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       gdb - The GNU Debugger


       gdb    [-help] [-nx] [-q] [-batch] [-cd=dir] [-f] [-b bps] [-tty=dev] [-s symfile] [-e
              prog] [-se prog] [-c core] [-x cmds] [-d dir] [prog[core|procID]]


       The purpose of a debugger such as GDB is to allow you to see what is going  on  ``inside''
       another  program  while  it  executes—or  what  another program was doing at the moment it

       GDB can do four main kinds of things (plus other things in support of these) to  help  you
       catch bugs in the act:

          ·   Start your program, specifying anything that might affect its behavior.

          ·   Make your program stop on specified conditions.

          ·   Examine what has happened, when your program has stopped.

          ·   Change things in your program, so you can experiment with correcting the effects of
              one bug and go on to learn about another.

       You can use GDB to debug programs written in C, C++, and Modula-2.  Fortran  support  will
       be added when a GNU Fortran compiler is ready.

       GDB  is  invoked  with  the  shell  command gdb.  Once started, it reads commands from the
       terminal until you tell it to exit with the GDB command quit.  You  can  get  online  help
       from gdb itself by using the command help.

       You  can run gdb with no arguments or options; but the most usual way to start GDB is with
       one argument or two, specifying an executable program as the argument:

       gdb program

       You can also start with both an executable program and a core file specified:

       gdb program core

       You can, instead, specify a process ID as a second  argument,  if  you  want  to  debug  a
       running process:

       gdb program 1234

       would attach GDB to process 1234 (unless you also have a file named `1234'; GDB does check
       for a core file first).

       Here are some of the most frequently needed GDB commands:

       break [file:]function
               Set a breakpoint at function (in file).

       run [arglist]
              Start your program (with arglist, if specified).

       bt     Backtrace: display the program stack.

       print expr
               Display the value of an expression.

       c      Continue running your program (after stopping, e.g. at a breakpoint).

       next   Execute next program line (after stopping); step over any  function  calls  in  the

       edit [file:]function
              look at the program line where it is presently stopped.

       list [file:]function
              type the text of the program in the vicinity of where it is presently stopped.

       step   Execute  next  program  line  (after stopping); step into any function calls in the

       help [name]
              Show information about GDB command name, or general information about using GDB.

       quit   Exit from GDB.

       For full details on GDB, see Using GDB: A Guide  to  the  GNU  Source-Level  Debugger,  by
       Richard  M.  Stallman  and  Roland H. Pesch.  The same text is available online as the gdb
       entry in the info program.


       Any arguments other than options specify an executable file and core file (or process ID);
       that  is, the first argument encountered with no associated option flag is equivalent to a
       `-se' option, and the second, if any, is equivalent to a `-c' option if it's the name of a
       file.   Many  options have both long and short forms; both are shown here.  The long forms
       are also recognized if you truncate them, so long as enough of the option is present to be
       unambiguous.   (If  you  prefer,  you  can flag option arguments with `+' rather than `-',
       though we illustrate the more usual convention.)

       All the options and command line arguments you give are  processed  in  sequential  order.
       The order makes a difference when the `-x' option is used.


       -h     List all options, with brief explanations.


       -s file
               Read symbol table from file file.

       -write Enable writing into executable and core files.


       -e file
                Use  file  file  as  the  executable  file  to  execute when appropriate, and for
              examining pure data in conjunction with a core dump.

               Read symbol table from file file and use it as the executable file.


       -c file
               Use file file as a core dump to examine.


       -x file
               Execute GDB commands from file file.


       -d directory
               Add directory to the path to search for source files.


       -n     Do not execute commands from any `.gdbinit' initialization  files.   Normally,  the
              commands  in  these  files are executed after all the command options and arguments
              have been processed.


       -q     ``Quiet''.  Do not print the introductory and copyright messages.   These  messages
              are also suppressed in batch mode.

       -batch Run  in  batch  mode.   Exit  with  status 0 after processing all the command files
              specified with `-x' (and `.gdbinit', if not inhibited).  Exit with  nonzero  status
              if an error occurs in executing the GDB commands in the command files.

              Batch  mode  may be useful for running GDB as a filter, for example to download and
              run a program on another computer; in order to make this more useful, the message

              Program exited normally.

              (which  is  ordinarily  issued  whenever  a  program  running  under  GDB   control
              terminates) is not issued when running in batch mode.

                Run  GDB  using  directory  as  its  working  directory,  instead  of the current


       -f     Emacs sets this option when it runs GDB as a subprocess.  It tells  GDB  to  output
              the  full file name and line number in a standard, recognizable fashion each time a
              stack frame is displayed (which  includes  each  time  the  program  stops).   This
              recognizable  format  looks  like  two ` 32' characters, followed by the file name,
              line number and character position separated by colons, and a newline.  The  Emacs-
              to-GDB  interface  program uses the two ` 32' characters as a signal to display the
              source code for the frame.

       -b bps  Set the line speed (baud rate or bits per second) of any serial interface used  by
              GDB for remote debugging.

               Run using device for your program's standard input and output.


       `gdb'  entry  in  info;  Using  GDB:  A Guide to the GNU Source-Level Debugger, Richard M.
       Stallman and Roland H. Pesch, July 1991.


       Copyright (c) 1991, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual  provided  the
       copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is  granted  to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the
       conditions for verbatim copying, provided  that  the  entire  resulting  derived  work  is
       distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission  is  granted  to  copy  and distribute translations of this manual into another
       language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except  that  this  permission
       notice may be included in translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of
       in the original English.