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NAME

       gkeytool - Manage private keys and public certificates

SYNOPSIS

       keytool [COMMAND] ...

DESCRIPTION

       Cryptographic credentials, in a Java environment, are usually stored in
       a Key Store. The Java SDK specifies a Key Store as a persistent
       container of two types of objects: Key Entries and Trusted
       Certificates. The security tool keytool is a Java-based application for
       managing those types of objects.

       A Key Entry represents the private key part of a key-pair used in
       Public-Key Cryptography, and a signed X.509 certificate which
       authenticates the public key part for a known entity; i.e. the owner of
       the key-pair. The X.509 certificate itself contains the public key part
       of the key-pair.

       A Trusted Certificate is a signed X.509 certificate issued by a trusted
       entity. The Trust in this context is relative to the User of the
       keytool. In other words, the existence of a Trusted Certificate in the
       Key Store processed by a keytool command implies that the User trusts
       the Issuer of that Trusted Certificate to also sign, and hence
       authenticates, other Subjects the tool may process.

       Trusted Certificates are important because they allow the tool to
       mechanically construct Chains of Trust starting from one of the Trusted
       Certificates in a Key Store and ending with a certificate whose Issuer
       is potentially unknown. A valid chain is an ordered list, starting with
       a Trusted Certificate (also called the anchor), ending with the target
       certificate, and satisfying the condition that the Subject of
       certificate "#i" is the Issuer of certificate "#i + 1".

       The keytool is invoked from the command line as follows:

               keytool [COMMAND] ...

       Multiple COMMANDs may be specified at once, each complete with its own
       options. keytool will parse all the arguments, before processing, and
       executing, each "COMMAND". If an exception occurs while executing one
       COMMAND keytool will abort. Note however that because the
       implementation of the tool uses code to parse command line options that
       also supports GNU-style options, you have to separate each command
       group with a double-hyphen; e.g

               keytool -list -- -printcert -alias mykey

OPTIONS

       - Add/Update commands
           -genkey [OPTION]...
               Generate a new Key Entry, eventually creating a new key store.

           -import [OPTION]...
               Add, to a key store, Key Entries (private keys and certificate
               chains authenticating the public keys) and Trusted Certificates
               (3rd party certificates which can be used as Trust Anchors when
               building chains-of-trust).

           -selfcert [OPTION]...
               Generate a new self-signed Trusted Certificate.

           -cacert [OPTION]...
               Import a CA Trusted Certificate.

           -identitydb [OPTION]...
               NOT IMPLEMENTED YET.Import a JDK 1.1 style Identity Database.

       - Export commands
           -certreq [OPTION]...
               Issue a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) which can be then
               sent to a Certification Authority (CA) to issue a certificate
               signed (by the CA) and authenticating the Subject of the
               request.

           -export [OPTION]...
               Export a certificate from a key store.

       - Display commands
           -list [OPTION]...
               Print one or all certificates in a key store to "STDOUT".

           -printcert [OPTION]...
               Print a human-readable form of a certificate, in a designated
               file, to "STDOUT".

       - Management commands
           -keyclone [OPTION]...
               Clone a Key Entry in a key store.

           -storepasswd [OPTION]...
               Change the password protecting a key store.

           -keypasswd [OPTION]...
               Change the password protecting a Key Entry in a key store.

           -delete [OPTION]...
               Delete a Key Entry or a Trusted Certificate from a key store.

       Common options

       The following OPTIONs are used in more than one COMMAND. They are
       described here to reduce redundancy.

       -alias Alias
           Every entry, be it a Key Entry or a Trusted Certificate, in a key
           store is uniquely identified by a user-defined Alias string. Use
           this option to specify the Alias to use when referring to an entry
           in the key store. Unless specified otherwise, a default value of
           "mykey" shall be used when this option is omitted from the command
           line.

       -keyalg ALGORITHM
           Use this option to specify the canonical name of the key-pair
           generation algorithm. The default value for this option is "DSS" (a
           synonym for the Digital Signature Algorithm also known as DSA).

       -keysize SIZE
           Use this option to specify the number of bits of the shared modulus
           (for both the public and private keys) to use when generating new
           keys. A default value of 1024 will be used if this option is
           omitted from the command line.

       -validity DAY_COUNT
           Use this option to specify the number of days a newly generated
           certificate will be valid for. The default value is 90 (days) if
           this option is omitted from the command line.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           Use this option to specify the type of the key store to use. The
           default value, if this option is omitted, is that of the property
           "keystore.type" in the security properties file, which is obtained
           by invoking the static method call "getDefaultType()" in
           "java.security.KeyStore".

       -storepass PASSWORD
           Use this option to specify the password protecting the key store.
           If this option is omitted from the command line, you will be
           prompted to provide a password.

       -keystore URL
           Use this option to specify the location of the key store to use.
           The default value is a file URL referencing the file named
           .keystore located in the path returned by the call to
           "java.lang.System#getProperty(String)" using "user.home" as
           argument.

           If a URL was specified, but was found to be malformed --e.g.
           missing protocol element-- the tool will attempt to use the URL
           value as a file-name (with absolute or relative path-name) of a key
           store --as if the protocol was "file:".

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           A fully qualified class name of a Security Provider to add to the
           current list of Security Providers already installed in the JVM in-
           use. If a provider class is specified with this option, and was
           successfully added to the runtime --i.e. it was not already
           installed-- then the tool will attempt to removed this Security
           Provider before exiting.

       -file FILE
           Use this option to designate a file to use with a command. When
           specified with this option, the value is expected to be the fully
           qualified path of a file accessible by the File System. Depending
           on the command, the file may be used as input or as output. When
           this option is omitted from the command line, "STDIN" will be used
           instead, as the source of input, and "STDOUT" will be used instead
           as the output destination.

       -v  Unless specified otherwise, use this option to enable more verbose
           output.

       Add/Update commands

       The -genkey command

       Use this command to generate a new key-pair (both private and public
       keys), and save these credentials in the key store as a Key Entry,
       associated with the designated (if was specified with the -alias
       option) or default (if the -alias option is omitted) Alias.

       The private key material will be protected with a user-defined password
       (see -keypass option). The public key on the other hand will be part of
       a self-signed X.509 certificate, which will form a 1-element chain and
       will be saved in the key store.

       -alias ALIAS
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keyalg ALGORITHM
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keysize KEY_SIZE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -sigalg ALGORITHM
           The canonical name of the digital signature algorithm to use for
           signing certificates. If this option is omitted, a default value
           will be chosen based on the type of the key-pair; i.e., the
           algorithm that ends up being used by the -keyalg option. If the
           key-pair generation algorithm is "DSA", the value for the signature
           algorithm will be "SHA1withDSA". If on the other hand the key-pair
           generation algorithm is "RSA", then the tool will use "MD5withRSA"
           as the signature algorithm.

       -dname NAME
           This a mandatory value for the command. If no value is specified
           --i.e. the -dname option is omitted-- the tool will prompt you to
           enter a Distinguished Name to use as both the Owner and Issuer of
           the generated self-signed certificate.

           See Common Options for more details.

       -keypass PASSWORD
           Use this option to specify the password which the tool will use to
           protect the newly created Key Entry.

           If this option is omitted, you will be prompted to provide a
           password.

       -validity DAY_COUNT
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       The -import command

       Use this command to read an X.509 certificate, or a PKCS#7 Certificate
       Reply from a designated input source and incorporate the certificates
       into the key store.

       If the Alias does not already exist in the key store, the tool treats
       the certificate read from the input source as a new Trusted
       Certificate. It then attempts to discover a chain-of-trust, starting
       from that certificate and ending at another Trusted Certificate,
       already stored in the key store. If the -trustcacerts option is
       present, an additional key store, of type "JKS" named cacerts, and
       assumed to be present in ${JAVA_HOME}/lib/security will also be
       consulted if found --"${JAVA_HOME}" refers to the location of an
       installed Java Runtime Environment (JRE). If no chain-of-trust can be
       established, and unless the "-noprompt" option has been specified, the
       certificate is printed to "STDOUT" and the user is prompted for a
       confirmation.

       If Alias exists in the key store, the tool will treat the
       certificate(s) read from the input source as a Certificate Reply, which
       can be a chain of certificates, that eventually would replace the chain
       of certificates associated with the Key Entry of that Alias. The
       substitution of the certificates only occurs if a chain-of-trust can be
       established between the bottom certificate of the chain read from the
       input file and the Trusted Certificates already present in the key
       store. Again, if the -trustcacerts option is specified, additional
       Trusted Certificates in the same cacerts key store will be considered.
       If no chain-of-trust can be established, the operation will abort.

       -alias ALIAS
           See Common Options for more details.

       -file FILE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keypass PASSWORD
           Use this option to specify the password which the tool will use to
           protect the Key Entry associated with the designated Alias, when
           replacing this Alias' chain of certificates with that found in the
           certificate reply.

           If this option is omitted, and the chain-of-trust for the
           certificate reply has been established, the tool will first attempt
           to unlock the Key Entry using the same password protecting the key
           store. If this fails, you will then be prompted to provide a
           password.

       -noprompt
           Use this option to prevent the tool from prompting the user.

       -trustcacerts
           Use this option to indicate to the tool that a key store, of type
           "JKS", named cacerts, and usually located in lib/security in an
           installed Java Runtime Environment should be considered when trying
           to establish chain-of-trusts.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       The -selfcert command

       Use this command to generate a self-signed X.509 version 1 certificate.
       The newly generated certificate will form a chain of one element which
       will replace the previous chain associated with the designated Alias
       (if -alias option was specified), or the default Alias (if -alias
       option was omitted).

       -alias ALIAS
           See Common Options for more details.

       -sigalg ALGORITHM
           The canonical name of the digital signature algorithm to use for
           signing the certificate. If this option is omitted, a default value
           will be chosen based on the type of the private key associated with
           the designated Alias. If the private key is a "DSA" one, the value
           for the signature algorithm will be "SHA1withDSA". If on the other
           hand the private key is an "RSA" one, then the tool will use
           "MD5withRSA" as the signature algorithm.

       -dname NAME
           Use this option to specify the Distinguished Name of the newly
           generated self-signed certificate. If this option is omitted, the
           existing Distinguished Name of the base certificate in the chain
           associated with the designated Alias will be used instead.

           See Common Options for more details.

       -validity DAY_COUNT
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keypass PASSWORD
           Use this option to specify the password which the tool will use to
           unlock the Key Entry associated with the designated Alias.

           If this option is omitted, the tool will first attempt to unlock
           the Key Entry using the same password protecting the key store. If
           this fails, you will then be prompted to provide a password.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       The -cacert command

       Use this command to import, a CA certificate and add it to the key
       store as a Trusted Certificate. The Alias for this new entry will be
       constructed from the FILE's base-name after replacing hyphens and dots
       with underscores.

       This command is useful when used in a script that recursively visits a
       directory of CA certificates to populate a "cacerts.gkr" Key Store of
       trusted certificates which can then be used commands that specify the
       -trustcacerts option.

       -file FILE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       The -identitydb command

       NOT IMPLEMENTED YET.

       Use this command to import a JDK 1.1 style Identity Database.

       -file FILE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       Export commands

       The -certreq command

       Use this command to generate a PKCS#10 Certificate Signing Request
       (CSR) and write it to a designated output destination. The contents of
       the destination should look something like the following:

               -----BEGIN NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
               MI...QAwXzEUMBIGA1UEAwwLcnNuQGdudS5vcmcxGzAZBgNVBAoMElUg
               Q2...A0GA1UEBwwGU3lkbmV5MQwwCgYDVQQIDANOU1cxCzAJBgNVBACC
               ...
               FC...IVwNVOfQLRX+O5kAhQ/a4RTZme2L8PnpvgRwrf7Eg8D6w==

               -----END NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
       IMPORTANT: Some documentation (e.g. RSA examples) claims that the
       "Attributes" field, in the CSR is "OPTIONAL" while RFC-2986 implies the
       opposite. This implementation considers this field, by default, as
       "OPTIONAL", unless the option -attributes is specified on the command
       line.

       -alias ALIAS
           See Common Options for more details.

       -sigalg ALGORITHM
           The canonical name of the digital signature algorithm to use for
           signing the certificate. If this option is omitted, a default value
           will be chosen based on the type of the private key associated with
           the designated Alias. If the private key is a "DSA" one, the value
           for the signature algorithm will be "SHA1withDSA". If on the other
           hand the private key is an "RSA" one, then the tool will use
           "MD5withRSA" as the signature algorithm.

       -file FILE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keypass PASSWORD
           Use this option to specify the password which the tool will use to
           unlock the Key Entry associated with the designated Alias.

           If this option is omitted, the tool will first attempt to unlock
           the Key Entry using the same password protecting the key store. If
           this fails, you will then be prompted to provide a password.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       -attributes
           Use this option to force the tool to encode a "NULL" DER value in
           the CSR as the value of the "Attributes" field.

       The -export command

       Use this command to export a certificate stored in a key store to a
       designated output destination, either in binary format (if the -v
       option is specified), or in RFC-1421 compliant encoding (if the -rfc
       option is specified instead).

       -alias ALIAS
           See Common Options for more details.

       -file FILE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -rfc
           Use RFC-1421 specifications when encoding the output.

       -v  Output the certificate in binary DER encoding. This is the default
           output format of the command if neither -rfc nor "-v" options were
           detected on the command line. If both this option and the -rfc
           option are detected on the command line, the tool will opt for the
           RFC-1421 style encoding.

       Display commands

       The -list command

       Use this command to print one or all of a key store entries to
       "STDOUT". Usually this command will only print a fingerprint of the
       certificate, unless either the -rfc or the -v option is specified.

       -alias ALIAS
           If this option is omitted, the tool will print ALL the entries
           found in the key store.

           See Common Options for more details.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -rfc
           Use RFC-1421 specifications when encoding the output.

       -v  Output the certificate in human-readable format. If both this
           option and the -rfc option are detected on the command line, the
           tool will opt for the human-readable form and will not abort the
           command.

       The -printcert command

       Use this command to read a certificate from a designated input source
       and print it to "STDOUT" in a human-readable form.

       -file FILE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       Management commands

       The -keyclone command

       Use this command to clone an existing Key Entry and store it under a
       new (different) Alias protecting, its private key material with
       possibly a new password.

       -alias ALIAS
           See Common Options for more details.

       -dest ALIAS
           Use this option to specify the new Alias which will be used to
           identify the cloned copy of the Key Entry.

       -keypass PASSWORD
           Use this option to specify the password which the tool will use to
           unlock the Key Entry associated with the designated Alias.

           If this option is omitted, the tool will first attempt to unlock
           the Key Entry using the same password protecting the key store. If
           this fails, you will then be prompted to provide a password.

       -new PASSWORD
           Use this option to specify the password protecting the private key
           material of the newly cloned copy of the Key Entry.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       The -storepasswd command

       Use this command to change the password protecting a key store.

       -new PASSWORD
           The new, and different, password which will be used to protect the
           designated key store.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       The -keypasswd command

       Use this command to change the password protecting the private key
       material of a designated Key Entry.

       -alias ALIAS
           See Common Options for more details.

           Use this option to specify the password which the tool will use to
           unlock the Key Entry associated with the designated Alias.

           If this option is omitted, the tool will first attempt to unlock
           the Key Entry using the same password protecting the key store. If
           this fails, you will then be prompted to provide a password.

       -new PASSWORD
           The new, and different, password which will be used to protect the
           private key material of the designated Key Entry.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

       The -delete command

       Use this command to delete a designated key store entry.

       -alias ALIAS
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storetype STORE_TYPE
           See Common Options for more details.

       -keystore URL
           See Common Options for more details.

       -storepass PASSWORD
           See Common Options for more details.

       -provider PROVIDER_CLASS_NAME
           See Common Options for more details.

       -v  See Common Options for more details.

BUGS

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