Provided by: git-annex_6.20180227-1_amd64 bug


       git-annex - manage files with git, without checking their contents in


       git annex command [params ...]


       git-annex  allows  managing  files  with git, without checking the file contents into git.
       While that may seem paradoxical, it is useful when dealing with files larger than git  can
       currently  easily handle, whether due to limitations in memory, checksumming time, or disk

       Even without file content tracking, being able to manage files with git, move files around
       and  delete files with versioned directory trees, and use branches and distributed clones,
       are all very handy reasons to use git. And annexed files can  co-exist  in  the  same  git
       repository  with regularly versioned files, which is convenient for maintaining documents,
       Makefiles, etc that are associated with annexed files but that benefit from full  revision

       When a file is annexed, its content is moved into a key-value store, and a symlink is made
       that points to the content. These symlinks are checked into git and versioned like regular
       files. You can move them around, delete them, and so on. Pushing to another git repository
       will make git-annex there aware of the annexed file, and it can be used  to  retrieve  its
       content from the key-value store.


        # git annex get video/
        get video/ (not available)
          I was unable to access these remotes: server
          Try making some of these repositories available:
            5863d8c0-d9a9-11df-adb2-af51e6559a49  -- my home file server
            58d84e8a-d9ae-11df-a1aa-ab9aa8c00826  -- portable USB drive
            ca20064c-dbb5-11df-b2fe-002170d25c55  -- backup SATA drive
        # sudo mount /media/usb
        # git remote add usbdrive /media/usb
        # git annex get video/
        get video/ (from usbdrive...) ok

        # git annex add iso
        add iso/Debian_5.0.iso ok

        # git annex drop iso/Debian_4.0.iso
        drop iso/Debian_4.0.iso ok

        # git annex move iso --to=usbdrive
        move iso/Debian_5.0.iso (moving to usbdrive...) ok


       Like  many  git  commands,  git-annex  can  be  passed  a  path that is either a file or a
       directory. In the latter case it acts on all relevant files in the directory. When no path
       is  specified,  most  git-annex  commands  default  to acting on all relevant files in the
       current directory (and subdirectories).

       help   Display built-in help.

              For help on a specific command, use git annex help command

       add [path ...]
              Adds files in the path to the annex. If no path is specified, adds files  from  the
              current directory and below.

              See git-annex-add(1) for details.

       get [path ...]
              Makes the content of annexed files available in this repository.

              See git-annex-get(1) for details.

       drop [path ...]
              Drops the content of annexed files from this repository.

              See git-annex-drop(1) for details.

       move [path ...] [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Moves the content of files from or to another remote.

              See git-annex-move(1) for details.

       copy [path ...] [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Copies the content of files from or to another remote.

              See git-annex-copy(1) for details.

       status [path ...]
              Similar  to  git  status  --short,  displays the status of the files in the working
              tree. Particularly useful in direct mode.

              See git-annex-status(1) for details.

       unlock [path ...]
              Unlock annexed files for modification.

              See git-annex-unlock(1) for details.

       edit [path ...]
              This is an alias for the unlock command. May be easier to remember, if you think of
              this as allowing you to edit an annexed file.

       lock [path ...]
              Use  this  to undo an unlock command if you don't want to modify the files, or have
              made modifications you want to discard.

              See git-annex-lock(1) for details.

       sync [remote ...]
              Synchronize local repository with remotes.

              See git-annex-sync(1) for details.

       mirror [path ...] [--to=remote|--from=remote]
              Mirror content of files to/from another repository.

              See git-annex-mirror(1) for details.

       addurl [url ...]
              Downloads each url to its own file, which is added to the annex.

              See git-annex-addurl(1) for details.

       rmurl file url
              Record that the file is no longer available at the url.

              See git-annex-rmurl(1) for details.

       import [path ...]
              Move and add files from outside git working copy into the annex.

              See git-annex-import(1) for details.

       importfeed [url ...]
              Imports the contents of podcast feeds into the annex.

              See git-annex-importfeed(1) for details.

       export treeish --to remote
              Export content to a remote.

              See git-annex-export(1) for details.

       undo [filename|directory] ...
              Undo last change to a file or directory.

              See git-annex-undo(1) for details.

              Multicast file distribution.

              See git-annex-multicast(1) for details.

       watch  Watch for changes and autocommit.

              See git-annex-watch(1) for details.

              Automatically sync folders between devices.

              See git-annex-assistant(1) for details.

       webapp Opens a web app, that allows easy setup of a git-annex repository, and  control  of
              the  git-annex  assistant.  If  the  assistant  is  not already running, it will be

              See git-annex-webapp(1) for details.


       init [description]

              Until a repository (or one of its remotes) has  been  initialized,  git-annex  will
              refuse  to  operate  on it, to avoid accidentally using it in a repository that was
              not intended to have an annex.

              See git-annex-init(1) for details.

       describe repository description
              Changes the description of a repository.

              See git-annex-describe(1) for details.

       initremote name type=value [param=value ...]
              Creates a new special remote, and adds it to .git/config.

              See git-annex-initremote(1) for details.

       enableremote name [param=value ...]
              Enables use of an existing special remote in the current repository.

              See git-annex-enableremote(1) for details.

              Sets up tor hidden service.

              See git-annex-enable-tor(1) for details.

       numcopies [N]
              Configure desired number of copies.

              See git-annex-numcopies(1) for details.

       trust [repository ...]
              Records that a repository is trusted to not unexpectedly  lose  content.  Use  with

              See git-annex-trust(1) for details.

       untrust [repository ...]
              Records that a repository is not trusted and could lose content at any time.

              See git-annex-untrust(1) for details.

       semitrust [repository ...]
              Returns a repository to the default semi trusted state.

              See git-annex-semitrust(1) for details.

       group repository groupname
              Add a repository to a group.

              See git-annex-group(1) for details.

       ungroup repository groupname
              Removes a repository from a group.

              See git-annex-ungroup(1) for details.

       wanted repository [expression]
              Get or set preferred content expression.

              See git-annex-wanted(1) for details.

       groupwanted groupname [expression]
              Get or set groupwanted expression.

              See git-annex-groupwanted(1) for details.

       required repository [expression]
              Get or set required content expression.

              See git-annex-required(1) for details.

       schedule repository [expression]
              Get or set scheduled jobs.

              See git-annex-schedule(1) for details.

       config Get and set other configuration stored in git-annex branch.

              See git-annex-config(1) for details.

       vicfg  Opens EDITOR on a temp file containing most of the above configuration settings, as
              well as a few others, and when it exits, stores any changes made back to  the  git-
              annex branch.

              See git-annex-vicfg(1) for details.

       direct Switches  a repository to use direct mode, where rather than symlinks to files, the
              files are directly present in the repository.

              See git-annex-direct(1) for details.

              Switches a repository back from direct mode to the default, indirect mode.

              See git-annex-indirect(1) for details.

       adjust Switches a repository to use an adjusted branch, which can automatically unlock all
              files, etc.

              See git-annex-adjust(1) for details.


       fsck [path ...]

              Checks the annex consistency, and warns about or fixes any problems found.  This is
              a good complement to git fsck.

              See git-annex-fsck(1) for details.

       expire [repository:]time ...
              Expires repositories that have not recently performed an activity (such as a fsck).

              See git-annex-expire(1) for details.

       unused Checks the annex for data that does not correspond to any files present in any  tag
              or branch, and prints a numbered list of the data.

              See git-annex-unused(1) for details.

       dropunused [number|range ...]
              Drops the data corresponding to the numbers, as listed by the last git annex unused

              See git-annex-dropunused(1) for details.

       addunused [number|range ...]
              Adds  back  files for the content corresponding to the numbers or ranges, as listed
              by the last git annex unused.

              See git-annex-addunused(1) for details.

       fix [path ...]
              Fixes up symlinks that have become broken to again point to annexed content.

              See git-annex-fix(1) for details.

       merge  Automatically merge changes from remotes.

              See git-annex-merge(1) for details.

              Upgrades the repository to current layout.

              See git-annex-upgrade(1) for details.

       dead [repository ...] [--key key]
              Indicates that a repository or a single key has been irretrievably lost.

              See git-annex-dead(1) for details.

       forget Causes the git-annex branch to be rewritten, throwing away  historical  data  about
              past locations of files.

              See git-annex-forget(1) for details.

       repair This  can  repair many of the problems with git repositories that git fsck detects,
              but does not itself fix. It's useful if a repository has become badly damaged.  One
              way  this  can  happen is if a repository used by git-annex is on a removable drive
              that gets unplugged at the wrong time.

              See git-annex-repair(1) for details.

       p2p    Configure peer-2-Peer links between repositories.

              See git-annex-p2p(1) for details.


       find [path ...]

              Outputs a list of annexed files in the specified path. With no path, finds files in
              the current directory and its subdirectories.

              See git-annex-find(1) for details.

       whereis [path ...]
              Displays information about where the contents of files are located.

              See git-annex-whereis(1) for details.

       list [path ...]
              Displays  a table of remotes that contain the contents of the specified files. This
              is similar to whereis but a more compact display.

              See git-annex-list(1) for details.

       log [path ...]
              Displays the location log for the specified file or files, showing each  repository
              they were added to ("+") and removed from ("-").

              See git-annex-log(1) for details.

       info [directory|file|remote|uuid ...]
              Displays  statistics  and  other information for the specified item, which can be a
              directory, or a file, or a remote, or the uuid of a repository.

              When no item is specified, displays statistics and information for  the  repository
              as a whole.

              See git-annex-info(1) for details.

              Shows the version of git-annex, as well as repository version information.

              See git-annex-version(1) for details.

       map    Generate map of repositories.

              See git-annex-map(1) for details.

              Access files while they're being downloaded.

              See git-annex-inprogress(1) for details.


       metadata [path ...]

              The  content  of an annexed file can have any number of metadata fields attached to
              it to describe it. Each metadata field can in turn have any number of values.

              This command can be used to set metadata, or show the currently set metadata.

              See git-annex-metadata(1) for details.

       view [tag ...] [field=value ...] [field=glob ...] [!tag ...] [field!=value ...]
              Uses metadata to build a view branch of the files in the current branch, and checks
              out  the  view  branch. Only files in the current branch whose metadata matches all
              the specified field values and tags will be shown in the view.

              See git-annex-view(1) for details.

       vpop [N]
              Switches from the currently active view back to the previous view.   Or,  from  the
              first view back to original branch.

              See git-annex-vpop(1) for details.

       vfilter [tag ...] [field=value ...] [!tag ...] [field!=value ...]
              Filters the current view to only the files that have the specified field values and

              See git-annex-vfilter(1) for details.

       vadd [field=glob ...] [field=value ...] [tag ...]
              Changes the current view, adding an additional level of directories  to  categorize
              the files.

              See git-annex-vfilter(1) for details.

       vcycle When a view involves nested subdirectories, this cycles the order.

              See git-annex-vcycle(1) for details.


       migrate [path ...]

              Changes the specified annexed files to use a different key-value backend.

              See git-annex-migrate(1) for details.

       reinject src dest
              Moves  the  src  file  into the annex as the content of the dest file.  This can be
              useful if you have obtained the content of a file from elsewhere and want to put it
              in the local annex.

              See git-annex-reinject(1) for details.

       unannex [path ...]
              Use  this to undo an accidental git annex add command. It puts the file back how it
              was before the add.

              See git-annex-unannex(1) for details.

       uninit De-initialize git-annex and clean out repository.

              See git-annex-uninit(1) for details.

       reinit uuid|description
              Initialize repository, reusing old UUID.

              See git-annex-reinit(1) for details.


       pre-commit [path ...]

              This is meant to be called from git's pre-commit hook. git annex init automatically
              creates a pre-commit hook using this.

              See git-annex-pre-commit(1) for details.

              This  is  meant  to  be  called  from  git's  post-receive  hook.  git  annex  init
              automatically creates a post-receive hook using this.

              See git-annex-post-receive(1) for details.

       lookupkey [file ...]
              Looks up key used for file.

              See git-annex-lookupkey(1) for details.

       calckey [file ...]
              Calculates the key that would be used to refer to a file.

              See git-annex-calckey(1) for details.

       contentlocation [key ..]
              Looks up location of annexed content for a key.

              See git-annex-contentlocation(1) for details.

       examinekey [key ...]
              Print information that can be determined purely by looking at the key.

              See git-annex-examinekey(1) for details.

              Checks if a preferred content expression matches provided data.

              See git-annex-matchexpression(1) for details.

       fromkey [key file]
              Manually set up a file in the git repository to link to a specified key.

              See git-annex-fromkey(1) for details.

       registerurl [key url]
              Registers an url for a key.

              See git-annex-registerurl(1) for details.

       setkey key file
              Moves a file into the annex as the content of a key.

              See git-annex-setkey(1) for details.

       dropkey [key ...]
              Drops annexed content for specified keys.

              See git-annex-dropkey(1) for details.

       transferkey key [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Transfers a key from or to a remote.

              See git-annex-transferkey(1) for details.

              Used internally by the assistant.

              See git-annex-transferkey(1) for details.

       setpresentkey key uuid [1|0]
              This plumbing-level command changes git-annex's records about whether the specified
              key's content is present in a remote with the specified uuid.

              See git-annex-setpresentkey(1) for details.

       readpresentkey key uuid
              Read records of where key is present.

              See git-annex-readpresentkey(1) for details.

       checkpresentkey key remote
              Check if key is present in remote.

              See git-annex-checkpresentkey(1) for details.

       rekey [file key ...]
              Change keys used for files.

              See git-annex-rekey(1) for details.

       findref [ref]
              Lists files in a git ref.

              See git-annex-findref(1) for details.

       proxy -- git cmd [options]
              Only useful in a direct mode repository, this runs the specified git command with a
              temporary work tree, and updates the working tree to reflect any changes staged  or
              committed by the git command.

              See git-annex-proxy(1) for details.

              Resolves a conflicted merge, by adding both conflicting versions of the file to the
              tree, using variants of their filename. This is done automatically when  using  git
              annex sync or git annex merge.

              See git-annex-resolvemerge(1) for details.

              This can be used to make git diff use an external diff driver with annexed files.

              See git-annex-diffdriver(1) for details.

       smudge This  command lets git-annex be used as a git filter driver, allowing annexed files
              in the git repository to be unlocked at all times, instead of being symlinks.

              See git-annex-smudge(1) for details.

              Detects when network remotes have received git pushes and fetches from them.

              See git-annex-remotedaemon(1) for details.



              This runs git-annex's built-in test suite.

              See git-annex-test(1) for details.

       testremote remote
              This tests a remote by generating some random  objects  and  sending  them  to  the
              remote, then redownloading them, removing them from the remote, etc.

              It's  safe  to  run  in  an  existing  repository  (the repository contents are not
              altered), although it may perform expensive data transfers.

              See git-annex-testremote(1) for details.

              Generates random changes to files in the current repository, for use in testing the

              See git-annex-fuzztest(1) for details.

              This  runs  git-annex's  built-in  benchmarks,  if  it  was built with benchmarking


       These common options are accepted by all git-annex commands, and  may  not  be  explicitly
       listed   on   their   individual   man   pages.   (Many  commands  also  accept  the  git-

              Force unsafe actions, such as dropping a file's content when no other source of  it
              can be verified to still exist, or adding ignored files.  Use with care.

       --fast Enable  less  expensive, but also less thorough versions of some commands.  What is
              avoided depends on the command.

              Avoid the default verbose display of what is done; only show errors.

              Enable verbose display.

              Show debug messages.

              Disable debug messages.

              Overrides the numcopies setting, forcing git-annex to ensure the  specified  number
              of copies exist.

              Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

              Limits  how  long a git-annex command runs. The time can be something like "5h", or
              "30m" or even "45s" or "10d".

              Note that git-annex may continue running a little past the specified time limit, in
              order to finish processing a file.

              Also,  note  that  if the time limit prevents git-annex from doing all it was asked
              to, it will exit with a special code, 101.



              Overrides trust settings for a repository. May be specified more than once.

              The repository should be specified using the name of a configured  remote,  or  the
              UUID or description of a repository.

              Amazon  Glacier  inventories  take  hours  to  retrieve,  and may not represent the
              current state of a repository. So git-annex does not  trust  that  files  that  the
              inventory claims are in Glacier are really there.  This switch can be used to allow
              it to trust the inventory.

              Be careful using this, especially if  you  or  someone  else  might  have  recently
              removed  a  file  from Glacier. If you try to drop the only other copy of the file,
              and this switch is enabled, you could lose data!

              Specifies which key-value backend to use. This can be used when adding  a  file  to
              the annex, or migrating a file. Once files are in the annex, their backend is known
              and this option is not necessary.

              Overrides the User-Agent to use when downloading files from the web.

              Caused a desktop notification to be displayed after each successful  file  download
              and upload.

              (Only  supported  on  some  platforms,  e.g.  Linux  with  dbus.  A  no-op when not

              Caused a desktop notification to be displayed when a file upload  or  download  has
              started, or when a file is dropped.

       -c name=value
              Overrides git configuration settings. May be specified multiple times.


       Like  other  git  commands,  git-annex  is  configured  via .git/config.  Here are all the
       supported configuration settings.

              A unique UUID for this repository (automatically set).

              Name of the default  key-value  backend  to  use  when  adding  new  files  to  the

              This  is  overridden  by  annex  annex.backend  configuration in the .gitattributes
              files, and by the --backend option.

              (This used to be named annex.backends, and that will still be used if set.)

              Set to true to indicate that  the  repository  should  only  use  cryptographically
              secure hashes (SHA2, SHA3) and not insecure hashes (MD5, SHA1) for content.

       When  this  is set, the contents of files using cryptographically insecure hashes will not
       be allowed to be added to the repository.

       Also, git-annex fsck will complain about any files present  in  the  repository  that  use
       insecure hashes.

       To  configure  the  behavior  in  new  clones  of  the repository, this can be set in git-

              Amount of disk space to reserve. Disk space is checked when transferring content to
              avoid  running  out,  and additional free space can be reserved via this option, to
              make space for more important content (such as git commit logs). Can  be  specified
              with any commonly used units, for example, "0.5 gb", "500M", or "100 KiloBytes"

              The default reserve is 1 megabyte.

              Used  to configure which files are large enough to be added to the annex.  Default:
              All files.

              Overrides any annex.largefiles attributes in .gitattributes files.

              See <> for details.

              Controls whether small files (not matching annex.largefiles) should be checked into
              git by git annex add. Defaults to true; set to false to instead make small files be

              Set to true to make commands like git-annex add that add files  to  the  repository
              add  them  in  unlocked form. The default is to add files in locked form. This only
              has effect in version 6 repositories.

              When  a  repository  has  core.symlinks  set   to   false,   it   implicitly   sets
              annex.addunlocked to true.

              This  is  a  deprecated  setting.  You  should  instead use the git annex numcopies
              command to configure how many copies of files are kept across all repositories,  or
              the annex.numcopies .gitattributes setting.

              This  config  setting  is  only  looked  at when git annex numcopies has never been
              configured, and when there's no annex.numcopies setting in the .gitattributes file.

              Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

              Set this to true to make git-annex automatically generate some metadata when adding
              files to the repository.

              In   particular,  it  stores  year,  month,  and  day  metadata,  from  the  file's
              modification date.

              When importfeed is used, it stores additional metadata from the feed, such  as  the
              author, title, etc.

              This controls which refs git-annex unused considers to be used.  See REFSPEC FORMAT
              in git-annex-unused(1) for details.

              git-annex builds a queue of git commands, in order to combine similar commands  for
              speed.  By  default the size of the queue is limited to 10240 commands; this can be
              used to change the size. If you have plenty of memory and  are  working  with  very
              large numbers of files, increasing the queue size can speed it up.

              The  git  annex  unused and git annex sync --content commands use a bloom filter to
              determine what files are present in eg, the work tree.  The default bloom filter is
              sized  to  handle  up  to 500000 files. If your repository is larger than that, you
              should increase this value. Larger values will make git-annex unused and git  annex
              sync --content consume more memory; run git annex info for memory usage numbers.

              Adjusts  the  accuracy  of  the bloom filter used by git annex unused and git annex
              sync --content.  The default accuracy is 10000000 -- 1 unused file out of  10000000
              will  be  missed  by  git annex unused. Increasing the accuracy will make git annex
              unused consume more memory; run git annex info for memory usage numbers.

              By  default,  git-annex  caches  ssh  connections  using  ssh's  ControlMaster  and
              ControlPersist  settings (if built using a new enough ssh). To disable this, set to

              By default, git-annex automatically commits data to the git-annex branch after each
              command  is  run.  If  you have a series of commands that you want to make a single
              commit, you can run the commands with -c annex.alwayscommit=false.  You  can  later
              commit  the  data  by running git annex merge (or by automatic merges) or git annex

              You should beware running git gc when using  this  configuration,  since  it  could
              garbage collect objects that are staged in git-annex's index but not yet committed.

              By default, git-annex branches that have been pulled from remotes are automatically
              merged into the local git-annex branch, so that git-annex has the  most  up-to-date
              possible knowledge.

              To  avoid  that  merging, set this to "false". This can be useful particularly when
              you don't have write permission to the repository.

              Set this to true to make file contents be hard linked between  the  repository  and
              its remotes when possible, instead of a more expensive copy.

              Use  with caution -- This can invalidate numcopies counting, since with hard links,
              fewer copies of a file can exist. So, it is a good idea to mark a repository  using
              this setting as untrusted.

              When  a  repository  is  set  up  using  git  clone  --shared,  git-annex init will
              automatically set annex.hardlink and mark the repository as untrusted.

              Set this to true to make unlocked files be a hard link  to  their  content  in  the
              annex, rather than a second copy. (Only when supported by the file system, and only
              in repository version 6.) This  can  save  considerable  disk  space,  but  when  a
              modification is made to a file, you will lose the local (and possibly only) copy of
              the old version. So, enable with care.

              After setting (or unsetting) this, you should run git  annex  fix  to  fix  up  the
              annexed files in the work tree to be hard links (or copies).

              Note that annex.thin is not honored when git updates an annexed file in the working
              tree. So when git checkout or git merge updates the working tree, a second copy  of
              annexed files will result. You can run git-annex fix to fix up the hard links after
              running such git commands.

              Makes the watch and assistant commands delay for the specified  number  of  seconds
              before  adding  a  newly  created  file  to the annex. Normally this is not needed,
              because they already wait for all writers of the file to close it. On Mac OSX, when
              not  using  direct mode this defaults to 1 second, to work around a bad interaction
              with software there.

              Controls what the assistant does about unused file contents that are stored in  the

              The default is false, which causes all old and unused file contents to be retained,
              unless the assistant is able to move them to  some  other  repository  (such  as  a
              backup repository).

              Can  be set to a time specification, like "7d" or "1m", and then file contents that
              have been known to be unused for a week or a month will be deleted.

              When set to false, prevents the webapp from reminding you when  using  repositories
              that lack consistency checks.

              When set to ask (the default), the webapp will check for new versions and prompt if
              they should be upgraded to.  When  set  to  true,  automatically  upgrades  without
              prompting  (on  some  supported platforms). When set to false, disables any upgrade

              Note that upgrade checking is only done when git-annex is installed from one of the
              prebuilt images from its website. This does not bypass e.g., a Linux distribution's
              own upgrade handling code.

              This setting also controls whether to restart the git-annex assistant when the git-
              annex  binary  is  detected  to  have  changed.  That  is  useful no matter how you
              installed git-annex.

              Set  to  false  to  prevent  the  git-annex  assistant  and  git-annex  sync   from
              automatically committing changes to files in the repository.

              To  configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this can be set in git-

              Set  to  false  to  prevent  merge  conflicts  in  the  checked  out  branch  being
              automatically  resolved by the git-annex assitant, git-annex sync, git-annex merge,
              and the git-annex post-receive hook.

              To configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this can be set in  git-

              Set to true to make git-annex sync default to syncing content.

              To  configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this can be set in git-

              Set to false to prevent the git-annex assistant from scanning  the  repository  for
              new  and  changed files on startup. This will prevent it from noticing changes that
              were made while it was not running, but can be a useful  performance  tweak  for  a
              large repository.

              Configures  which  address the webapp listens on. The default is localhost.  Can be
              either an IP address, or a hostname that resolves to the desired address.

              Set to true to enable debug logging by default.

              Automatically maintained, and used to automate upgrades between versions.
              Set to true when the repository is in direct mode. Should not be set manually;  use
              the "git annex direct" and "git annex indirect" commands instead.

              Set  to true if the repository is on a crippled filesystem, such as FAT, which does
              not  support  symbolic  links,  or  hard  links,  or  unix  permissions.   This  is
              automatically probed by "git annex init".

              Normally, git-annex uses fine-grained lock files to allow multiple processes to run
              concurrently without getting in each others' way.  That works great, unless you are
              using  git-annex  on  a filesystem that does not support POSIX fcntl locks. This is
              sometimes the case when using NFS or Lustre filesystems.

              To support such situations, you can set annex.pidlock to true,  and  it  will  fall
              back to a single top-level pid file lock.

              Although,  often,  you'd  really  be  better  off  fixing your networked filesystem
              configuration to support POSIX locks..  And,  some  networked  filesystems  are  so
              inconsistent that one node can't reliably tell when the other node is holding a pid
              lock. Caveat emptor.

              When using pid lock files, it's possible for a stale lock file to get  left  behind
              by  previous  run  of  git-annex  that  crashed or was interrupted.  This is mostly
              avoided, but can occur especially when using a network file system.

              git-annex will wait up to this many seconds for the pid lock file to go  away,  and
              will then abort if it cannot continue. Default: 300

              When  determining  which repository to transfer annexed files from or to, ones with
              lower costs are preferred.  The default cost is 100 for local repositories, and 200
              for remote repositories.

              If  set,  the  command is run, and the number it outputs is used as the cost.  This
              allows varying the cost based on e.g., the current network.

              A command to run when git-annex begins to use the remote. This can be used to,  for
              example, mount the directory containing the remote.

              The  command  may  be  run repeatedly when multiple git-annex processes are running

              A command to run when git-annex is done using the remote.

              The command will only be run once *all* running git-annex  processes  are  finished
              using the remote.

              Specify  an alternative git-annex-shell executable on the remote instead of looking
              for "git-annex-shell" on the PATH.

              This is useful if the  git-annex-shell  program  is  outside  the  PATH  or  has  a
              non-standard name.

              If  set  to  true,  prevents git-annex from storing file contents on this remote by
              default.  (You can still request it be used by the --from and --to options.)

              This is, for example, useful if  the  remote  is  located  somewhere  without  git-
              annex-shell. (For example, if it's on GitHub).  Or, it could be used if the network
              connection between two repositories is too slow to be used normally.

              This does not prevent git-annex sync (or the git-annex assistant) from syncing  the
              git repository to the remote.

              If  set,  the  command  is run, and if it exits nonzero, that's the same as setting
              annex-ignore to true. This allows controlling behavior based on e.g.,  the  current

              If set to false, prevents git-annex sync (and the git-annex assistant) from syncing
              with this remote by default. However, git annex sync <name> can still  be  used  to
              sync with the remote.

              If  set,  the  command  is run, and if it exits nonzero, that's the same as setting
              annex-sync to false. This allows controlling behavior based on  e.g.,  the  current

              If  set  to  false,  prevents git-annex sync (and the git-annex assistant etc) from
              ever pulling (or fetching) from the remote.

              If set to false, prevents git-annex sync (and the  git-annex  assistant  etc)  from
              ever pushing to the remote.

              If  set  to  true,  prevents  git-annex from making changes to a remote.  This both
              prevents git-annex sync from pushing changes,  and  prevents  storing  or  removing
              files from read-only remote.

       remote.<name>.annex-verify, annex.verify
              By default, git-annex will verify the checksums of objects downloaded from remotes.
              If you trust a remote and don't want the overhead of these checksums, you  can  set
              this to false.

              When  set  to  a  branch  name  or other treeish, this makes what's exported to the
              special remote track changes to the branch. See git-annex-export(1). git-annex sync
              --content  and  the  git-annex  assistant  update  exports  when  changes have been
              committed to the tracking branch.

              Can be used to specify a different url than the regular remote.<name>.url for  git-
              annex to use when talking with the remote. Similar to the pushUrl used by git-push.

              git-annex caches UUIDs of remote repositories here.

              - remote.<name>.annex-checkuuid

              This  only  affects remotes that have their url pointing to a directory on the same
              system. git-annex normally checks the uuid of such  remotes  each  time  it's  run,
              which  lets  it  transparently  deal  with  different  drives  being mounted to the
              location at different times.

              Setting annex-checkuuid to false will prevent it from checking the uuid at  startup
              (although  the  uuid  is  still  verified  before  making any changes to the remote
              repository).  This  may  be  useful  to  set  to  prevent  unncessary  spin-up   or
              automounting of a drive.

              Configures  a local trust level for the remote. This overrides the value configured
              by the trust and untrust commands. The value can be any of "trusted", "semitrusted"
              or "untrusted".

              Can   be   used   to  tell  git-annex  whether  a  remote  is  LocallyAvailable  or
              GloballyAvailable. Normally, git-annex determines this automatically.

              Can be used to tell git-annex if a remote is a bare repository  or  not.  Normally,
              git-annex determines this automatically.

              Options to use when using ssh to talk to this remote.

              Options to use when using rsync to or from this remote. For example, to force IPv6,
              and limit the bandwidth to 100Kbyte/s, set it to -6 --bwlimit 100

              Note that git-annex-shell has a whitelist of allowed rsync options, and others will
              not  be  be  passed  to  the  remote  rsync.  So  using  some options may break the
              communication between the local and remote rsyncs.

              Options to use when using rsync to upload a file to a remote.

              These options are passed after other applicable rsync options, so can  be  used  to
              override  them.  For example, to limit upload bandwidth to 10Kbyte/s, set --bwlimit

              Options to use when using rsync to download a file from a remote.

              These options are passed after other applicable rsync options, so can  be  used  to
              override them.

              The  remote  shell  to  use to connect to the rsync remote. Possible values are ssh
              (the default) and rsh, together with their arguments, for instance ssh -p  2222  -c
              blowfish;  Note  that the remote hostname should not appear there, see rsync(1) for
              details.  When the transport used is  ssh,  connections  are  automatically  cached
              unless annex.sshcaching is unset.

              Options  to pass to bup split when storing content in this remote.  For example, to
              limit the  bandwidth  to  100Kbyte/s,  set  it  to  --bwlimit  100k  (There  is  no
              corresponding option for bup join.)

              Options  to  pass  to GnuPG when it's encrypting data. For instance, to use the AES
              cipher with a 256 bits key and disable compression, set it to --cipher-algo  AES256
              --compress-algo  none.  (These  options  take  precedence  over  the  default GnuPG
              configuration, which is otherwise used.)

              Options to pass to GnuPG when it's decrypting data. (These options take  precedence
              over the default GnuPG configuration, which is otherwise used.)

       annex.ssh-options, annex.rsync-options,
              annex.rsync-upload-options,  annex.rsync-download-options, annex.bup-split-options,
              annex.gnupg-options, annex.gnupg-decrypt-options

              Default options to use if a remote does not have more specific options as described

              Options to pass when running wget or curl.  For example, to force IPv4 only, set it
              to "-4"
              Options to pass to youtube-dl when using it to find  the  url  to  download  for  a

              Some  options  may  break git-annex's integration with youtube-dl. For example, the
              --output option could cause it to store files somewhere git-annex won't find  them.
              Avoid  setting  here  or  in  the  youtube-dl  config  file  any options that cause
              youtube-dl to download more than one file, or to store the file anywhere other than
              the current working directory.

              Options to pass to aria2c when using it to download a torrent.

              HTTP  headers  to send when downloading from the web. Multiple lines of this option
              can be set, one per header.

              If set, the command is run and each line of its output is used as  a  HTTP  header.
              This overrides annex.http-headers.

              Use  to  specify a command to run to download a file from the web.  (The default is
              to use wget or curl.)

              In the command line, %url is replaced with  the  url  to  download,  and  %file  is
              replaced with the file that it should be saved to.
              This  can  be  set  to  a command that should be run whenever git-annex removes the
              content of a file from the repository.

              In the command line, %file is replaced with the file that should be erased.

              For example, to use the wipe command, set it to wipe -f %file.

              Used by rsync special remotes, this configures the location of the rsync repository
              to  use. Normally this is automatically set up by git annex initremote, but you can
              change it if needed.

              Used by bup special remotes, this configures the location of the bup repository  to
              use.  Normally  this  is  automatically set up by git annex initremote, but you can
              change it if needed.

              Used by ddar special remotes, this configures the location of the  ddar  repository
              to  use. Normally this is automatically set up by git annex initremote, but you can
              change it if needed.

              Used by directory special remotes, this configures the location  of  the  directory
              where  annexed files are stored for this remote. Normally this is automatically set
              up by git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed.

              Used to identify Amazon S3 special remotes.  Normally this is automatically set  up
              by git annex initremote.

              Used  to  identify  Amazon Glacier special remotes.  Normally this is automatically
              set up by git annex initremote.

              Used to identify webdav special remotes.  Normally this is automatically set up  by
              git annex initremote.

              Used  to identify tahoe special remotes.  Points to the configuration directory for

              Used to identify gcrypt special remotes.  Normally this is automatically set up  by
              git annex initremote.

              It is set to "true" if this is a gcrypt remote.  If the gcrypt remote is accessible
              over ssh and has git-annex-shell available to manage it, it's set to "shell".

       remote.<name>.hooktype, remote.<name>.externaltype
              Used by hook special remotes and external special remotes to record the type of the

       annex.tune.objecthash1, annex.tune.objecthashlower, annex.tune.branchhash1
              These  can  be  passed  to  git  annex init to tune the repository.  They cannot be
              safely changed in a running repository and  should  never  be  set  in  global  git
              configuration.  For details, see <>.

CONFIGURATION VIA .gitattributes

       The  key-value  backend  used  when  adding a new file to the annex can be configured on a
       per-file-type basis via .gitattributes files. In the file, the annex.backend attribute can
       be  set  to  the  name of the backend to use. For example, this here's how to use the WORM
       backend by default, but the SHA256E backend for ogg files:

        * annex.backend=WORM
        *.ogg annex.backend=SHA256E

       There is a annex.largefiles attribute; which is used to configure which  files  are  large
       enough  to  be added to the annex.  See <>
       for details.

       The  numcopies  setting  can  also  be  configured  on  a  per-file-type  basis  via   the
       annex.numcopies   attribute  in  .gitattributes  files.  This  overrides  other  numcopies
       settings.  For example, this makes two copies be needed for wav files  and  3  copies  for
       flac files:

        *.wav annex.numcopies=2
        *.flac annex.numcopies=3

       Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

       These  settings  are  honored  by  git-annex  whenever  it's operating on a matching file.
       However, when using --all, --unused, or --key to specify keys to operate on, git-annex  is
       operating  on  keys and not files, so will not honor the settings from .gitattributes. For
       this reason, the git annex numcopies command is useful to configure a global  default  for

       Also note that when using views, only the toplevel .gitattributes file is preserved in the
       view, so other settings in other files won't have any effect.


       git-annex, when called as a git subcommand, may return exit codes 0 or 1  for  success  or
       failures,  or,  more  rarely,  127  or  128 for certain very specific failures.  git-annex
       itself should return 0 on success and 1 on failure, unless the --time-limit=time option is
       hit, in which case it returns with exit code 101.


       These environment variables are used by git-annex when set:

              Handled the same as they are by git, see git(1)

              Handled  similarly  to the same as described in git(1).  The one difference is that
              git-annex will sometimes pass an additional "-n" parameter to these, as  the  first
              parameter,  to  prevent  ssh from reading from stdin. Since that can break existing
              uses of these environment variables that don't expect the extra parameter, you will
              need to set GIT_ANNEX_USE_GIT_SSH=1 to make git-annex support these.

              Note  that  setting  either  of these environment variables prevents git-annex from
              automatically enabling ssh connection caching (see annex.sshcaching),  so  it  will
              slow  down  some  operations  with  remotes  over ssh. It's up to you to enable ssh
              connection caching if you need it; see ssh's documentation.

              Also, annex.ssh-options and remote.<name>.annex-ssh-options won't have  any  effect
              when these envionment variables are set.

              Usually  it's  better  to  configure any desired options through your ~/.ssh/config
              file, or by setting annex.ssh-options.

              Normally git-annex timestamps lines in the log files  committed  to  the  git-annex
              branch.  Setting this environment variable to a number will make git-annex use that
              rather than the current number of seconds since the UNIX epoch. Note  that  decimal
              seconds are supported.

              This is only provided for advanced users who either have a better way to tell which
              commit is current than the local clock, or who need to avoid  embedding  timestamps
              for  policy  reasons.  Misuse  of this environment variable can confuse git-annex's
              book-keeping, sometimes in ways that git annex fsck is unable to repair.

              Some special remotes use additional environment variables for  authentication  etc.
              For  example,  AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID  and  GIT_ANNEX_P2P_AUTHTOKEN.  See special remote


       These files are used by git-annex:

       .git/annex/objects/ in your git repository contains the annexed  file  contents  that  are
       currently available. Annexed files in your git repository symlink to that content.

       .git/annex/ in your git repository contains other run-time information used by git-annex.

       ~/.config/git-annex/autostart  is  a  list  of  git  repositories  to  start the git-annex
       assistant in.

       .git/hooks/pre-commit-annex in your git repository will be run whenever a commit  is  made
       to the HEAD branch, either by git commit, git-annex sync, or the git-annex assistant.

       .git/hooks/post-update-annex  in  your  git  repository will be run whenever the git-annex
       branch is updated. You can make this hook run git  update-server-info  when  publishing  a
       git-annex repository by http.


       More   git-annex   documentation   is   available   on   its   web   site,   <https://git->

       If git-annex is installed from a package, a copy of its documentation should be  included,
       in, for example, /usr/share/doc/git-annex/.


       Joey Hess <>