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NAME  - Finds shortest path on vector network.


       vector, network, shortest path

SYNOPSIS --help  [-tgs]  input=name  output=name  arc_layer=string arc_type=string[,string,...]
       node_layer=string    [file=name]     [arc_column=string]      [arc_backward_column=string]
       [node_column=string]      [dmax=float]     [turn_layer=string]     [turn_cat_layer=string]
       [--overwrite]  [--help]  [--verbose]  [--quiet]  [--ui]

           Use turntable

           Use geodesic calculation for longitude-latitude locations

           Write output as original input segments, not each path as one line.

           Allow output files to overwrite existing files

           Print usage summary

           Verbose module output

           Quiet module output

           Force launching GUI dialog

       input=name [required]
           Name of input vector map
           Or data source for direct OGR access

       output=name [required]
           Name for output vector map

       arc_layer=string [required]
           Arc layer
           Vector features can have category values in different layers. This  number  determines
           which layer to use. When used with direct OGR access this is the layer name.
           Default: 1

       arc_type=string[,string,...] [required]
           Arc type
           Input feature type
           Options: line, boundary
           Default: line,boundary

       node_layer=string [required]
           Node layer
           Vector  features  can have category values in different layers. This number determines
           which layer to use. When used with direct OGR access this is the layer name.
           Default: 2

           Name of file containing start and end points. If not given, read from stdin

           Arc forward/both direction(s) cost column (number)

           Arc backward direction cost column (number)

           Node cost column (number)

           Maximum distance to the network
           If start/end are given as coordinates. If start/end point is outside  this  threshold,
           the path is not found and error message is printed. To speed up the process, keep this
           value as low as possible.
           Default: 1000

           Layer with turntable
           Relevant only with -t flag
           Default: 3

           Layer with unique categories used in turntable
           Relevant only with -t flag
           Default: 4

DESCRIPTION determines least costly, e.g. shortest or fastest path(s) on a vector network.

       Costs may be either line lengths, or attributes saved in a database table. These attribute
       values  are taken as costs of whole segments, not as costs to traverse a length unit (e.g.
       meter) of the segment.  For example, if the speed limit  is  100  km  /  h,  the  cost  to
       traverse a 10 km long road segment must be calculated as
       length / speed = 10 km / (100 km/h) = 0.1 h.
       Supported  are cost assignments for both arcs and nodes, and also different costs for both
       directions of a vector line.  For areas, costs will be calculated along boundary lines.

       The input vector needs to be prepared with operation=connect  in  order  to  connect
       points representing center nodes to the network.

       Nodes and arcs can be closed using cost = -1.

       Least cost paths are written to the output vector map with an attached attribute table.

       Nodes can be

           ·   piped into the program from file or from stdin, or

           ·   defined in the graphical user interface ("enter values interactively").
       The syntax is as follows:
       id start_point_category end_point_category
       (Example: 1 1 2)

       id start_point_x start_point_y end_point_x end_point_y

       Points  specified  by  category must be exactly on network nodes, and the input vector map
       needs to be prepared with operation=connect.

       When specifying coordinates, the next network node to a given coordinate pair is used.

       The attribute table will contain the following attributes:

           ·   cat  - path unique category assigned by module

           ·   id   - path id (read from input)

           ·   fcat - from point category

           ·   tcat - to point category

           ·   sp - result status:

               ·   0 - OK, path found

               ·   1 - node is not reachable

               ·   2 - point of given category does not exist

           ·   cost - travelling costs (on the network, not to/from network)

           ·   fdist - the distance from first point to the network

           ·   tdist - the distance from the network to second point

       Application of flag -t  enables  a  turntable  support.   This  flag  requires  additional
       parameters turn_layer and turn_cat_layer that are otherwise ignored.  The turntable allows
       to model e.g. traffic code, where some turns may be prohibited.  This means that the input
       layer  is  expanded  by  turntable  with costs of every possible turn on any possible node
       (intersection) in both directions.  Turntable can be created by  the  module.   For
       more information about turns in the vector network analyses see wiki page.


       Nodes and arcs can be closed using cost = -1.

       If the cost columns arc_column, arc_backward_column and node_column are not specified, the
       length of network segments is measured and zero costs are assumed for nodes.

       When using attributes, the length of segments is not used. To get  accurate  results,  the
       line length must be taken into account when assigning costs as attributes. For example, to
       get the fastest path, the columns ’max_speed’  and  ’length’  are  required.  The  correct
       fastest  path  can  then  be  found  by specifying arc_column=length/max_speed. If not yet
       existing, the column containing the line length ("length") has to added to the  attributes
       table using


       Shortest (red) and fastest (blue) path between two digitized nodes (Spearfish):

       # Spearfish
       echo "1|601955.1|4916944.9|start
       2|594385.6|4921565.2|end" | in=- cat=1 x=2 y=3 out=startend col="cat integer, \
                                east double precision, north double precision, label varchar(6)" startend
       g.copy vect=roads,myroads
       # create lines map connecting points to network myroads points=startend out=myroads_net op=connect thresh=500 arc_layer=1 node_layer=2
       # set up costs
       # create unique categories for each road in layer 3
       v.category in=myroads_net out=myroads_net_time opt=add cat=1 layer=3 type=line
       # add new table for layer 3
       v.db.addtable myroads_net_time layer=3 col="cat integer,label varchar(43),length double precision,speed double precision,cost double precision,bcost double precision"
       # copy road type to layer 3 myroads_net_time layer=3 qlayer=1 opt=query qcolumn=label columns=label
       # upload road length in miles myroads_net_time layer=3 type=line option=length col=length unit=miles
       # set speed limits in miles / hour
       v.db.update myroads_net_time layer=3 col=speed val="5.0"
       v.db.update myroads_net_time layer=3 col=speed val="75.0" where="label=’interstate’"
       v.db.update myroads_net_time layer=3 col=speed val="75.0" where="label=’primary highway, hard surface’"
       v.db.update myroads_net_time layer=3 col=speed val="50.0" where="label=’secondary highway, hard surface’"
       v.db.update myroads_net_time layer=3 col=speed val="25.0" where="label=’light-duty road, improved surface’"
       v.db.update myroads_net_time layer=3 col=speed val="5.0" where="label=’unimproved road’"
       # define traveling costs as traveling time in minutes:
       # set forward costs
       v.db.update myroads_net_time layer=3 col=cost val="length / speed * 60"
       # set backward costs
       v.db.update myroads_net_time layer=3 col=bcost val="length / speed * 60"
       # ... the ’start’ and ’end’ nodes have category number 1 and 2
       # Shortest path: ID as first number, then cat1 and cat2
       echo "1 1 2" | myroads_net_time arc_layer=3 node_layer=2 out=mypath
       # Fastest path: ID as first number, then cat1 and cat2
       echo "1 1 2" | myroads_net_time arc_layer=3 node_layer=2 arc_column=cost arc_backward_column=bcost out=mypath_time
       To display the result, run for example:
       g.region vector=myroads_net
       d.mon x0
       d.vect myroads_net
       # show shortest path
       d.vect mypath col=red width=2
       # show fastest path
       d.vect mypath_time col=blue width=2
       # start and end point
       d.vect myroads_net icon=basic/triangle fcol=green size=12 layer=2
       d.font font=Vera
       d.vect startend disp=cat type=point lsize=14 layer=2




       Radim Blazek, ITC-Irst, Trento, Italy
       Documentation: Markus Neteler, Markus Metz

       The  turns  support  was  implemnented  as  part  of GRASS GIS turns cost project at Czech
       Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.

       Implementation: Stepan Turek
       Documentation: Lukas Bocan, Eliska Kyzlikova, Viera Bejdova
       Mentor: Martin Landa

       Last changed: $Date: 2016-11-14 00:05:32 +0100 (Mon, 14 Nov 2016) $


       Available at: source code (history)

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