Provided by: libguestfs-tools_1.36.13-1ubuntu3_amd64 bug

名前

       virt-inspector - Display operating system version and other information about a virtual
       machine

書式

        virt-inspector [--options] -d domname

        virt-inspector [--options] -a disk.img [-a disk.img ...]

       古い形式:

        virt-inspector domname

        virt-inspector disk.img [disk.img ...]

説明

       virt-inspector examines a virtual machine or disk image and tries to determine the version
       of the operating system and other information about the virtual machine.

       Virt-inspector は他のプログラムに提供するための情報をXML形式出力で生成します。

       In the normal usage, use "virt-inspector -d domname" where "domname" is the libvirt domain
       (see: "virsh list --all").

       You can also run virt-inspector directly on disk images from a single virtual machine.
       Use "virt-inspector -a disk.img".  In rare cases a domain has several block devices, in
       which case you should list several -a options one after another, with the first
       corresponding to the guest's /dev/sda, the second to the guest's /dev/sdb and so on.

       You can also run virt-inspector on install disks, live CDs, bootable USB keys and similar.

       Virt-inspector can only inspect and report upon one domain at a time.  To inspect several
       virtual machines, you have to run virt-inspector several times (for example, from a shell
       script for-loop).

       Because virt-inspector needs direct access to guest images, it won't normally work over
       remote libvirt connections.

       All of the information available from virt-inspector is also available through the core
       libguestfs inspection API (see "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3)).  The same information can also
       be fetched using guestfish or via libguestfs bindings in many programming languages (see
       "GETTING INSPECTION DATA FROM THE LIBGUESTFS API").

オプション

       --help
           簡単なヘルプを表示します。

       -a file
       --add file
           Add file which should be a disk image from a virtual machine.  If the virtual machine
           has multiple block devices, you must supply all of them with separate -a options.

           ディスクイメージの形式は自動検知されます。 これを上書きして強制的に特定の形式を使用す
           る場合、 --format=.. オプションを使用します。

       -a URI
       --add URI
           リモートディスクを追加します。 "リモートストレージの追加" in guestfish(1) 参照。

       -c URI
       --connect URI
           libvirt を使用していると、指定された URI に接続します。  省略すると、デフォルトの
           libvirt ハイパーバイザーに接続します。

           Libvirt is only used if you specify a "domname" on the command line.  If you specify
           guest block devices directly (-a), then libvirt is not used at all.

       -d guest
       --domain guest
           名前付きの libvirt 仮想マシンからすべてのディスクを追加します。  名前の代わりに仮想マ
           シンの UUID を使用できます。

       --echo-keys
           キーやパスフレーズを入力するとき、通常 virt-inspector はエコーを無効化します。 そのた
           め、入力内容を確認できません。 テンペスト攻撃の心配がなく、 部屋に誰も居なければ、 入
           力内容を確認するためにこのフラグを指定できます。

       --format=raw|qcow2|..
       --format
           Specify the format of disk images given on the command line.  If this is omitted then
           the format is autodetected from the content of the disk image.

           If disk images are requested from libvirt, then this program asks libvirt for this
           information.  In this case, the value of the format parameter is ignored.

           If working with untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should ensure the format
           is always specified.

       --keys-from-stdin
           Read key or passphrase parameters from stdin.  The default is to try to read
           passphrases from the user by opening /dev/tty.

       --no-applications
           By default the output of virt-inspector includes the list of all the applications
           installed in the guest, if available.

           Specify this option to disable this part of the resulting XML.

       --no-icon
           By default the output of virt-inspector includes the icon of the guest, if available
           (see "icon").

           Specify this option to disable this part of the resulting XML.

       -v
       --verbose
           デバッグ用の冗長なメッセージを有効にします。

       -V
       --version
           バージョン番号を表示して、終了します。

       -x  libguestfs API 呼び出しのトレースを有効にします。

       --xpath query
           Perform an XPath query on the XML on stdin, and print the result on stdout.  In this
           mode virt-inspector simply runs an XPath query; all other inspection functions are
           disabled.  See "XPATH QUERIES" below for some examples.

旧形式のコマンドライン引数

       Previous versions of virt-inspector allowed you to write either:

        virt-inspector disk.img [disk.img ...]

       または

        virt-inspector guestname

       whereas in this version you should use -a or -d respectively to avoid the confusing case
       where a disk image might have the same name as a guest.

       互換性のため古い形式がまだサポートされています。

XML フォーマット

       The virt-inspector XML is described precisely in a RELAX NG schema file virt-inspector.rng
       which is supplied with libguestfs.  This section is just an overview.

       The top-level element is <operatingsystems>, and it contains one or more <operatingsystem>
       elements.  You would only see more than one <operatingsystem> element if the virtual
       machine is multi-boot, which is vanishingly rare in real world VMs.

   <operatingsystem>
       In the <operatingsystem> tag are various optional fields that describe the operating
       system, its architecture, the descriptive "product name" string, the type of OS and so on,
       as in this example:

        <operatingsystems>
          <operatingsystem>
            <root>/dev/sda2</root>
            <name>windows</name>
            <arch>i386</arch>
            <distro>windows</distro>
            <product_name>Windows 7 Enterprise</product_name>
            <product_variant>Client</product_variant>
            <major_version>6</major_version>
            <minor_version>1</minor_version>
            <windows_systemroot>/Windows</windows_systemroot>
            <format>installed</format>

       In brief, <name> is the class of operating system (something like "linux" or "windows"),
       <distro> is the distribution (eg. "fedora" but many other distros are recognized) and
       <arch> is the guest architecture.  The other fields are fairly self-explanatory, but
       because these fields are taken directly from the libguestfs inspection API you can find
       precise information from "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3).

       The <root> element is the root filesystem device, but from the point of view of libguestfs
       (block devices may have completely different names inside the VM itself).

   <mountpoints>
       Un*x-like guests typically have multiple filesystems which are mounted at various
       mountpoints, and these are described in the <mountpoints> element which looks like this:

        <operatingsystems>
          <operatingsystem>
            ...
            <mountpoints>
              <mountpoint dev="/dev/vg_f13x64/lv_root">/</mountpoint>
              <mountpoint dev="/dev/sda1">/boot</mountpoint>
            </mountpoints>

       As with <root>, devices are from the point of view of libguestfs, and may have completely
       different names inside the guest.  Only mountable filesystems appear in this list, not
       things like swap devices.

   <filesystems>
       <filesystems> is like <mountpoints> but covers all filesystems belonging to the guest,
       including swap and empty partitions.  (In the rare case of a multi-boot guest, it covers
       filesystems belonging to this OS or shared with this OS and other OSes).

       次のように表示されることがあります:

        <operatingsystems>
          <operatingsystem>
            ...
            <filesystems>
              <filesystem dev="/dev/vg_f13x64/lv_root">
                <type>ext4</type>
                <label>Fedora-13-x86_64</label>
                <uuid>e6a4db1e-15c2-477b-ac2a-699181c396aa</uuid>
              </filesystem>

       The optional elements within <filesystem> are the filesystem type, the label, and the
       UUID.

   <applications>
       関連する要素 <package_format>, <package_management> および <applications> は仮想マシンにイ
       ンストールされたアプリケーションを記述しています。

       <package_format>, if present, describes the packaging system used.  Typical values would
       be "rpm" and "deb".

       <package_management>, if present, describes the package manager.  Typical values include
       "yum", "up2date" and "apt"

       <applications> lists the packages or applications installed.

        <operatingsystems>
          <operatingsystem>
            ...
            <applications>
              <application>
                <name>coreutils</name>
                <version>8.5</version>
                <release>1</release>
              </application>

       The version and release fields may not be available for some types guests.  Other fields
       are possible, see "guestfs_inspect_list_applications" in guestfs(3).

   <drive_mappings>
       For operating systems like Windows which use drive letters, virt-inspector is able to find
       out how drive letters map to filesystems.

        <operatingsystems>
          <operatingsystem>
            ...
            <drive_mappings>
              <drive_mapping name="C">/dev/sda2</drive_mapping>
              <drive_mapping name="E">/dev/sdb1</drive_mapping>
            </drive_mappings>

       In the example above, drive C maps to the filesystem on the second partition on the first
       disk, and drive E maps to the filesystem on the first partition on the second disk.

       Note that this only covers permanent local filesystem mappings, not things like network
       shares.  Furthermore NTFS volume mount points may not be listed here.

   <icon>
       Virt-inspector is sometimes able to extract an icon or logo for the guest.  The icon is
       returned as base64-encoded PNG data.  Note that the icon can be very large and high
       quality.

        <operatingsystems>
          <operatingsystem>
            ...
            <icon>
              iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAGAAAABg[.......]
              [... many lines of base64 data ...]
            </icon>

       To display the icon, you have to extract it and convert the base64 data back to a binary
       file.  Use an XPath query or simply an editor to extract the data, then use the coreutils
       base64(1) program to do the conversion back to a PNG file:

        base64 -i -d < icon.data > icon.png

   INSPECTING INSTALL DISKS, LIVE CDs
       Virt-inspector can detect some operating system installers on install disks, live CDs,
       bootable USB keys and more.

       In this case the <format> tag will contain "installer" and other fields may be present to
       indicate a live CD, network installer, or one part of a multipart CD.  For example:

        <operatingsystems>
          <operatingsystem>
            <root>/dev/sda</root>
            <name>linux</name>
            <arch>i386</arch>
            <distro>ubuntu</distro>
            <product_name>Ubuntu 10.10 "Maverick Meerkat"</product_name>
            <major_version>10</major_version>
            <minor_version>10</minor_version>
            <format>installer</format>
            <live/>

XPath クエリー

       Virt-inspector includes built in support for running XPath queries.  The reason for
       including XPath support directly in virt-inspector is simply that there are no good and
       widely available command line programs that can do XPath queries.  The only good one is
       xmlstarlet(1) and that is not available on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

       To perform an XPath query, use the --xpath option.  Note that in this mode, virt-inspector
       simply reads XML from stdin and outputs the query result on stdout.  All other inspection
       features are disabled in this mode.

       例:

        $ virt-inspector -d Guest | virt-inspector --xpath '//filesystems'
        <filesystems>
             <filesystem dev="/dev/vg_f13x64/lv_root">
               <type>ext4</type>
        [...]

        $ virt-inspector -d Guest | \
            virt-inspector --xpath "string(//filesystem[@dev='/dev/sda1']/type)"
        ext4

        $ virt-inspector -d Guest | \
            virt-inspector --xpath 'string(//icon)' | base64 -i -d | display -
        [displays the guest icon, if there is one]

GETTING INSPECTION DATA FROM THE LIBGUESTFS API

       In early versions of libguestfs, virt-inspector was a large Perl script that contained
       many heuristics for inspecting guests.  This had several problems: in order to do
       inspection from other tools (like guestfish) we had to call out to this Perl script; and
       it privileged Perl over other languages that libguestfs supports.

       By libguestfs 1.8 we had rewritten the Perl code in C, and incorporated it all into the
       core libguestfs API (guestfs(3)).  Now virt-inspector is simply a thin C program over the
       core C API.  All of the inspection information is available from all programming languages
       that libguestfs supports, and from guestfish.

       For a description of the C inspection API, read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3).

       For example code using the C inspection API, look for inspect-vm.c which ships with
       libguestfs.

       inspect-vm.c has also been translated into other languages.  For example, inspect_vm.pl is
       the Perl translation, and there are other translations for OCaml, Python, etc.  See "USING
       LIBGUESTFS WITH OTHER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES" in guestfs(3) for a list of man pages which
       contain this example code.

   GETTING INSPECTION DATA FROM GUESTFISH
       If you use the guestfish -i option, then the main C inspection API "guestfs_inspect_os" in
       guestfs(3) is called.  This is equivalent to the guestfish command "inspect-os".  You can
       also call this guestfish command by hand.

       "inspect-os" performs inspection on the current disk image, returning the list of
       operating systems found.  Each OS is represented by its root filesystem device.  In the
       majority of cases, this command prints nothing (no OSes found), or a single root device,
       but beware that it can print multiple lines if there are multiple OSes or if there is an
       install CD attached to the guest.

        $ guestfish --ro -a F15x32.img
        ><fs> run
        ><fs> inspect-os
        /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root

       ルートデバイスを使用して、ゲストに関するさらなる情報を取得できます:

        ><fs> inspect-get-type /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root
        linux
        ><fs> inspect-get-distro /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root
        fedora
        ><fs> inspect-get-major-version /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root
        15
        ><fs> inspect-get-product-name /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root
        Fedora release 15 (Lovelock)

       Limitations of guestfish make it hard to assign the root device to a variable (since
       guestfish doesn't have variables), so if you want to do this reproducibly you are better
       off writing a script using one of the other languages that the libguestfs API supports.

       アプリケーションを一覧表示するには、まずディスクをマウントする必要があります:

        ><fs> inspect-get-mountpoints /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root
        /: /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root
        /boot: /dev/vda1
        ><fs> mount-ro /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root /
        ><fs> mount-ro /dev/vda1 /boot

       and then call the inspect-list-applications API:

        ><fs> inspect-list-applications /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root | head -28
        [0] = {
          app_name: ConsoleKit
          app_display_name:
          app_epoch: 0
          app_version: 0.4.5
          app_release: 1.fc15
          app_install_path:
          app_trans_path:
          app_publisher:
          app_url:
          app_source_package:
          app_summary:
          app_description:
        }
        [1] = {
          app_name: ConsoleKit-libs
          app_display_name:
          app_epoch: 0
          app_version: 0.4.5
          app_release: 1.fc15
          app_install_path:
          app_trans_path:
          app_publisher:
          app_url:
          app_source_package:
          app_summary:
          app_description:
        }

       To display an icon for the guest, note that filesystems must also be mounted as above.
       You can then do:

        ><fs> inspect-get-icon /dev/vg_f15x32/lv_root | display -

古いバージョンの virt-inspector

       As described above, early versions of libguestfs shipped with a different virt-inspector
       program written in Perl (the current version is written in C).  The XML output of the Perl
       virt-inspector was different and it could also output in other formats like text.

       古い virt-inspector はもはや libguestfs でサポートされず、同梱されていません。

       さらに混乱することに、Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 では異なる名前で 2 つのバージョンの virt-
       inspector が同梱されています:

        virt-inspector     古い Perl バージョンです。
        virt-inspector2    新しい C バージョンです。

終了ステータス

       このプログラムは、成功すると 0 を、エラーがあると 0 以外を返します。

関連項目

       guestfs(3), guestfish(1), http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath/, base64(1), xmlstarlet(1),
       http://libguestfs.org/.

著者

       ·   Richard W.M. Jones http://people.redhat.com/~rjones/

       ·   Matthew Booth mbooth@redhat.com

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2010-2012 Red Hat Inc.

LICENSE

BUGS

       To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       When reporting a bug, please supply:

       ·   The version of libguestfs.

       ·   Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)

       ·   Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.

       ·   Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug
           report.