Provided by: kakasi_2.3.6-1build1_amd64 bug


       KAKASI - Kanji kana simple inverter (between Kanji, both Kana and Romaji)


       kakasi [options] [jisyo1 [jisyo2 [jisyo1,,]]]


       KAKASI  In  Japanese  sentences are often made up a mixture of Chinese characters (Kanji),
       Kana (Hiragana and Katakana) and Romaji (Latin phonetical  pronunciation).   This  program
       converts between these four different ways of writing Japanese.

       This  program  is  useful  for those whose terminal or desktop does not support the native
       display of Japanese.  Also this is a great  tool  for  those  who  are  learning  Japanese
       (international students and children etc).

       A  word can be passed into the standard input (stdin), then it is translated and output to
       standard out (stdout).  In the following example the  "bunchu"  Kanji  is  converted  into

                 kakasi -JH < document

       Since  version  2.3.0  text  with  spaces  in-between  words  has  been supported.  In the
       following example the output has spaces in-between each word.

                 kakasi -w < document

       Since version 2.3.5 level conversion mode has been supported.  In the  following  example,
       simple  Kanjis  are  left  them  unconverted,  and  difficult  Kanjis  are translated into

                 kakasi -l4 < document

       KAKASI It is possible to  convert  letters  to  alphabetical  characters.   Also  Katakana
       letters in the JIS x0201 character set and the Hiragana in the JIS x0208 character set can
       be converted between each other.

       KAKASI The following character set in brackets which is displayed.

       ASCII (a) Known as "ascii" character set.

       JISROMAN (j)
                 Known as "jis roman" character set.

       GRAPHIC (g)
                 It is the DEC graphic character set.

       Katakana (k)
                 JIS x0201, defined as part of the GR character set.

                 As a matter of convinience, JIS x0208 is divided as stated below.

       Kanji (J)
                 JIS x0208 characters included between 16 and 94 sections.

       Hiragana (H)
                 JIS x0208 characters included in section 4 (Hiragana)

       Katakana (K)
                 JIS x0208 characters included in section 5 (Katakana)

       Sign (E)
                 JIS x0208 characters included in section 1,2,3,6,7, and 8.  (Note  that  section
                 9-15 are undefined in JIS x0208.)

       Translation between the following character sets are available.

       ASCII        -> JISROMAN, Sign

       JISROMAN     -> ASCII, Sign

       GRAPHIC      -> ASCII, JISROMAN, Sign

       JISx0201 Katakana
                    -> ASCII, JISROMAN, Kana, Hiragana

       Sign         -> ASCII, JISROMAN

       Katakana     -> ASCII, JISROMAN, JISx0201 Katakana, Hiragana

       Hiragana     -> ASCII, JISROMAN, JISx0201 Katakana, Kana

       Kanji        -> ASCII, JISROMAN, JISx0201 Katakana, Kana, Hiragana

       With  conversion  of  ASCII and the JISROMAN the alphabetical character conversion is done
       from JISx0201 Katakana, Katakana, Hiragana and Kanji.


           1. All kanji characters are converted to Hiragana.

               kakasi -JH

           2. All JIS x0208 characters are converted to JIS X 0201.

               kakasi -Hk -Kk -Jk -Ea

           3. All characters are converted to JIS X 0208.

               kakasi -aE -jE -gE -kK

           4. All characters are converted to ascii and words are separated.

               kakasi -Ha -Ka -Ja -Ea -ka

           5. Exchange between Katakana and Hiragana characters.

               kakasi -HK -KH


       Some character sets are categorized by kakasi and indicated by following mnemonics: a,  j,
       g, k, E, H, K, J.

             a --- ASCII characters
             j --- JIS ROMAN ( nearly equal to ASCII, "~" and "
                   different ) defined by JIS x0201
             g --- DEC Graphic Characters
             k --- KATAKANA defined by JIS x0201

       E, H, K, and J are included in JIS x0208 character set.

             J --- KANJI characters of JIS x0208.
             H --- HIRAGANA characters of JIS x0208.
             K --- KATAKANA characters of JIS x0208.
             E --- Rest of above characters of JIS x0208 which includes
                   alphabets, numbers, symbols and so on.

       -(from)(to)  means  conversion from character set (from) to (to).  For example, -JK option
       causes KANJI characters are converted to HIRAGANA. Combinations in the following table are
       available.  (You must not remember it, because the -h shows same information)

             to\from|    a    j    k    E    H     K    J    g
                a   |    -    o    o1   o    o1    o1   o12  o
                j   |    o    -    o1   o    o1    o1   o12  o
                k   |              -         o     o    o2
                E   |    o    o         -                    o
                H   |              o         -     o    o2
                K   |              o         o     -

             o  -- converted.
             1  -- converted to Romaji.
             2  -- Kanji -> Kana conversion.


       Unfortunately, several coding systems are used in Japan and JIS x0208 standard are changed
       at 1983. Therefore, KAKASI can automatically distinguish  the  coding  system  and  coding
       revision  and  then use the same output coding system if the document does not include JIS
       x0201 KATAKANA.  If JIS x0201 KATAKANA is included or you  wish  to  change  kanji  coding
       system, you may use the next options.

             -i : input coding
             -o : output coding

             jis -- Widely used on the internet. (Ex: fj, jp, .. newsgroups)
                    Derived from ISO-2022 coding manner.
                    newjis: JISx0208 (1983) invoked by ESC-$-B.
                    oldjis: JISx0208 (1978) invoked by ESC-$-@.
             euc,dec -- Often used in UNIX like computers. JISx0208 is
                    assigned to GR ( MSB is 1 ). The major difference between
                    euc and dec is assignment of JISx0201 KATAKANA and
                    the DEC graphic character.
             sjis -- Defined by Microsoft Corp. Widely used on the personal
                    computers ( MSDOS, Mac, .. )
             utf8 -- Current international standard.  All modern OSs use this
                    encoding of the Unicode character set as the default.


       Kanji kana conversion options. Used with -J? option.  There are 2 types of Romaji writing.
       The first is the Kunrei method defined by Japanese  government,  and  the  second  is  the
       Hepburn method.  I think Hepburn method sounds naturally to foreigners.

             -rhepburn : Hepburn Method (default)
             -rkunrei  : Kunrei Method


             -p: List all possible readings. If there exist two or more
                 possible readings, KAKASI shows them in braces {aaa,bbb}.
             -s: Insert a separate character between words.
             -f: Furigana mode. Shows the original kanji word with reading.
             -c: Skip characters within word. ( default TAB CR LF BLANK )
             -C: Capitalize Romaji word (with -Ja or -Jj option)
             -U: Upcase romaji word (with -Ja or -Jj option)
             -u: Call fflush().
             -w: wakatigaki mode. 'wakatigaki' is word segmentation for
                 Japanese sentences.


       KAKASI  can  accept additional dictionary to the system dictionary.  The acceptable format
       of additional dictionary is SKK format, and Wnn format, and so on.  Namely, each record is
       one  line  with  two  fields, Yomi (reading) and Jukugo(idiom).  Fields are separated with
       commas (or TAB, or blank).  The kanji code is restricted  to  JIS  or  EUC.   See  another
       document named JISYO for more details.


       The behavior is affected by the following environment variables.

              Specifies  a  path  of  kanwadict (full-path including filename).  Default value is

              Specifies a path of itaijidict (full-path including filename).   Default  value  is


       Hironobu Takahasi <>


              It is a binary dictionary of KAKASI.  It is automatically converted from kakasidict
              by mkkanwa when the package is installed.




       Return status except 0 when there is any trouble.


       Report bugs to KAKASI Project <>.   Please  DO  NOT  CONTACT  to  the
       originator (Takahasi-san).


       The content of English manual is not exactly same as that of Japanese manual.