ·   Mount rules with multiple 'options' conditionals are not applied as documented but
           instead merged such that 'options in (ro,nodev) options in (atime)' is equivalent to
           'options in (ro,nodev,atime)'.

       ·   When specifying mount options with the 'in' conditional, both the positive and
           negative values match when specifying one or the other. Eg, 'rw' matches when 'ro' is
           specified and 'dev' matches when 'nodev' is specified such that 'options in
           (ro,nodev)' is equivalent to 'options in (rw,dev)'.

SEE ALSO

       apparmor(7), apparmor_parser(8), aa-complain(1), aa-enforce(1), aa_change_hat(2),
       mod_apparmor(5), and <http://wiki.apparmor.net>.