Provided by: systemtap_3.1-3ubuntu0.1_amd64 bug

NAME

       stap - systemtap script translator/driver

SYNOPSIS

       stap [ OPTIONS ] FILENAME [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] - [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] -e SCRIPT [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] -l PROBE [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] -L PROBE [ ARGUMENTS ]
       stap [ OPTIONS ] --dump-probe-types
       stap [ OPTIONS ] --dump-probe-aliases
       stap [ OPTIONS ] --dump-functions

DESCRIPTION

       The  stap program is the front-end to the Systemtap tool.  It accepts probing instructions
       written in a simple domain-specific language, translates those instructions into  C  code,
       compiles  this  C  code,  and  loads the resulting module into a running Linux kernel or a
       DynInst user-space mutator, to perform the requested system  trace/probe  functions.   You
       can  supply  the  script in a named file (FILENAME), from standard input (use - instead of
       FILENAME), or from the command line (using -e SCRIPT).   The  program  runs  until  it  is
       interrupted  by  the user, or if the script voluntarily invokes the exit() function, or by
       sufficient number of soft errors.

       The language, which is described the SCRIPT LANGUAGE section  below,  is  strictly  typed,
       expressive, declaration free, procedural, prototyping-friendly, and inspired by awk and C.
       It allows source code points or events in the system to be associated with handlers, which
       are  subroutines  that are executed synchronously.  It is somewhat similar conceptually to
       "breakpoint command lists" in the gdb debugger.

DOCUMENTATION OVERVIEW

       systemtap comes with a variety of  educational,  documentation  and  reference  resources.
       They  come  online  and/or  packaged  for  offline use.  For online documentation, see the
       project web site, https://sourceware.org/systemtap/

       ┌───────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
       │man pages          │                                                      │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │stap (this page)   │ language syntax, concepts, operation, options        │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │stapprobes         │ probe points and their $context variables            │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │stapref            │ quick reference to language syntax                   │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │stappaths          │ list of directories, including books & references    │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │stap-prep          │ program  to  install  auxiliary  dependencies   like │
       │                   │ kernel debuginfo                                     │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │tapset::*          │ generated list of tapsets                            │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │probe::*           │ generated list of tapset probe aliases               │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │function::*        │ generated list of tapset functions                   │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │macro::*           │ generated list of tapset macros                      │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │stapvars           │ some of the tapset global variables                  │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │staprun, stapdyn   │ programs for executing compiled systemtap scripts    │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │systemtap          │ initscript, boot-time probing                        │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │stap-server        │ compilation server                                   │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │stapex             │ a few very basic script examples                     │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │books              │                                                      │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │Beginner's Guide   │ tutorial book, language essentials, examples         │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │Tutorial           │ shorter tutorial, exercises                          │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │Language Reference │ detailed language manual, covers statistics/analysis │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │Tapset Reference   │ the tapset man pages, reformatted into a book        │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │references         │                                                      │
       ├───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │example scripts    │ over a hundred directly usable sysadmin tools, toys, │
       │                   │ hacks to learn from                                  │
       └───────────────────┴──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

OPTIONS

       The systemtap translator supports the following options.  Any other option prints  a  list
       of  supported  options.   Options may be given on the command line, as usual.  If the file
       $SYSTEMTAP_DIR/rc exist, options  are  also  loaded  from  there  and  interpreted  first.
       ($SYSTEMTAP_DIR defaults to $HOME/.systemtap if unset.)

       In  some  cases, the default value of an option depends on particular system configuration
       and thus can't be mentioned here directly.  In some of those cases running  "stap  --help"
       might display the default.

       -      Use  standard  input instead of a given FILENAME as probe language input, unless -e
              SCRIPT is given.

       -h --help
              Show help message.

       -V --version
              Show version message.

       -p NUM Stop after pass NUM.  The passes are numbered  1-5:  parse,  elaborate,  translate,
              compile, run.  See the PROCESSING section for details.

       -v     Increase  verbosity  for  all  passes.   Produce a larger volume of informative (?)
              output each time option repeated.

       --vp ABCDE
              Increase verbosity on a per-pass basis.  For example, "--vp 002" adds  2  units  of
              verbosity to pass 3 only.  The combination "-v --vp 00004" adds 1 unit of verbosity
              for all passes, and 4 more for pass 5.

       -k     Keep the temporary directory after all processing.  This may be useful in order  to
              examine the generated C code, or to reuse the compiled kernel object.

       -g     Guru mode.  Enable parsing of unsafe expert-level constructs like embedded C.

       -P     Prologue-searching   mode.   This  is  equivalent  to  --prologue-searching=always.
              Activate heuristics to work around incorrect  debugging  information  for  function
              parameter $context variables.

       -u     Unoptimized  mode.  Disable unused code elision and many other optimizations during
              elaboration / translation.

       -w     Suppressed warnings mode.  Disables all warning messages.

       -W     Treat all warnings as errors.

       -b     Use bulk mode (percpu files) for kernel-to-user data transfer.  Use the  stap-merge
              program to multiplex them back together later.

       -i --interactive
              Interactive  mode.  Enable an interface to build the systemtap script incrementally
              and interactively.

       -t     Collect timing information on the number of times probe executes and average amount
              of time spent in each probe-point. Also shows the derivation for each probe-point.

       -s NUM Use  NUM megabyte buffers for kernel-to-user data transfer.  On a multiprocessor in
              bulk mode, this is a per-processor amount.

       -I DIR Add the given directory to the tapset search directory.   See  the  description  of
              pass 2 for details.

       -D NAME=VALUE
              Add  the  given C preprocessor directive to the module Makefile.  These can be used
              to override limit parameters described below.

       -B NAME=VALUE
              In kernel-runtime mode, add the given make directive to the kernel  module  build's
              make  invocation.   These  can  be  used  to  add or override kconfig options.  For
              example, use

              -B CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=y

              to add debugging information.

       -B FLAG
              In dyninst-runtime mode, add the given parameter to the compiler  CFLAGS  used  for
              building the dyninst shared library.  For example, use

              -B -g

              to add debugging information.

       -a ARCH
              Use  a  cross-compilation  mode  for  the given target architecture.  This requires
              access to the cross-compiler and the kernel build tree, and goes along with the

              -B CROSS_COMPILE=arch-tool-prefix-
              and
              -r /build/tree

              options.

       --modinfo NAME=VALUE
              Add the name/value pair as a MODULE_INFO macro call to the generated module.   This
              may be useful to inform or override various module-related checks in the kernel.

       -G NAME=VALUE
              Sets  the  value  of  global  variable NAME to VALUE when staprun is invoked.  This
              applies to scalar variables declared global in the script/tapset.

       -R DIR Look for the systemtap runtime sources in the given directory.   Your  DIR  default
              can be seen using "stap --help".

       -r /DIR
              Build  for  kernel  in given build tree. Can also be set with the SYSTEMTAP_RELEASE
              environment variable.

       -r RELEASE
              Build for kernel in build tree /lib/modules/RELEASE/build.  Can also  be  set  with
              the SYSTEMTAP_RELEASE environment variable.

       -m MODULE
              Use  the  given  name  for  the generated kernel object module, instead of a unique
              randomized name.  The generated kernel object  module  is  copied  to  the  current
              directory.

       -d MODULE
              Add  symbol/unwind  information for the given module into the kernel object module.
              This may enable symbolic tracebacks from those modules/programs, even  if  they  do
              not have an explicit probe placed into them.

       --ldd  Add  symbol/unwind information for all user-space shared libraries suspected by ldd
              to be necessary for user-space binaries being probed or listed with the -d  option.
              Caution:  this  can  make  the  probe  modules considerably larger.  Note that this
              option does not deal with kernel-space modules: see instead --all-modules below.

       --all-modules
              Equivalent to specifying "-dkernel" and a "-d"  for  each  kernel  module  that  is
              currently loaded.  Caution: this can make the probe modules considerably larger.

       -o FILE
              Send  standard  output  to  named  file. In bulk mode, percpu files will start with
              FILE_ (FILE_cpu with -F) followed by the cpu  number.   This  supports  strftime(3)
              formats for FILE.

       -c CMD Start the probes, run CMD, and exit when CMD finishes.  This also has the effect of
              setting target() to the pid of the command ran.

       -x PID Sets target() to PID. This allows scripts to be written that filter on  a  specific
              process. Scripts run independent of the PID's lifespan.

       -e SCRIPT
              Run the given SCRIPT specified on the command line.

       -E SCRIPT
              Run  the  given SCRIPT specified. This SCRIPT is run in addition to the main script
              specified, through -e, or as a script file. This option  can  be  repeated  to  run
              multiple scripts, and can be used in listing mode (-l/-L).

       -l PROBE
              Instead  of  running  a probe script, just list all available probe points matching
              the given single probe point.  The pattern may include wildcards and  aliases,  but
              not  comma-separated  multiple probe points.  The process result code will indicate
              failure if there are no matches.

       -L PROBE
              Similar to "-l", but list probe points and script-level local variables.

       -F     Without -o option, load module and  start  probes,  then  detach  from  the  module
              leaving  the probes running.  With -o option, run staprun in background as a daemon
              and show its pid.

       -S size[,N]
              Sets the maximum size of output file and the maximum number of  output  files.   If
              the  size  of  output file will exceed size , systemtap switches output file to the
              next file. And if the number of output files  exceed  N  ,  systemtap  removes  the
              oldest output file. You can omit the second argument.

       -T TIMEOUT
              Exit the script after TIMEOUT seconds.

       --skip-badvars
              Ignore  unresolvable or run-time-inaccessible context variables and substitute with
              0, without errors.

       --prologue-searching[=WHEN]
              Prologue-searching mode. Activate heuristics to  work  around  incorrect  debugging
              information   for   function   parameter  $context  variables.  WHEN  can be either
              "never", "always", or "auto" (i.e. enabled by heuristic). If WHEN is missing,  then
              "always" is assumed. If the option is missing, then "auto" is assumed.

       --suppress-handler-errors
              Wrap all probe handlers into something like this

              try { ... } catch { next }

              block, which causes any runtime errors to be quietly suppressed.  Suppressed errors
              do not count against MAXERRORS limits.  In this mode,  the  MAXSKIPPED  limits  are
              also suppressed, so that many errors and skipped probes may be accumulated during a
              script's runtime.  Any overall counts will still be reported at shutdown.

       --compatible VERSION
              Suppress recent script language or tapset changes which are incompatible with given
              older  version  of  systemtap.  This may be useful if a much older systemtap script
              fails to run.  See the DEPRECATION section for more details.

       --check-version
              This option is used to check if the active script has any constructs  that  may  be
              systemtap version specific.  See the DEPRECATION section for more details.

       --clean-cache
              This  option  prunes stale entries from the cache directory.  This is normally done
              automatically after successful runs, but  this  option  will  trigger  the  cleanup
              manually  and  then  exit.   See  the  CACHING section for more details about cache
              limits.

       --color[=WHEN], --colour[=WHEN]
              This option controls coloring of  error  messages.  WHEN  can  be  either  "never",
              "always",  or  "auto" (i.e. enable only if at a terminal). If WHEN is missing, then
              "always" is assumed. If the option is missing, then "auto" is assumed.

              Colors can be modified using the SYSTEMTAP_COLORS environment variable. The  format
              must  be of the form key1=val1:key2=val2:key3=val3 ...etc.  Valid keys are "error",
              "warning", "source",  "caret",  and  "token".   Values  constitute  Select  Graphic
              Rendition  (SGR)  parameter(s).  Consult the documentation of your terminal for the
              SGRs it supports.  As  an  example,  the  default  colors  would  be  expressed  as
              error=01;31:warning=00;33:source=00;34:caret=01:token=01.   If  SYSTEMTAP_COLORS is
              absent, the default colors will be used. If it is empty  or  invalid,  coloring  is
              turned off.

       --disable-cache
              This  option disables all use of the cache directory.  No files will be either read
              from or written to the cache.

       --poison-cache
              This option treats files in the cache directory as invalid.  No files will be  read
              from  the  cache,  but  resulting  files from this run will still be written to the
              cache.  This is meant as a troubleshooting aid when stap's cached behavior seems to
              be  misbehaving.   If  it  helped,  there is a probably a bug in systemtap that the
              developers would like you to report.

       --privilege[=stapusr | =stapsys | =stapdev]
              This option instructs stap to examine the script looking for constructs  which  are
              not   allowed   for   the  specified  privilege  level  (see  UNPRIVILEGED  USERS).
              Compilation fails if any such constructs are  used.   If  stapusr  or  stapsys  are
              specified  when  using a compile server (see --use-server), the server will examine
              the script and, if compilation succeeds, the server will cryptographically sign the
              resulting  kernel  module,  certifying  that  is  it  safe  for use by users at the
              specified privilege level.

              If --privilege has not been specified, -pN has not been specified with N <  5,  and
              the  invoking user is not root, and is not a member of the group stapdev, then stap
              will automatically add the appropriate --privilege option to  the  options  already
              specified.

       --unprivileged
              This option is equivalent to --privilege=stapusr.

       --use-server[=HOSTNAME[:PORT] | =IP_ADDRESS[:PORT] | =CERT_SERIAL]
              Specify  compile-server(s)  to  be  used for compilation and/or in conjunction with
              --list-servers and --trust-servers (see below)  for  listing.  If  no  argument  is
              supplied,  then  the  default  in  unprivileged mode (see --privilege) is to select
              compatible servers which are trusted  as  SSL  peers  and  as  module  signers  and
              currently  online.  Otherwise the default is to select compatible servers which are
              trusted as SSL peers and currently online.  --use-server may be specified more than
              once,  in  which  case  a  list  of  servers is accumulated in the order specified.
              Servers may be specified by host name, ip address, or by certificate serial  number
              (obtained  using  --list-servers).  The latter is most commonly used when adding or
              revoking trust in a server (see --trust-servers below). If a server is specified by
              host  name  or  ip  address, then an optional port number may be specified. This is
              useful for accessing servers which are not on the local network  or  to  specify  a
              particular server.

              IP addresses may be IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.

              If  a  particular IPv6 address is link local and exists on more than one interface,
              the intended interface may be specified by appending the  address  with  a  percent
              sign    (%)    followed    by   the   intended   interface   name.   For   example,
              "fe80::5eff:35ff:fe07:55ca%eth0".

              In order to specify a port number with an IPv6 address, it is necessary to  enclose
              the  IPv6 address in square brackets ([]) in order to separate the port number from
              the  rest  of  the  address.  For  example,  "[fe80::5eff:35ff:fe07:55ca]:5000"  or
              "[fe80::5eff:35ff:fe07:55ca%eth0]:5000".

              If  --use-server has not been specified, -pN has not been specified with N < 5, and
              the invoking user not root, is not a member of the group stapdev, but is  a  member
              of  the group stapusr, then stap will automatically add --use-server to the options
              already specified.

       --use-server-on-error[=yes|=no]
              Instructs stap to  retry  compilation  of  a  script  using  a  compile  server  if
              compilation  on  the  local  host  fails  in  a manner which suggests that it might
              succeed using a server.  If this option is not specified, the default is no.  If no
              argument  is  provided,  then  the  default is yes. Compilation will be retried for
              certain types of errors (e.g. insufficient data or resources) which may  not  occur
              during  re-compilation  by  a  compile  server.  Compile  servers  will be selected
              automatically for the re-compilation attempt as if --use-server was specified  with
              no arguments.

       --list-servers[=SERVERS]
              Display  the  status  of  the requested SERVERS, where SERVERS is a comma-separated
              list of server attributes. The list of attributes is combined to filter the list of
              servers displayed. Supported attributes are:

              all    specifies  all  known  servers  (trusted  SSL peers, trusted module signers,
                     online servers).

              specified
                     specifies servers specified using --use-server.

              online filters  the  output  by  retaining  information  about  servers  which  are
                     currently online.

              trusted
                     filters  the output by retaining information about servers which are trusted
                     as SSL peers.

              signer filters the output by retaining information about servers which are  trusted
                     as module signers (see --privilege).

              compatible
                     filters  the  output  by  retaining  information  about  servers  which  are
                     compatible with the current kernel release and architecture.

              If no argument is provided, then the default is  specified.   If  no  servers  were
              specified using --use-server, then the default servers for --use-server are listed.

              Note that --list-servers uses the avahi-daemon service to detect online servers. If
              this service is not available, then --list-servers will fail to detect  any  online
              servers. In order for --list-servers to detect servers listening on IPv6 addresses,
              the avahi-daemon configuration file /etc/avahi/avahi-daemon.conf  must  contain  an
              active "use-ipv6=yes" line. The service must be restarted after adding this line in
              order for IPv6 to be enabled.

       --trust-servers[=TRUST_SPEC]
              Grant or revoke trust in compile-servers, specified using --use-server as specified
              by  TRUST_SPEC,  where  TRUST_SPEC  is  a comma-separated list specifying the trust
              which is to be granted or revoked. Supported elements are:

              ssl    trust the specified servers as SSL peers.

              signer trust the specified servers as module signers (see --privilege).  Only  root
                     can specify signer.

              all-users
                     grant  trust  as an ssl peer for all users on the local host. The default is
                     to grant trust as an ssl peer for the current user only. Trust as  a  module
                     signer is always granted for all users. Only root can specify all-users.

              revoke revoke the specified trust. The default is to grant it.

              no-prompt
                     do  not  prompt  the user for confirmation before carrying out the requested
                     action. The default is to prompt the user for confirmation.

              If no argument is provided, then the default is ssl.  If no servers were  specified
              using --use-server, then no trust will be granted or revoked.

              Unless no-prompt has been specified, the user will be prompted to confirm the trust
              to be granted or revoked before the operation is performed.

       --dump-probe-types
              Dumps a list of supported probe types and exits.  If  --privilege=stapusr  is  also
              specified, the list will be limited to probe types available to unprivileged users.

       --dump-probe-aliases
              Dumps a list of all probe aliases found in library files and exits.

       --dump-functions
              Dumps  a  list  of  all the public functions found in library files and exits. Also
              includes their parameters and types. A  function  of  type  'unknown'  indicates  a
              function  that  does not return a value. Note that not all function/parameter types
              may be resolved (these are also shown by 'unknown'). This features is very  memory-
              intensive  and  thus  may  not work properly with --use-server if the target server
              imposes an rlimit on process memory (i.e.  through  the  ~stap-server/.systemtap/rc
              configuration file, see stap-server(8)).

       --remote URL
              Set  the execution target to the given host.  This option may be repeated to target
              multiple execution targets.  Passes 1-4 are completed locally as  normal  to  build
              the  script,  and  then  pass  5  will  copy  the  module to the target and run it.
              Acceptable URL forms include:

              [USER@]HOSTNAME, ssh://[USER@]HOSTNAME
                     This mode uses ssh, optionally using a username not matching your own. If  a
                     custom   ssh_config   file   is   in   use,   add  SendEnv  LANG  to  retain
                     internationalization functionality.

              libvirt://DOMAIN, libvirt://DOMAIN/LIBVIRT_URI
                     This mode uses stapvirt to  execute  the  script  on  a  domain  managed  by
                     libvirt.  Optionally,  LIBVIRT_URI may be specified to connect to a specific
                     driver and/or a remote host. For example, to connect to the local privileged
                     QEMU driver, use:

                     --remote libvirt://MyDomain/qemu:///system

                     See  the  page at <http://libvirt.org/uri.html> for supported URIs. Also see
                     stapvirt(1) for more information on how  to  prepare  the  domain  for  stap
                     probing.

              unix:PATH
                     This  mode  connects  to a UNIX socket. This can be used with a QEMU virtio-
                     serial port for executing scripts inside a running virtual machine.

              direct://
                     Special loopback mode to run on the local host.

       --remote-prefix
              Prefix each line of remote output with "N: ", where N is the index  of  the  remote
              execution target from which the given line originated.

       --download-debuginfo[=OPTION]
              Enable,  disable  or  set a timeout for the automatic debuginfo downloading feature
              offered by abrt as specified by OPTION, where OPTION is one of the following:

              yes    enable automatic downloading of debuginfo with no timeout. This is the  same
                     as not providing an OPTION value to --download-debuginfo

              no     explicitly  disable  automatic downloading of debuginfo. This is the same as
                     not using the option at all.

              ask    show abrt output, and ask before continuing download.  No  timeout  will  be
                     set.

              <timeout>
                     specify  a timeout as a positive number to stop the download if it is taking
                     longer than <timeout> seconds.

       --rlimit-as=NUM
              Specify the maximum size of the process's virtual memory (address space), in bytes.

       --rlimit-cpu=NUM
              Specify the CPU time limit, in seconds.

       --rlimit-nproc=NUM
              Specify the maximum number of processes that can be created.

       --rlimit-stack=NUM
              Specify the maximum size of the process stack, in bytes.

       --rlimit-fsize=NUM
              Specify the maximum size of files that the process may create, in bytes.

       --sysroot=DIR
              Specify sysroot directory where target files (executables,  libraries,  etc.)   are
              located.   With -r RELEASE, the sysroot will be searched for the appropriate kernel
              build directory.  With -r /DIR, however, the sysroot will not be used to  find  the
              kernel build.

       --sysenv=VAR=VALUE
              Provide  an alternate value for an environment variable where the value on a remote
              system differs.  Path variables (e.g. PATH,  LD_LIBRARY_PATH)  are  assumed  to  be
              relative to the directory provided by --sysroot, if provided.

       --suppress-time-limits
              Disable  -DSTP_OVERLOAD  related  options  as well as -DMAXACTION and -DMAXTRYLOCK.
              This option requires guru mode.

       --runtime=MODE
              Set the pass-5 runtime mode.  Valid options are kernel (default) and dyninst.   See
              ALTERNATE RUNTIMES below for more information.

       --dyninst
              Shorthand for --runtime=dyninst.

       --save-uprobes
              On  machines  that require SystemTap to build its own uprobes module (kernels prior
              to version 3.5), this option instructs SystemTap to also save a copy of the  module
              in the current directory (creating a new "uprobes" directory first).

       --target-namespaces=PID
              Allow  for  a  set of target namespaces to be set based on the namespaces the given
              PID is in. This is for namespace-aware tapset functions. If the  target  namespaces
              was not set, the target defaults to the stap process' namespaces.

       --monitor=INTERVAL
              Enables  an interface to display status information about the module(uptime, module
              name, invoker uid, memory sizes,  global  variables,  list  of  probes  with  their
              statistics).  An optional argument INTERVAL can be supplied to set the refresh rate
              in seconds of the status window. The module can also be controlled  by  a  list  of
              commands using the following keys:

              c      Resets  all  global variables to their initial values or zeroes them if they
                     did not have an initial value.

              s      Rotates the attribute used to sort the list of probes.

              t      Brings up a prompt to allow  toggling(on/off)  of  probes  by  index.  Probe
                     points are still affected by their conditions.

              r      Resumes the script by toggling on all probes.

              p      Pauses the script by toggling off all probes.

              x      Hides/shows the status window. This allows for more output to be seen.

              navigation-keys
                     The navigation keys can be used to scroll up and down the windows.

              Tab    Toggle scrolling between status and output windows.

ARGUMENTS

       Any  additional  arguments  on  the  command  line  are  passed  to  the script parser for
       substitution.  See below.

SCRIPT LANGUAGE

       The systemtap script  language  resembles  awk  and  C.   There  are  two  main  outermost
       constructs:  probes  and  functions.   Within these, statements and expressions use C-like
       operator syntax and precedence.

   GENERAL SYNTAX
       Whitespace is ignored.  Three forms of comments are supported:
              # ... shell style, to the end of line, except for $# and @#
              // ... C++ style, to the end of line
              /* ... C style ... */
       Literals are either strings enclosed in double-quotes (passing through the usual C  escape
       codes  with  backslashes, and with adjacent string literals glued together, also as in C),
       or integers (in decimal, hexadecimal, or octal, using the same notation  as  in  C).   All
       strings  are  limited  in length to some reasonable value (a few hundred bytes).  Integers
       are 64-bit signed quantities, although the parser also accepts (and wraps  around)  values
       above positive 2**63.

       In  addition,  script arguments given at the end of the command line may be inserted.  Use
       $1 ... $<NN> for insertion unquoted, @1 ... @<NN> for insertion as a string literal.   The
       number of arguments may be accessed through $# (as an unquoted number) or through @# (as a
       quoted number).  These may be used at any place a token may begin,  including  within  the
       preprocessing stage.  Reference to an argument number beyond what was actually given is an
       error.

   PREPROCESSING
       A simple conditional preprocessing stage is run as a part of parsing.  The general form is
       similar to the cond ? exp1 : exp2 ternary operator:

              %( CONDITION %? TRUE-TOKENS %)
              %( CONDITION %? TRUE-TOKENS %: FALSE-TOKENS %)

       The  CONDITION is either an expression whose format is determined by its first keyword, or
       a string literals comparison or a numeric literals comparison.  It can be also composed of
       many  alternatives and conjunctions of CONDITIONs (meant as in previous sentence) using ||
       and && respectively.  However, parentheses are not  supported  yet,  so  remembering  that
       conjunction takes precedence over alternative is important.

       If  the  first part is the identifier kernel_vr or kernel_v to refer to the kernel version
       number, with ("2.6.13-1.322FC3smp") or without ("2.6.13") the release  code  suffix,  then
       the  second part is one of the six standard numeric comparison operators <, <=, ==, !=, >,
       and >=, and the third part is a string literal that contains an RPM-style  version-release
       value.   The  condition  is  deemed  satisfied  if  the  version  of the target kernel (as
       optionally overridden by the -r  option)  compares  to  the  given  version  string.   The
       comparison  is  performed  by  the  glibc  function strverscmp.  As a special case, if the
       operator is for simple equality (==), or inequality (!=), and the third part contains  any
       wildcard characters (* or ? or [), then the expression is treated as a wildcard (mis)match
       as evaluated by fnmatch.

       If, on the other hand, the first part is the identifier arch to  refer  to  the  processor
       architecture  (as  named by the kernel build system ARCH/SUBARCH), then the second part is
       one of the two string comparison operators == or !=,  and  the  third  part  is  a  string
       literal for matching it.  This comparison is a wildcard (mis)match.

       Similarly,  if  the first part is an identifier like CONFIG_something to refer to a kernel
       configuration option, then the second part is == or !=, and the third  part  is  a  string
       literal  for  matching  the  value  (commonly  "y"  or  "m").  Nonexistent or unset kernel
       configuration options are represented by the empty string.   This  comparison  is  also  a
       wildcard (mis)match.

       If  the  first  part  is  the  identifier  systemtap_v,  the  test refers to the systemtap
       compatibility version, which may be overridden for old scripts with the --compatible flag.
       The  comparison  operator is as is for kernel_v and the right operand is a version string.
       See also the DEPRECATION section below.

       If the first part is the identifier systemtap_privilege, the test refers to the  privilege
       level  that  the  systemtap script is compiled with. Here the second part is == or !=, and
       the third part is a string literal, either "stapusr" or "stapsys" or "stapdev".

       If the first part is the identifier guru_mode, the test refers to if the systemtap  script
       is  compiled  with  guru_mode.  Here  the second part is == or !=, and the third part is a
       number, either 1 or 0.

       If the first part is the identifier runtime, the test  refers  to  the  systemtap  runtime
       mode.  See  ALTERNATE RUNTIMES below for more information on runtimes.  The second part is
       one of the two string comparison operators == or !=,  and  the  third  part  is  a  string
       literal for matching it.  This comparison is a wildcard (mis)match.

       Otherwise, the CONDITION is expected to be a comparison between two string literals or two
       numeric literals.  In this case, the arguments are the only variables usable.

       The TRUE-TOKENS and  FALSE-TOKENS  are  zero  or  more  general  parser  tokens  (possibly
       including  nested  preprocessor conditionals), and are passed into the input stream if the
       condition is true or false.  For example, the following code induces a parse error  unless
       the target kernel version is newer than 2.6.5:

              %( kernel_v <= "2.6.5" %? **ERROR** %) # invalid token sequence

       The following code might adapt to hypothetical kernel version drift:

              probe kernel.function (
                %( kernel_v <= "2.6.12" %? "__mm_do_fault" %:
                   %( kernel_vr == "2.6.13*smp" %? "do_page_fault" %:
                      UNSUPPORTED %) %)
              ) { /* ... */ }

              %( arch == "ia64" %?
                 probe syscall.vliw = kernel.function("vliw_widget") {}
              %)

   PREPROCESSOR MACROS
       The  preprocessor  also  supports  a  simple macro facility, run as a separate pass before
       conditional preprocessing.

       Macros are defined using the following construct:

              @define NAME %( BODY %)
              @define NAME(PARAM_1, PARAM_2, ...) %( BODY %)

       Macros, and parameters inside a macro body, are both invoked by prefixing the  macro  name
       with an @ symbol:

              @define foo %( x %)
              @define add(a,b) %( ((@a)+(@b)) %)

                 @foo = @add(2,2)

       Macro  expansion is currently performed in a separate pass before conditional compilation.
       Therefore, both TRUE- and FALSE-tokens in conditional expressions  will  be  macroexpanded
       regardless of how the condition is evaluated. This can sometimes lead to errors:

              // The following results in a conflict:
              %( CONFIG_UTRACE == "y" %?
                  @define foo %( process.syscall %)
              %:
                  @define foo %( **ERROR** %)
              %)

              // The following works properly as expected:
              @define foo %(
                %( CONFIG_UTRACE == "y" %? process.syscall %: **ERROR** %)
              %)

       The  first example is incorrect because both @defines are evaluated in a pass prior to the
       conditional being evaluated.

       Normally, a macro definition is local to the file it occurs in. Thus, defining a macro  in
       a  tapset  does  not  make  it  available  to the user of the tapset. Publically available
       library macros can be defined by including .stpm files on the tapset  search  path.  These
       files  may  only  contain  @define constructs, which become visible across all tapsets and
       user scripts. Optionally, within the  .stpm  files,  a  public  macro  definition  can  be
       surrounded by a preprocessor conditional as described above.

   CONSTANTS
       Tapsets  or  guru-mode  user  scripts  can  access  header file constant tokens, typically
       macros, using built-in  @const()  operator.   The  respective  header  file  inclusion  is
       possible  either  via  the  tapset  library,  or  using  a  top-level guru mode embedded-C
       construct.  This results in appropriate embedded C pragma comments setting.

              @const("STP_SKIP_BADVARS")

   VARIABLES
       Identifiers for variables and functions are an alphanumeric sequence, and  may  include  _
       and  $  characters.   They may not start with a plain digit, as in C.  Each variable is by
       default local to the probe or function statement block within which it is  mentioned,  and
       therefore its scope and lifetime is limited to a particular probe or function invocation.

       Scalar  variables  are  implicitly  typed as either string or integer.  Associative arrays
       also have a string or integer value, and a tuple of strings and/or integers serving  as  a
       key.  Here are a few basic expressions.

              var1 = 5
              var2 = "bar"
              array1 [pid()] = "name"     # single numeric key
              array2 ["foo",4,i++] += 5   # vector of string/num/num keys
              if (["hello",5,4] in array2) println ("yes")  # membership test

       The  translator  performs  type  inference on all identifiers, including array indexes and
       function parameters.  Inconsistent type-related use of identifiers signals an error.

       Variables may be declared global, so that they are shared amongst all probes and functions
       and  live  as long as the entire systemtap session.  There is one namespace for all global
       variables, regardless of which script file they are found within.   Concurrent  access  to
       global  variables  is  automatically  protected  with  locks,  see the SAFETY AND SECURITY
       section for more details.  A global declaration may be  written  at  the  outermost  level
       anywhere,  not  within a block of code.  Global variables which are written but never read
       will be displayed automatically at session shutdown.  The translator will infer  for  each
       its  value type, and if it is used as an array, its key types.  Optionally, scalar globals
       may be initialized with a string or  number  literal.   The  following  declaration  marks
       variables as global.

              global var1, var2, var3=4

       Global variables can also be set as module options. One can do this by either using the -G
       option, or the module must first be compiled using stap -p4.  Global variables can then be
       set  on  the  command  line  when calling staprun on the module generated by stap -p4. See
       staprun(8) for more information.

       The scope of a global variable may be limited to  a  tapset  or  user  script  file  using
       private  keyword.  The global keyword is optional when defining a private global variable.
       Following declaration marks var1 and var2 private globals.

              private global var1=2
              private var2

       Arrays are limited in size by the MAXMAPENTRIES variable -- see the  SAFETY  AND  SECURITY
       section  for  details.   Optionally,  global arrays may be declared with a maximum size in
       brackets, overriding MAXMAPENTRIES for that array only.  Note that this  doesn't  indicate
       the type of keys for the array, just the size.

              global tiny_array[10], normal_array, big_array[50000]

       Arrays may be configured for wrapping using the '%' suffix.  This causes older elements to
       be overwritten if more elements are inserted than the array can hold. This works for  both
       associative and statistics typed arrays.

              global wrapped_array1%[10], wrapped_array2%

       Many  types  of  probe points provide context variables, which are run-time values, safely
       extracted from the kernel or userspace program being probed.  These are prefixed with  the
       $  character.   The CONTEXT VARIABLES section in stapprobes(3stap) lists what is available
       for each type of probe point.  These context variables become  normal  string  or  numeric
       scalars  once  they  are  stored  in normal script variables.  See the TYPECASTING section
       below on how to to turn them back into typed pointers for further  processing  as  context
       variables.

   STATEMENTS
       Statements  enable  procedural  control  flow.   They may occur within functions and probe
       handlers.  The total number of statements executed in response to any single  probe  event
       is  limited to some number defined by the MAXACTION macro in the translated C code, and is
       in the neighbourhood of 1000.

       EXP    Execute the string- or integer-valued expression and throw away the value.

       { STMT1 STMT2 ... }
              Execute each statement  in  sequence  in  this  block.   Note  that  separators  or
              terminators are generally not necessary between statements.

       ;      Null  statement,  do  nothing.   It  is  useful  as  an  optional separator between
              statements  to  improve  syntax-error  detection  and  to  handle  certain  grammar
              ambiguities.

       if (EXP) STMT1 [ else STMT2 ]
              Compare  integer-valued  EXP  to zero.  Execute the first (non-zero) or second STMT
              (zero).

       while (EXP) STMT
              While integer-valued EXP evaluates to non-zero, execute STMT.

       for (EXP1; EXP2; EXP3) STMT
              Execute EXP1 as initialization.  While EXP2 is non-zero,  execute  STMT,  then  the
              iteration expression EXP3.

       foreach (VAR in ARRAY [ limit EXP ]) STMT
              Loop  over  each  element  of the named global array, assigning current key to VAR.
              The array may not be modified within the statement.  By adding  a  single  +  or  -
              operator  after  the  VAR  or the ARRAY identifier, the iteration will proceed in a
              sorted order, by ascending or descending index or value.   If  the  array  contains
              statistics  aggregates,  adding  the desired @operator between the ARRAY identifier
              and the + or - will specify the sorting aggregate  function.   See  the  STATISTICS
              section below for the ones available.  Default is @count.  Using the optional limit
              keyword limits the number of loop iterations to EXP times.  EXP is  evaluated  once
              at the beginning of the loop.

       foreach ([VAR1, VAR2, ...] in ARRAY [ limit EXP ]) STMT
              Same  as  above,  used  when  the array is indexed with a tuple of keys.  A sorting
              suffix may be used on at most one VAR or ARRAY identifier.

       foreach ([VAR1, VAR2, ...] in ARRAY [INDEX1, INDEX2, ...] [ limit EXP ]) STMT
              Same as above, where iterations are limited to elements in the array where the keys
              match  the index values specified. The symbol * can be used to specify an index and
              will be treated as a wildcard.

       foreach (VAR0 = VAR in ARRAY [ limit EXP ]) STMT
              This variant of foreach saves current value into VAR0 on each iteration, so  it  is
              the same as ARRAY[VAR].  This also works with a tuple of keys.  Sorting suffixes on
              VAR0 have the same effect as on ARRAY.

       foreach (VAR0 = VAR in ARRAY [INDEX1, INDEX2, ...] [ limit EXP ]) STMT
              Same as above, where iterations are limited to elements in the array where the keys
              match  the index values specified. The symbol * can be used to specify an index and
              will be treated as a wildcard.

       break, continue
              Exit or iterate the innermost nesting loop (while or for or foreach) statement.

       return EXP
              Return EXP value from enclosing function.  If the function's  value  is  not  taken
              anywhere,  then  a  return  statement  is  not needed, and the function will have a
              special "unknown" type with no return value.

       next   Return now from enclosing probe  handler.   This  is  especially  useful  in  probe
              aliases  that  apply  event  filtering  predicates.  When  used  in  functions, the
              execution will be immediately transferred to the next overloaded function.

       try { STMT1 } catch { STMT2 }
              Run the statements in the first block.  Upon any run-time errors, abort  STMT1  and
              start  executing  STMT2.   Any  errors  in  STMT2 will propagate to outer try/catch
              blocks, if any.

       try { STMT1 } catch(VAR) { STMT2 }
              Same as above, plus assign the error message to the string scalar variable VAR.

       delete ARRAY[INDEX1, INDEX2, ...]
              Remove from ARRAY the element specified by the index tuple.   If  the  index  tuple
              contains  a * in place of an index, the * is treated as a wildcard and all elements
              with keys that match the index tuple will be removed from ARRAY.  The value will no
              longer  be available, and subsequent iterations will not report the element.  It is
              not an error to delete an element that does not exist.

       delete ARRAY
              Remove all elements from ARRAY.

       delete SCALAR
              Removes the value of SCALAR.   Integers  and  strings  are  cleared  to  0  and  ""
              respectively, while statistics are reset to the initial empty state.

   EXPRESSIONS
       Systemtap supports a number of operators that have the same general syntax, semantics, and
       precedence as in C and awk.  Arithmetic is performed as per typical  C  rules  for  signed
       integers.  Division by zero or overflow is detected and results in an error.

       binary numeric operators
              * / % + - >> << & ^ | && ||

       binary string operators
              .  (string concatenation)

       numeric assignment operators
              = *= /= %= += -= >>= <<= &= ^= |=

       string assignment operators
              = .=

       unary numeric operators
              + - ! ~ ++ --

       binary numeric, string comparison or regex matching operators
              < > <= >= == != =~ !~

       ternary operator
              cond ? exp1 : exp2

       grouping operator
              ( exp )

       function call
              fn ([ arg1, arg2, ... ])

       array membership check
              exp in array
              [exp1, exp2, ...] in array
              [*, *, ... ]in array

   REGULAR EXPRESSION MATCHING
       The  scripting  language  supports  regular  expression  matching.  The basic syntax is as
       follows:

              exp =~ regex
              exp !~ regex

       (The first operand must be an expression evaluating to a string; the second  operand  must
       be a string literal containing a syntactically valid regular expression.)

       The  regular  expression  syntax  supports  most of the features of POSIX Extended Regular
       Expressions, except for subexpression reuse ("\1") functionality. The ability  to  capture
       and  extract  the  contents  of  the  matched  string  and subexpressions has not yet been
       implemented.

   PROBES
       The main construct in the scripting language identifies probes.  Probes associate abstract
       events  with  a statement block ("probe handler") that is to be executed when any of those
       events occur.  The general syntax is as follows:

              probe PROBEPOINT [, PROBEPOINT] { [STMT ...] }
              probe PROBEPOINT [, PROBEPOINT] if (CONDITION) { [STMT ...] }

       Events are specified in a  special  syntax  called  "probe  points".   There  are  several
       varieties of probe points defined by the translator, and tapset scripts may define further
       ones using aliases.  Probe points may be wildcarded,  grouped,  or  listed  in  preference
       sequences,  or  declared  optional.   More details on probe point syntax and semantics are
       listed on the stapprobes(3stap) manual page.

       The probe handler is interpreted relative to  the  context  of  each  event.   For  events
       associated with kernel code, this context may include variables defined in the source code
       at that spot.  These "context variables" are presented to the script  as  variables  whose
       names are prefixed with "$".  They may be accessed only if the kernel's compiler preserved
       them despite optimization.  This is the same constraint that a debugger  user  faces  when
       working  with  optimized  code.  In addition, the objects must exist in paged-in memory at
       the moment of the systemtap probe handler's execution, because systemtap  must  not  cause
       (suppresses)  any  additional paging.  Some probe types have very little context.  See the
       stapprobes(3stap) man pages to see the kinds of context variables available at  each  kind
       of probe point.

       Probes  may  be  decorated  with  an  arming  condition,  consisting  of  a simple boolean
       expression on read-only global script  variables.   While  disarmed  (inactive,  condition
       evaluates  to false), some probe types reduce or eliminate their run-time overheads.  When
       an arming condition evaluates to true, probes will  be  soon  re-armed,  and  their  probe
       handlers  will  start  getting called as the events fire.  (Some events may be lost during
       the arming interval.  If this is unacceptable, do not  use  arming  conditions  for  those
       probes.)  Example of the syntax:

              probe timer.us(TIMER) if (enabled) {
              }

       New  probe  points  may  be  defined using "aliases".  Probe point aliases look similar to
       probe definitions, but instead of activating a probe at the given point, it just defines a
       new  probe  point  name as an alias to an existing one. There are two types of alias, i.e.
       the prologue  style  and  the  epilogue  style  which  are  identified  by  "="  and  "+="
       respectively.

       For  prologue  style  alias,  the  statement  block  that  follows  an alias definition is
       implicitly added as a prologue to any probe that  refers  to  the  alias.  While  for  the
       epilogue  style  alias, the statement block that follows an alias definition is implicitly
       added as an epilogue to any probe that refers to the alias.  For example:

              probe syscall.read = kernel.function("sys_read") {
                fildes = $fd
                if (execname() == "init") next  # skip rest of probe
              }

       defines a new probe point syscall.read, which expands to kernel.function("sys_read"), with
       the  given  statement  as  a prologue, which is useful to predefine some variables for the
       alias user and/or to skip probe processing entirely based on some conditions.  And

              probe syscall.read += kernel.function("sys_read") {
                if (tracethis) println ($fd)
              }

       defines a new probe point with the given statement as an epilogue, which is useful to take
       actions  based upon variables set or left over by the the alias user.  Please note that in
       each case, the statements in the alias handler  block  are  treated  ordinarily,  so  that
       variables assigned there constitute mere initialization, not a macro substitution.

       An alias is used just like a built-in probe type.

              probe syscall.read {
                printf("reading fd=%d\n", fildes)
                if (fildes > 10) tracethis = 1
              }

   FUNCTIONS
       Systemtap  scripts  may  define subroutines to factor out common work.  Functions take any
       number of scalar (integer or string) arguments, and must return a single  scalar  (integer
       or string).  An example function declaration looks like this:

              function thisfn (arg1, arg2) {
                 return arg1 + arg2
              }

       Note  the  general  absence  of  type  declarations,  which  are  instead  inferred by the
       translator.  However,  if  desired,  a  function  definition  may  include  explicit  type
       declarations  for  its  return value and/or its arguments.  This is especially helpful for
       embedded-C functions.  In the following example, the type inference engine need only infer
       type type of arg2 (a string).

              function thatfn:string (arg1:long, arg2) {
                 return sprint(arg1) . arg2
              }

       Functions  may  call  others or themselves recursively, up to a fixed nesting limit.  This
       limit is defined by the  MAXNESTING  macro  in  the  translated  C  code  and  is  in  the
       neighbourhood of 10.

       Functions  may  be  marked  private  using the private keyword to limit their scope to the
       tapset or user script file they are  defined  in.  An  example  definition  of  a  private
       function follows:

              private function three:long () { return 3 }

       Functions  terminating  without  reaching  an  explicit  return  statement  will return an
       implicit 0 or "", determined by type inference.

       Functions may be overloaded during both runtime and compile time.

       Runtime overloading allows the executed function  to  be  selected  while  the  module  is
       running  based  on runtime conditions and is achieved using the "next" statement in script
       functions and STAP_NEXT macro for embedded-C functions. For example,

              function f() { if (condition) next; print("first function") }
              function f() %{ STAP_NEXT; print("second function") %}
              function f() { print("third function") }

       During a functioncall f(), the execution will transfer to the third function if  condition
       evaluates  to  true  and  print  "third  function".  Note  that  the  second  function  is
       unconditionally nexted.

       Parameter overloading allows the function to be executed to be selected  at  compile  time
       based on the number of arguments provided to the functioncall. For example,

              function g() { print("first function") }
              function g(x) { print("second function") }
              g() -> "first function"
              g(1) -> "second function"

       Note that runtime overloading does not occur in the above example, as exactly one function
       will be resolved for the functioncall. The use of a next statement inside a function while
       no  more  overloads  remain will trigger a runtime exception Runtime overloading will only
       occur if the functions have the same arity, functions with the  same  name  but  different
       number of parameters are completely unrelated.

       Execution  order is determined by a priority value which may be specified.  If no explicit
       priority is specified, user script functions are given  a  higher  priority  than  library
       functions.  User  script  functions  and library functions are assigned a default priority
       value of 0 and  1  respectively.   Functions  with  the  same  priority  are  executed  in
       declaration order. For example,

              function f():3 { if (condition) next; print("first function") }
              function f():1 { if (condition) next; print("second function") }
              function f():2 { print("third function") }

       Since  the second function has highest priority, it is executed first.  The first function
       is never executed as there  no  "next"  statements  in  the  third  function  to  transfer
       execution.

   PRINTING
       There  are  a  set  of  function names that are specially treated by the translator.  They
       format values for printing to the standard systemtap output stream in  a  more  convenient
       way  (note  that data generated in the kernel module need to get transferred to user-space
       in order to get printed).

         The sprint* variants return the formatted string instead of printing it.

       print, sprint
              Print one or more values of any type, concatenated directly together.

       println, sprintln
              Print values like print and sprint, but also append a newline.

       printd, sprintd
              Take a string delimiter and two or more values of any type, and  print  the  values
              with the delimiter interposed.  The delimiter must be a literal string constant.

       printdln, sprintdln
              Print values with a delimiter like printd and sprintd, but also append a newline.

       printf, sprintf
              Take  a  formatting string and a number of values of corresponding types, and print
              them all.  The format must be a literal string constant.

       The printf formatting directives similar to those of C, except that they are  fully  type-
       checked by the translator:

              %b     Writes  a  binary blob of the value given, instead of ASCII text.  The width
                     specifier determines the number of bytes to write; valid specifiers  are  %b
                     %1b %2b %4b %8b.  Default (%b) is 8 bytes.

              %c     Character.

              %d,%i  Signed decimal.

              %m     Safely  reads  kernel  (without  #)  or  user  (with  #) memory at the given
                     address, outputs its content.  The optional precision specifier  (not  field
                     width)  determines  the number of bytes to read - default is 1 byte.  %10.4m
                     prints 4 bytes of the memory in a 10-character-wide field.   Note,  on  some
                     architectures user memory can still be read without #.

              %M     Same  as  %m,  but  outputs  in  hexadecimal.  The minimal size of output is
                     double the optional precision specifier - default is 1 byte (2  hex  chars).
                     %10.4M  prints  4  bytes  of  the  memory  as  8 hexadecimal characters in a
                     10-character-wide field.   %.*M hex-dumps a given number  of  bytes  from  a
                     given buffer.

              %o     Unsigned octal.

              %p     Unsigned pointer address.

              %s     String.

              %u     Unsigned decimal.

              %x     Unsigned hex value, in all lower-case.

              %X     Unsigned hex value, in all upper-case.

              %%     Writes a %.

       The  #  flag  selects  the  alternate forms.  For octal, this prefixes a 0.  For hex, this
       prefixes 0x or 0X, depending on case.  For characters, this  escapes  non-printing  values
       with  either  C-like  escapes  or raw octal.  In the case of %#m/%#M, this safely accesses
       user space memory rather than kernel space memory.

       Examples:

              a = "alice", b = "bob", p = 0x1234abcd, i = 123, j = -1, id[a] = 1234, id[b] = 4567
              print("hello")
                                 Prints: hello
              println(b)
                                 Prints: bob\n
              println(a . " is " . sprint(16))
                                 Prints: alice is 16
              foreach (name in id)  printdln("|", strlen(name), name, id[name])
                                 Prints: 5|alice|1234\n3|bob|4567
              printf("%c is %s; %x or %X or %p; %d or %u\n",97,a,p,p,p,j,j)
                                 Prints: a is alice; 1234abcd or 1234ABCD or 0x1234abcd; -1 or 18446744073709551615\n
              printf("2 bytes of kernel buffer at address %p: %2m", p, p)
                                 Prints: 2 byte of kernel buffer at address 0x1234abcd: <binary data>
              printf("%4b", p)
                                 Prints (these values as binary data): 0x1234abcd
              printf("%#o %#x %#X\n", 1, 2, 3)
                                 Prints: 01 0x2 0X3
              printf("%#c %#c %#c\n", 0, 9, 42)
                                 Prints: \000 \t *

   STATISTICS
       It is often desirable to collect  statistics  in  a  way  that  avoids  the  penalties  of
       repeatedly  exclusive  locking  the  global  variables  those  numbers are being put into.
       Systemtap provides a solution using a special operator to accumulate values,  and  several
       pseudo-functions to extract the statistical aggregates.

       The  aggregation  operator  is <<<, and resembles an assignment, or a C++ output-streaming
       operation.  The left operand specifies a scalar  or  array-index  lvalue,  which  must  be
       declared  global.   The  right operand is a numeric expression.  The meaning is intuitive:
       add the given number to the pile of numbers to compute statistics of.  (The specific  list
       of statistics to gather is given separately, by the extraction functions.)

              foo <<< 1
              stats[pid()] <<< memsize

       The  extraction  functions are also special.  For each appearance of a distinct extraction
       function operating on a given identifier, the translator arranges  to  compute  a  set  of
       statistics that satisfy it.  The statistics system is thereby "on-demand".  Each execution
       of an extraction function causes the aggregation to be computed for that moment across all
       processors.

       Here  is  the set of extractor functions.  The first argument of each is the same style of
       lvalue used on the left hand side of the accumulate operation.   The  @count(v),  @sum(v),
       @min(v),   @max(v),   @avg(v),   @variance(v[,   b])   extractor   functions  compute  the
       number/total/minimum/maximum/average/variance of all accumulated  values.   The  resulting
       values  are all simple integers.  Arrays containing aggregates may be sorted and iterated.
       See the foreach construct above.

       Variance  uses  Welford's  online  algorithm.   The  calculations  are  based  on  integer
       arithmetic,  and  so  may  suffer  from  low  precision  and  overflow.   To improve this,
       @variance(v[, b]) accepts an optional parameter b, the bit-shift, ranging from 0 (default)
       to  62,  for  internal scaling.  Only one value of bit-shift may be used with given global
       variable.  A larger bitshift value increases precision, but increases  the  likelihood  of
       overflow.

              $ stap -e \
              > 'global x probe oneshot { for(i=1;i<=5;i++) x<<<i println(@variance(x)) }'
              12
              $ stap -e \
              > 'global x probe oneshot { for(i=1;i<=5;i++) x<<<i println(@variance(x,1)) }'
              2
              $ python3 -c 'import statistics; print(statistics.variance([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]))'
              2.5
              $

       Overflow  (from  internal  multiplication  of  large  numbers)  may  occur and may cause a
       negative variance result.  Consider normalizing your input data.  Adding or subtracting  a
       fixed  value  from  all  variance  inputs  preserves  the original variance.  Dividing the
       variance inputs by a fixed value shrinks the original variance by that value squared.

       Histograms are also available, but are more complicated because they have a vector  rather
       than scalar value.  @hist_linear(v,start,stop,interval) represents a linear histogram from
       "start" to "stop" by increments of "interval".  The interval must be positive.  Similarly,
       @hist_log(v)  represents  a  base-2  logarithmic  histogram. Printing a histogram with the
       print family of functions renders a histogram object as a tabular "ASCII art" bar chart.

              probe timer.profile {
                x[1] <<< pid()
                x[2] <<< uid()
                y <<< tid()
              }
              global x // an array containing aggregates
              global y // a scalar
              probe end {
                foreach ([i] in x @count+) {
                   printf ("x[%d]: avg %d = sum %d / count %d\n",
                           i, @avg(x[i]), @sum(x[i]), @count(x[i]))
                   println (@hist_log(x[i]))
                }
                println ("y:")
                println (@hist_log(y))
              }

   TYPECASTING
       Once a pointer (see the CONTEXT VARIABLES section of  stapprobes(3stap))  has  been  saved
       into  a  script  integer  variable, the translator loses the type information necessary to
       access members from that pointer.  Using the @cast() operator tells the translator how  to
       interpret the number as a typed pointer.

              @cast(p, "type_name"[, "module"])->member

       This  will  interpret p as a pointer to a struct/union named type_name and dereference the
       member value.  Further ->subfield expressions may be appended to dereference more  levels.
         NOTE:  the same dereferencing operator -> is used to refer to both direct containment or
       pointer indirection.  Systemtap automatically determines which.  The optional module tells
       the  translator  where  to  look for information about that type.  Multiple modules may be
       specified as a list with : separators.  If the module is not specified,  it  will  default
       either  to  the  probe module for dwarf probes, or to "kernel" for functions and all other
       probes types.

       The translator can create its own module with type information from a header surrounded by
       angle  brackets, in case normal debuginfo is not available.  For kernel headers, prefix it
       with "kernel" to use the appropriate build system.   All  other  headers  are  built  with
       default  GCC parameters into a user module.  Multiple headers may be specified in sequence
       to resolve a codependency.

              @cast(tv, "timeval", "<sys/time.h>")->tv_sec
              @cast(task, "task_struct", "kernel<linux/sched.h>")->tgid
              @cast(task, "task_struct",
                    "kernel<linux/sched.h><linux/fs_struct.h>")->fs->umask

       Values acquired by @cast may be pretty-printed by the $ and $$ suffix operators, the  same
       way as described in the CONTEXT VARIABLES section of the stapprobes(3stap) manual page.

       When  in guru mode, the translator will also allow scripts to assign new values to members
       of typecasted pointers.

       Typecasting is also useful in the case of void* members whose type may be determinable  at
       runtime.

              probe foo {
                if ($var->type == 1) {
                  value = @cast($var->data, "type1")->bar
                } else {
                  value = @cast($var->data, "type2")->baz
                }
                print(value)
              }

   EMBEDDED C
       When  in guru mode, the translator accepts embedded C code in the top level of the script.
       Such code is enclosed between %{ and %} markers,  and  is  transcribed  verbatim,  without
       analysis,  in some sequence, into the top level of the generated C code.  At the outermost
       level, this may be useful to add #include instructions, and any auxiliary definitions  for
       use by other embedded code.

       Another  place  where embedded code is permitted is as a function body.  In this case, the
       script language body is replaced entirely by a piece of C code enclosed again  between  %{
       and  %}  markers.  This C code may do anything reasonable and safe.  There are a number of
       undocumented  but  complex  safety  constraints  on   atomicity,   concurrency,   resource
       consumption, and run time limits, so this is an advanced technique.

       The  memory locations set aside for input and output values are made available to it using
       macros STAP_ARG_* and STAP_RETVALUE.  Errors may be signalled with STAP_ERROR. Output  may
       be  written  with  STAP_PRINTF.  The function may return early with STAP_RETURN.  Here are
       some examples:

              function integer_ops (val) %{
                STAP_PRINTF("%d\n", STAP_ARG_val);
                STAP_RETVALUE = STAP_ARG_val + 1;
                if (STAP_RETVALUE == 4)
                    STAP_ERROR("wrong guess: %d", (int) STAP_RETVALUE);
                if (STAP_RETVALUE == 3)
                    STAP_RETURN(0);
                STAP_RETVALUE ++;
              %}
              function string_ops (val) %{
                strlcpy (STAP_RETVALUE, STAP_ARG_val, MAXSTRINGLEN);
                strlcat (STAP_RETVALUE, "one", MAXSTRINGLEN);
                if (strcmp (STAP_RETVALUE, "three-two-one"))
                    STAP_RETURN("parameter should be three-two-");
              %}
              function no_ops () %{
                  STAP_RETURN(); /* function inferred with no return value */
              %}

       The function argument and return value types have to be inferred by  the  translator  from
       the  call  sites  in  order for this to work. The user should examine C code generated for
       ordinary script-language functions in order to write compatible embedded-C ones.

       The last place where embedded code is permitted is as an expression rvalue.  In this case,
       the  C  code  enclosed  between %{ and %} markers is interpreted as an ordinary expression
       value.  It is assumed to be a normal 64-bit signed number, unless the marker /* string  */
       is included, in which case it's treated as a string.

              function add_one (val) {
                return val + %{ 1 %}
              }
              function add_string_two (val) {
                return val . %{ /* string */ "two" %}
              }

       The embedded-C code may contain markers to assert optimization and safety properties.

       /* pure */
              means  that  the C code has no side effects and may be elided entirely if its value
              is not used by script code.

       /* stable */
              means that the C code always has  the  same  value  (in  any  given  probe  handler
              invocation),  so  repeated  calls may be automatically replaced by memoized values.
              Such functions must take no parameters, and also be pure.

       /* unprivileged */
              means that the C code is so safe that even unprivileged users are permitted to  use
              it.

       /* myproc-unprivileged */
              means  that the C code is so safe that even unprivileged users are permitted to use
              it, provided that the target of the current probe is within the user's own process.

       /* guru */
              means that the C code is so unsafe that a systemtap  user  must  specify  -g  (guru
              mode) to use this.

       /* unmangled */
              in  an  embedded-C function, means that the legacy (pre-1.8) argument access syntax
              should be made available inside the function. Hence, in  addition  to  STAP_ARG_foo
              and  STAP_RETVALUE  one  can use THIS->foo and THIS->__retvalue respectively inside
              the function. This is useful for  quickly  migrating  code  written  for  SystemTap
              version 1.7 and earlier.

       /* unmodified-fnargs */
              in  an  embedded-C  function,  means  that  the function arguments are not modified
              inside the function body.

       /* string */
              in embedded-C expressions only, means that the expression has const char * type and
              should be treated as a string value, instead of the default long numeric.

       Script  level global variables may be accessed in embedded-C functions and blocks. To read
       or write the global variable var , the /* pragma:read:var */  or  /*  pragma:write:var  */
       marker  must be first placed in the embedded-C function or block. This provides the macros
       STAP_GLOBAL_GET_* and STAP_GLOBAL_SET_* macros to allow reading and writing, respectively.
       For example:

              global var
              global var2[100]
              function increment() %{
                  /* pragma:read:var */ /* pragma:write:var */
                  /* pragma:read:var2 */ /* pragma:write:var2 */
                  STAP_GLOBAL_SET_var(STAP_GLOBAL_GET_var()+1); //var++
                  STAP_GLOBAL_SET_var2(1, 1, STAP_GLOBAL_GET_var2(1, 1)+1); //var2[1,1]++
              %}

       Variables  may  be  read  and  set  in both embedded-C functions and expressions.  Strings
       returned from embedded-C code are decayed to pointers. Variables must also be assigned  at
       script  level  to  allow  for  type  inference.  Map  assignment does not return the value
       written, so chaining does not work.

   BUILT-INS
       A set of builtin probe point  aliases  are  provided  by  the  scripts  installed  in  the
       directory  specified  in the stappaths(7) manual page.  The functions are described in the
       stapprobes(3stap) manual page.

PROCESSING

       The translator begins pass 1 by parsing the given input script,  and  all  scripts  (files
       named *.stp) found in a tapset directory.  The directories listed with -I are processed in
       sequence, each processed in "guru mode".  For each directory, a number  of  subdirectories
       are also searched.  These subdirectories are derived from the selected kernel version (the
       -R option), in order to  allow  more  kernel-version-specific  scripts  to  override  less
       specific  ones.   For  example,  for a kernel version 2.6.12-23.FC3 the following patterns
       would be searched, in sequence: 2.6.12-23.FC3/*.stp, 2.6.12/*.stp, 2.6/*.stp, and  finally
       *.stp.  Stopping the translator after pass 1 causes it to print the parse trees.

       In  pass  2,  the  translator  analyzes  the  input  script  to resolve symbols and types.
       References to variables, functions, and probe aliases that are unresolved  internally  are
       satisfied  by searching through the parsed tapset script files.  If any tapset script file
       is selected because it defines an unresolved symbol, then the entirety  of  that  file  is
       added  to  the translator's resolution queue.  This process iterates until all symbols are
       resolved and a subset of tapset script files is selected.

       Next, all probe point descriptions are validated against the wide variety supported by the
       translator.   Probe  points  that  refer  to  code  locations ("synchronous probe points")
       require the appropriate kernel debugging information to be installed.  In  the  associated
       probe  handlers,  target-side  variables  (whose  names begin with "$") are found and have
       their run-time locations decoded.

       Next, all probes and functions are analyzed for optimization opportunities,  in  order  to
       remove variables, expressions, and functions that have no useful value and no side-effect.
       Embedded-C functions are assumed to have side-effects unless they include the magic string
       /* pure */.   Since  this optimization can hide latent code errors such as type mismatches
       or invalid $context variables, it sometimes may be useful  to  disable  the  optimizations
       with the -u option.

       Finally,  all  variable,  function,  parameter,  array,  and index types are inferred from
       context (literals and operators).  Stopping the translator after pass 2 causes it to  list
       all the probes, functions, and variables, along with all inferred types.  Any inconsistent
       or unresolved types cause an error.

       In pass 3, the translator writes C code that represents the actions of all selected script
       files,  and creates a Makefile to build that into a kernel object.  These files are placed
       into a temporary directory.  Stopping the translator at this point causes it to print  the
       contents of the C file.

       In  pass  4,  the  translator  invokes  the Linux kernel build system to create the actual
       kernel object file.  This involves running make in the temporary directory, and requires a
       kernel  module  build  system (headers, config and Makefiles) to be installed in the usual
       spot /lib/modules/VERSION/build.  Stopping the translator after pass 4 is the last  chance
       before running the kernel object.  This may be useful if you want to archive the file.

       In  pass 5, the translator invokes the systemtap auxiliary program staprun program for the
       given kernel object.  This program arranges to load the module then communicates with  it,
       copying trace data from the kernel into temporary files, until the user sends an interrupt
       signal.  Any run-time error encountered by the probe handlers,  such  as  running  out  of
       memory,  division  by  zero,  exceeding nesting or runtime limits, results in a soft error
       indication.  Soft errors in excess of MAXERRORS block of  all  subsequent  probes  (except
       error-handling  probes),  and terminate the session.  Finally, staprun unloads the module,
       and cleans up.

   ABNORMAL TERMINATION
       One should avoid killing the stap process forcibly, for example with SIGKILL, because  the
       stapio  process  (a  child  process of the stap process) and the loaded module may be left
       running on the system.  If this happens, send SIGTERM or SIGINT to  any  remaining  stapio
       processes, then use rmmod to unload the systemtap module.

EXAMPLES

       See  the  stapex(3stap)  manual  page for a brief collection of samples, or a large set of
       installed  samples  under  the   systemtap   documentation/testsuite   directories.    See
       stappaths(7stap) for the likely location of these on the system.

CACHING

       The  systemtap  translator  caches the pass 3 output (the generated C code) and the pass 4
       output (the compiled kernel module) if pass 4 completes successfully.  This cached  output
       is  reused if the same script is translated again assuming the same conditions exist (same
       kernel  version,  same  systemtap  version,  etc.).   Cached  files  are  stored  in   the
       $SYSTEMTAP_DIR/cache directory. The cache can be limited by having the file cache_mb_limit
       placed in the cache directory (shown above) containing only an ASCII integer  representing
       how  many  MiB the cache should not exceed. In the absence of this file, a default will be
       created with the limit set to 256MiB.  This is a 'soft' limit in that the  cache  will  be
       cleaned  after  a new entry is added if the cache clean interval is exceeded, so the total
       cache size may temporarily exceed this limit. This interval can be specified by having the
       file cache_clean_interval_s placed in the cache directory (shown above) containing only an
       ASCII integer representing the interval in seconds. In the absence of this file, a default
       will be created with the interval set to 300 s.

SAFETY AND SECURITY

       Systemtap  may  be  used as a powerful administrative tool.  It can expose kernel internal
       data structures and potentially private user information.  (In dyninst runtime mode,  this
       is not the case, see the ALTERNATE RUNTIMES section below.)

       The  translator  asserts  many  safety constraints during compilation and more during run-
       time.  It aims to ensure that no handler routine can run for very long, allocate boundless
       memory,  perform unsafe operations, or in unintentionally interfere with the system.  Uses
       of script global variables are automatically read/write locked as appropriate, to  protect
       against manipulation by concurrent probe handlers.  (Deadlocks are detected with timeouts.
       Use the -t flag to receive reports of  excessive  lock  contention.)   Experimenting  with
       scripts  is  therefore  generally  safe.  The guru-mode -g option allows administrators to
       bypass  most  safety  measures,  which  permits  invasive  or  state-changing  operations,
       embedded-C  code,  and  increases  the  risk of upset.  By default, overload prevention is
       turned on for all modules.  If you would like to  disable  overload  processing,  use  the
       --suppress-time-limits option.

       Errors that are caught at run time normally result in a clean script shutdown and a pass-5
       error message.  The --suppress-handler-errors option lets  scripts  tolerate  soft  errors
       without shutting down.

   PERMISSIONS
       For  the normal linux-kernel-module runtime, to run the kernel objects systemtap builds, a
       user must be one of the following:

       ·   the root user;

       ·   a member of the stapdev and stapusr groups;

       ·   a member of the stapsys and stapusr groups; or

       ·   a member of the stapusr group.

       The root user or a user who is a member of both the stapdev and stapusr groups  can  build
       and run any systemtap script.

       A  user  who  is  a  member  of both the stapsys and stapusr groups can only use pre-built
       modules under the following conditions:

       ·   The module has been signed by a trusted signer. Trusted signers are normally systemtap
           compile-servers  which  sign  modules  when the --privilege option is specified by the
           client. See the stap-server(8) manual page for more information.

       ·   The module was built using the --privilege=stapsys or the --privilege=stapusr options.

       Members of only the stapusr group can only  use  pre-built  modules  under  the  following
       conditions:

       ·   The module is located in the /lib/modules/VERSION/systemtap directory.  This directory
           must be owned by root and not be world writable.

       or

       ·   The module has been signed by a trusted signer. Trusted signers are normally systemtap
           compile-servers  which  sign  modules  when the --privilege option is specified by the
           client. See the stap-server(8) manual page for more information.

       ·   The module was built using the --privilege=stapusr option.

       The kernel modules generated by stap program are run by the staprun program.   The  latter
       is a part of the Systemtap package, dedicated to module loading and unloading (but only in
       the white zone), and kernel-to-user data transfer.  Since staprun  does  not  perform  any
       additional  security  checks  on  the kernel objects it is given, it would be unwise for a
       system administrator to add untrusted users to the stapdev or stapusr groups.

   SECUREBOOT
       If the current system has SecureBoot turned on in the UEFI firmware,  all  kernel  modules
       must  be  signed.   (Some kernels may allow disabling SecureBoot long after booting with a
       key sequence such as SysRq-X, making it  unnecessary  to  sign  modules.)   The  systemtap
       compile  server can sign modules with a MOK (Machine Owner Key) that it has in common with
       a client system. See the following wiki page for more details:

              https://sourceware.org/systemtap/wiki/SecureBoot

   RESOURCE LIMITS
       Many resource use limits are set by  macros  in  the  generated  C  code.   These  may  be
       overridden with -D flags.  A selection of these is as follows:

       MAXNESTING
              Maximum  number  of  nested function calls.  Default determined by script analysis,
              with a bonus 10 slots added for recursive scripts.

       MAXSTRINGLEN
              Maximum length of strings, default 128.

       MAXTRYLOCK
              Maximum number of iterations to wait for locks on global variables before declaring
              possible deadlock and skipping the probe, default 1000.

       MAXACTION
              Maximum  number  of  statements  to  execute  during  any  single  probe  hit (with
              interrupts disabled), default 1000.  Note that for straight-through probe  handlers
              lacking  loops or recursion, due to optimization, this parameter may be interpreted
              too conservatively.

       MAXACTION_INTERRUPTIBLE
              Maximum number of statements to execute  during  any  single  probe  hit  which  is
              executed  with  interrupts enabled (such as begin/end probes), default (MAXACTION *
              10).

       MAXBACKTRACE
              Maximum number of stack frames that will  be  be  processed  by  the  stap  runtime
              unwinder  as  produced  by  the  backtrace  functions  in the [u]context-unwind.stp
              tapsets, default 20.

       MAXMAPENTRIES
              Maximum number of rows in any single global array, default 2048.  Individual arrays
              may be declared with a larger or smaller limit instead:

              global big[10000],little[5]

              or  denoted with % to make them wrap-around (replace old entries) automatically, as
              in

              global big%

              or both.

       MAPHASHBIAS
              The number of powers-of-two to add or subtract from the natural size  of  the  hash
              table  backing  each  global  associative array.  Default is 0.  Try small positive
              numbers to get extra performance at the cost of more  memory  consumption,  because
              that  should  reduce  hash  table  collisions.   Try small negative numbers for the
              opposite tradeoff.

       MAXERRORS
              Maximum number of soft errors before an exit is triggered, default 0,  which  means
              that   the   first   error   will   exit   the   script.    Note   that   with  the
              --suppress-handler-errors option, this limit is not enforced.

       MAXSKIPPED
              Maximum number of skipped probes before an exit is triggered, default 100.  Running
              systemtap  with -t (timing) mode gives more details about skipped probes.  With the
              default -DINTERRUPTIBLE=1  setting,  probes  skipped  due  to  reentrancy  are  not
              accumulated  against  this  limit.   Note  that  with the --suppress-handler-errors
              option, this limit is not enforced.

       MINSTACKSPACE
              Minimum number of free kernel stack bytes required in order to run a probe handler,
              default  1024.   This  number  should  be  large enough for the probe handler's own
              needs, plus a safety margin.

       MAXUPROBES
              Maximum number of concurrently armed user-space probes (uprobes), default  somewhat
              larger  than  the number of user-space probe points named in the script.  This pool
              needs to be potentially large because individual uprobe  objects  (about  64  bytes
              each) are allocated for each process for each matching script-level probe.

       STP_MAXMEMORY
              Maximum  amount  of  memory  (in  kilobytes)  that the systemtap module should use,
              default unlimited.  The memory size includes the size of the  module  itself,  plus
              any  additional  allocations.  This only tracks direct allocations by the systemtap
              runtime.  This does not track indirect allocations (as done by kprobes/uprobes/etc.
              internals).

       STP_OVERLOAD_THRESHOLD, STP_OVERLOAD_INTERVAL
              Maximum  number  of  machine  cycles spent in probes on any cpu per given interval,
              before an overload condition is declared and the script shut  down.   The  defaults
              are 500 million and 1 billion, so as to limit stap script cpu consumption at around
              50%.

       STP_PROCFS_BUFSIZE
              Size of procfs probe read buffers (in  bytes).   Defaults  to  MAXSTRINGLEN.   This
              value  can  be  overridden  on  a per-procfs file basis using the procfs read probe
              .maxsize(MAXSIZE) parameter.

       With scripts that contain probes  on  any  interrupt  path,  it  is  possible  that  those
       interrupts  may  occur in the middle of another probe handler.  The probe in the interrupt
       handler would be skipped in this case to avoid reentrance.  To  work  around  this  issue,
       execute  stap  with  the  option -DINTERRUPTIBLE=0 to mask interrupts throughout the probe
       handler.  This does add some extra overhead to the probes, but it may  prevent  reentrance
       for common problem cases.  However, probes in NMI handlers and in the callpath of the stap
       runtime may still be skipped due to reentrance.

       In case something goes wrong with stap or  staprun  after  a  probe  has  already  started
       running,  one  may  safely  kill  both  user processes, and remove the active probe kernel
       module with rmmod.  Any pending trace messages may be lost.

UNPRIVILEGED USERS

       Systemtap  exposes  kernel  internal  data  structures  and   potentially   private   user
       information.  Because of this, use of systemtap's full capabilities are restricted to root
       and to users who are members of the groups stapdev and stapusr.

       However, a restricted set of systemtap's  features  can  be  made  available  to  trusted,
       unprivileged  users.  These users are members of the group stapusr only, or members of the
       groups stapusr and stapsys.  These users  can  load  systemtap  modules  which  have  been
       compiled  and certified by a trusted systemtap compile-server. See the descriptions of the
       options --privilege and --use-server. See README.unprivileged in the systemtap source code
       for information about setting up a trusted compile server.

       The  restrictions  enforced  when --privilege=stapsys is specified are designed to prevent
       unprivileged users from:

              ·   harming the system maliciously.

       The restrictions enforced when --privilege=stapusr is specified are  designed  to  prevent
       unprivileged users from:

              ·   harming the system maliciously.

              ·   gaining  access  to  information  which  would  not normally be available to an
                  unprivileged user.

              ·   disrupting the performance of processes owned by other  users  of  the  system.
                  Some  overhead  to  the system in general is unavoidable since the unprivileged
                  user's probes will be triggered at the appropriate times. What we would like to
                  avoid  is  targeted  interruption  of  another user's processes which would not
                  normally be possible by an unprivileged user.

   PROBE RESTRICTIONS
       A member of the groups stapusr and stapsys may use all probe points.

       A member of only the group stapusr may use only the following probes:

              ·   begin, begin(n)

              ·   end, end(n)

              ·   error(n)

              ·   never

              ·   process.*, where the target process is owned by the user.

              ·   timer.{jiffies,s,sec,ms,msec,us,usec,ns,nsec}(n)*

              ·   timer.hz(n)

   SCRIPT LANGUAGE RESTRICTIONS
       The following scripting language features are unavailable to all unprivileged users:

              ·   any feature enabled by the Guru Mode (-g) option.

              ·   embedded C code.

   RUNTIME RESTRICTIONS
       The following runtime restrictions are placed upon all unprivileged users:

              ·   Only the default runtime code (see -R) may be used.

       Additional restrictions are placed on members of only the group stapusr:

              ·   Probing of processes owned by other users is not permitted.

              ·   Access of kernel memory (read and write) is not permitted.

   COMMAND LINE OPTION RESTRICTIONS
       Some command line options provide access to features which must not be  available  to  all
       unprivileged users:

              ·   -g may not be specified.

              ·   The following options may not be used by the compile-server client:

                      -a, -B, -D, -I, -r, -R

   ENVIRONMENT RESTRICTIONS
       The following environment variables must not be set for all unprivileged users:

              SYSTEMTAP_RUNTIME
              SYSTEMTAP_TAPSET
              SYSTEMTAP_DEBUGINFO_PATH

   TAPSET RESTRICTIONS
       In general, tapset functions are only available for members of the group stapusr when they
       do not gather information that an ordinary program running  with  that  user's  privileges
       would be denied access to.

       There  are two categories of unprivileged tapset functions. The first category consists of
       utility functions that are unconditionally available to  all  users;  these  include  such
       things as:

              cpu:long ()
              exit ()
              str_replace:string (prnt_str:string, srch_str:string, rplc_str:string)

       The  second  category  consists  of  so-called myproc-unprivileged functions that can only
       gather information within their own processes. Scripts that wish to  use  these  functions
       must test the result of the tapset function is_myproc and only call these functions if the
       result is 1. The script will exit immediately if any of these functions are called  by  an
       unprivileged  user  within  a  probe  within  a  process  which is not owned by that user.
       Examples of myproc-unprivileged functions include:

              print_usyms (stk:string)
              user_int:long (addr:long)
              usymname:string (addr:long)

       A compile error is triggered when any function not in either of the  above  categories  is
       used by members of only the group stapusr.

       No other built-in tapset functions may be used by members of only the group stapusr.

ALTERNATE RUNTIMES

       As  described above, systemtap's default runtime mode involves building and loading kernel
       modules, with  various  security  tradeoffs  presented.   Systemtap  now  includes  a  new
       prototype  backend,  selected  with  --runtime=dyninst, which uses Dyninst to instrument a
       user's own processes at runtime. This backend does not use kernel modules,  and  does  not
       require  root  privileges, but is restricted with respect to the kinds of probes and other
       constructs that a script may use.

       The dyninst runtime operates in target-attach mode, so it does require a -c COMMAND or  -x
       PID process.  For example:

              stap --runtime=dyninst -c 'stap -V' \
                   -e 'probe process.function("main")
                       { println("hi from dyninst!") }'

       It may be necessary to disable a conflicting selinux check with

              # setsebool allow_execstack 1

EXIT STATUS

       The  systemtap  translator  generally  returns  with  a success code of 0 if the requested
       script was processed and executed successfully through  the  requested  pass.   Otherwise,
       errors  may  be  printed  to  stderr  and  a failure code is returned.  Use -v or -vp N to
       increase (global or per-pass) verbosity to identify the source of the trouble.

       In listings mode (-l and -L), error messages are normally suppressed.  A success code of 0
       is returned if at least one matching probe was found.

       A  script  executing  in  pass  5 that is interrupted with ^C / SIGINT is considered to be
       successful.

DEPRECATION

       Over time, some features of the  script  language  and  the  tapset  library  may  undergo
       incompatible  changes, so that a script written against an old version of systemtap may no
       longer run.  In these cases, it may help to run systemtap with  the  --compatible  VERSION
       flag,   specifying   the   last   known  working  version.   Running  systemtap  with  the
       --check-version flag will output a warning if any possible incompatible elements have been
       parsed.  Deprecation historical details may be found in the NEWS file.

       The  purpose  of  deprecation facility is to improve the experience of scripts written for
       newer versions of systemtap (by adding better alternatives  and  removing  conflicting  or
       messy  older  alternatives),  while  at the same time permitting scripts written for older
       versions of systemtap to continue running.  Deprecation is  thus  intended  a  service  to
       users (and an inconvenience to systemtap's developers), rather than the other way around.

       Please  note  that  underscore-prefixed  identifiers  in the tapset sometimes undergo such
       changes that are difficult to  preserve  compatibility  for,  even  with  the  deprecation
       mechanisms.  Avoid relying on these in your scripts; instead propose them for promotion to
       non-underscored status.

FILES

       Important files and their corresponding paths can be located in the
              stappaths (7) manual page.

SEE ALSO

       stapprobes(3stap),
       function::*(3stap),
       probe::*(3stap),
       tapset::*(3stap),
       stappaths(7),
       staprun(8),
       stapdyn(8),
       systemtap(8),
       stapvars(3stap),
       stapex(3stap),
       stap-server(8),
       stap-prep(1),
       stapref(1),
       awk(1),
       gdb(1)

BUGS

       Use   the   Bugzilla   link   of   the   project   web   page   or   our   mailing   list.
       http://sourceware.org/systemtap/, <systemtap@sourceware.org>.

       error::reporting(7stap), https://sourceware.org/systemtap/wiki/HowToReportBugs

                                                                                          STAP(1)