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NAME  - Performs stream network extraction.


       raster, hydrology, stream network

SYNOPSIS --help  elevation=name  [accumulation=name]   [depression=name]  threshold=float
       [d8cut=float]        [mexp=float]         [stream_length=integer]         [memory=integer]
       [stream_raster=name]    [stream_vector=name]    [direction=name]   [--overwrite]  [--help]
       [--verbose]  [--quiet]  [--ui]

           Allow output files to overwrite existing files

           Print usage summary

           Verbose module output

           Quiet module output

           Force launching GUI dialog

       elevation=name [required]
           Name of input elevation raster map

           Name of input accumulation raster map
           Stream extraction will use provided accumulation instead of calculating it anew

           Name of input raster map with real depressions
           Streams will not be routed out of real depressions

       threshold=float [required]
           Minimum flow accumulation for streams
           Must be > 0

           Use SFD above this threshold
           If accumulation is larger than d8cut, SFD is used instead of MFD. Applies only  if  no
           accumulation map is given.

           Montgomery exponent for slope, disabled with 0
           Montgomery:  accumulation  is  multiplied  with pow(slope,mexp) and then compared with
           Default: 0

           Delete stream segments shorter than stream_length cells
           Applies only to first-order stream segments (springs/stream heads)
           Default: 0

           Maximum memory to be used (in MB)
           Cache size for raster rows
           Default: 300

           Name for output raster map with unique stream ids

           Name for output vector map with unique stream ids

           Name for output raster map with flow direction

DESCRIPTION extracts streams in both raster and vector format from a  required  input
       elevation map and optional input accumulation map.


       NULL  (nodata)  cells in the input elevation map are ignored, zero and negative values are
       valid elevation data. Gaps in the elevation map  that  are  located  within  the  area  of
       interest must be filled beforehand, e.g. with r.fillnulls, to avoid distortions.

       All  non-NULL  and  non-zero cells of depression map will be regarded as real depressions.
       Streams will not be routed out of depressions. If an area is marked as depression but  the
       elevation model has no depression at this location, streams will not stop there. If a flow
       accumulation map and a map with real depressions are provided, the flow  accumulation  map
       must  match  the  depression  map  such  that flow is not distributed out of the indicated
       depressions. It  is  recommended  to  use  internally  computed  flow  accumulation  if  a
       depression map is provided.

       Option  threshold  defines  the minimum (optionally modified) flow accumulation value that
       will initiate a new stream. If Montgomery’s method for channel  initiation  is  used,  the
       cell  value of the accumulation input map is multiplied by (tan(local slope))mexp and then
       compared  to  threshold.  If  mexp  is  given  than   the   method   of   Montgomery   and
       Foufoula-Georgiou  (1993)  to  initiate  a  stream  with this value. The cell value of the
       accumulation input map is multiplied  by  (tan(local  slope))mexp  and  then  compared  to
       threshold.  If  threshold  is  reached or exceeded, a new stream is initiated. The default
       value 0 disables Montgomery. Montgomery and Foufoula-Georgiou (1993)  generally  recommend
       to  use  2.0  as  exponent.  mexp  values closer to 0 will produce streams more similar to
       streams extracted with Montgomery disabled.  Larger mexp values  decrease  the  number  of
       streams  in  flat  areas  and  increase the number of streams in steep areas. If weight is
       given, the weight is applied first.

       Option d8cut defines minimum amount of overland flow (accumulation) when SFD (D8) will  be
       used  instead of MFD (FD8) to calculate flow accumulation. Only applies if no accumulation
       map is provided. Setting to 0 disables MFD completely.

       Option stream_length defines minimum stream length in  number  of  cells  for  first-order
       (head/spring)  stream segments. All first-order stream segments shorter than stream_length
       will be deleted.

       Output direction raster map contains flow  direction  for  all  non-NULL  cells  in  input
       elevation.  Flow  direction is of D8 type with a range of 1 to 8.  Multiplying values with
       45 gives degrees CCW from East.  Flow  direction  was  adjusted  during  thinning,  taking
       shortcuts and skipping cells that were eliminated by the thinning procedure.

   Stream extraction
       If  no  accumulation  input  map  is  provided,  flow  accumulation  is  determined with a
       hydrological analysis similar to r.watershed. The algorithm is MFD  (FD8)  after  Holmgren
       1994, as for r.watershed. The threshold option determines the number of streams and detail
       of stream networks.  Whenever flow accumulation reaches threshold, a new stream is started
       and  traced  downstream  to  its  outlet  point.  As for r.watershed, flow accumulation is
       calculated as the number of cells draining through a cell.

       If accumulation is given than the accumulation values of the provided accumulation map are
       used  and not calculated from the input elevation map. In this case the elevation map must
       be exactly the same map used to calculate accumulation.  If  accumulation  was  calculated
       with r.terraflow, the filled elevation output of r.terraflow must be used. Further on, the
       current region should be  aligned  to  the  accumulation  map.  Flow  direction  is  first
       calculated  from  elevation  and  then  adjusted  to  accumulation. It is not necessary to
       provide accumulation as the number of cells, it can also be  the  optionally  adjusted  or
       weighed total contributing area in square meters or any other unit.  When an original flow
       accumulation map is adjusted or weighed, the adjustment or  weighing  should  not  convert
       valid accumulation values to NULL (nodata) values.

       In  case of getting the error message ERROR: Accumulation raster map is NULL but elevation
       map is not NULL the computational region must be carefully adjusted to exclude NULL pixels
       in the accumulation raster map prior to stream extraction.

   Weighed flow accumulation
       Flow accumulation can be calculated first, e.g. with r.watershed, and then modified before
       using it as input for In its general form, a weighed accumulation map is
       generated  by first creating a weighing map and then multiplying the accumulation map with
       the weighing map using r.mapcalc. It is highly recommended to evaluate  the  weighed  flow
       accumulation map first, before using it as input for

       This allows e.g. to decrease the number of streams in dry areas and increase the number of
       streams in wet areas by setting weight to smaller than 1 in dry areas and larger than 1 in
       wet areas.

       Another  possibility  is to restrict channel initiation to valleys determined from terrain
       morphology. Valleys can be determined with r.param.scale method=crosc (cross-sectional  or
       tangential  curvature).  Curvature values < 0 indicate concave features, i.e. valleys. The
       size of the  processing  window  determines  whether  narrow  or  broad  valleys  will  be
       identified (See example below).

   Defining a region of interest
       The  stream extraction procedure can be restricted to a certain region of interest, e.g. a
       subbasin, by setting the computational region with g.region and/or creating a  MASK.  Such
       region  of  interest  should  be a complete catchment area, complete in the sense that the
       complete area upstream of an outlet point is included and buffered with at least one cell.

   Stream output
       The output raster and vector contains stream segments with unique IDs. Note that these IDs
       are different from the IDs assigned by r.watershed. The vector output also contains points
       at the location of the start of a stream segment, at confluences  and  at  stream  network
       outlet locations.

       Output  stream_raster  raster map stores extracted streams. Cell values encode a unique ID
       for each stream segment.

       Output stream_vector vector map stores extracted stream segments and  points.  Points  are
       written  at  the  start  location  of  each  stream  segment and at the outlet of a stream
       network. In layer 1, categories are unique IDs, identical to the cell value of the  raster
       output.  The  attribute  table  for  layer  1  holds  information about the type of stream
       segment: start segment, or intermediate segment with tributaries,  and  about  the  stream
       network   this   stream   or   node   belongs   to.   Columns   are   cat  int,stream_type
       varchar(),type_code int,network int. The network  attribute  is  the  network  ID  of  the
       stream/node.  The  encoding  for  type_code  is  0  = start, 1 = intermediate. In layer 2,
       categories are identical to type_code in layer 1 with additional category 2 =  outlet  for
       outlet  points.  Points  with  category 1 = intermediate in layer 2 are at the location of


       This example is based on the elevation map "elev_ned_30m" in  the  North  Carolina  sample
       dataset  and  uses  valleys  determined  with  r.param.scale  to weigh an accumulation map
       produced with r.watershed.
       # set region
       g.region -p raster=elev_ned_30m@PERMANENT
       # calculate flow accumulation
       r.watershed ele=elev_ned_30m@PERMANENT acc=elev_ned_30m.acc
       # curvature to get narrow valleys
       r.param.scale input=elev_ned_30m@PERMANENT output=tangential_curv_5 size=5 method=crosc
       # curvature to get a bit broader valleys
       r.param.scale input=elev_ned_30m@PERMANENT output=tangential_curv_7 size=7 method=crosc
       # curvature to get broad valleys
       r.param.scale input=elev_ned_30m@PERMANENT output=tangential_curv_11 size=11 method=crosc
       # create weight map
       r.mapcalc "weight = if(tangential_curv_5 < 0, -100 * tangential_curv_5, \
                           if(tangential_curv_7 < 0, -100 * tangential_curv_7, \
                           if(tangential_curv_11 < 0, -100 * tangential_curv_11, 0.000001)))"
       # weigh accumulation map
       r.mapcalc expr="elev_ned_30m.acc.weighed = elev_ned_30m.acc * weight"
       # copy color table from original accumulation map
       r.colors map=elev_ned_30m.acc.weighed raster=elev_ned_30m.acc

       Weight map (spatial subset with lake in the southern half)

       Original flow accumulation map (spatial subset with lake in the southern half)

       Weighed flow accumulation map (spatial subset with lake in the southern half)

       Display both the original and the weighed accumulation map.  Compare them and  proceed  if
       the weighed accumulation map makes sense.
       # extract streams using the original accumulation map elevation=elev_ned_30m@PERMANENT \
                        accumulation=elev_ned_30m.acc \
                        threshold=1000 \
       # extract streams from weighed map
       # note that the weighed map is a bit smaller than the original map elevation=elev_ned_30m@PERMANENT \
                        accumulation=elev_ned_30m.acc.weighed \
                        threshold=1000 \

       Now display both stream maps and decide which one is more realistic.

       Extracted streams from original flow accumulation map

       Extracted streams from weighed flow accumulation map


           ·   Ehlschlaeger,  C.  (1989).  Using  the  AT  Search Algorithm to Develop Hydrologic
               Models from  Digital  Elevation  Data,  Proceedings  of  International  Geographic
               Information  Systems  (IGIS) Symposium ’89, pp 275-281 (Baltimore, MD, 18-19 March
               1989). URL:

           ·   Holmgren, P. (1994). Multiple flow direction algorithms for  runoff  modelling  in
               grid  based elevation models: An empirical evaluation.  Hydrological Processes Vol
               8(4), pp 327-334. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.3360080405

           ·   Montgomery,  D.R.,  Foufoula-Georgiou,   E.   (1993).   Channel   network   source
               representation  using  digital  elevation  models.   Water  Resources Research Vol
               29(12), pp 3925-3934.


         r.mapcalc,   r.param.scale,   (Addon),   (Addon),  (Addon),  (Addon), (Addon),
       (Addon), (Addon), r.terraflow, r.thin,, r.watershed

       See also r.streams.*  modules wiki page.


       Markus Metz

       Last changed: $Date: 2017-11-12 14:07:55 +0100 (Sun, 12 Nov 2017) $


       Available at: source code (history)

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