Provided by: ppp_2.4.7-2+2ubuntu1_amd64 bug

NAME

       pppd - Point-to-Point Protocol Daemon

SYNOPSIS

       pppd [ options ]

DESCRIPTION

       PPP  is  the  protocol  used  for  establishing  internet  links  over dial-up modems, DSL
       connections, and many other types of point-to-point links.  The pppd daemon works together
       with  the  kernel  PPP  driver  to  establish  and maintain a PPP link with another system
       (called the peer) and to negotiate Internet Protocol (IP) addresses for each  end  of  the
       link.  Pppd can also authenticate the peer and/or supply authentication information to the
       peer.  PPP can be used with other network protocols besides IP, but such use  is  becoming
       increasingly rare.

FREQUENTLY USED OPTIONS

       ttyname
              Use  the  serial port called ttyname to communicate with the peer.  If ttyname does
              not begin with a slash (/), the string "/dev/" is prepended to ttyname to form  the
              name  of  the  device  to  open.  If no device name is given, or if the name of the
              terminal connected to the standard input is given, pppd will use that terminal, and
              will  not  fork  to  put  itself in the background.  A value for this option from a
              privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       speed  An option that is a decimal number is taken as the desired baud rate for the serial
              device.   On  systems such as 4.4BSD and NetBSD, any speed can be specified.  Other
              systems (e.g. Linux, SunOS) only support the commonly-used baud rates.

       asyncmap map
              This option sets the Async-Control-Character-Map (ACCM) for this end of  the  link.
              The  ACCM  is  a  set of 32 bits, one for each of the ASCII control characters with
              values from 0 to 31, where  a  1  bit  indicates  that  the  corresponding  control
              character  should  not  be  used  in  PPP  packets sent to this system.  The map is
              encoded as a hexadecimal number (without a leading 0x) where the least  significant
              bit  (00000001)  represents  character  0  and  the most significant bit (80000000)
              represents character 31.  Pppd will ask the peer to  send  these  characters  as  a
              2-byte  escape  sequence.   If  multiple asyncmap options are given, the values are
              ORed together.  If no asyncmap option is given, the default is zero, so  pppd  will
              ask  the  peer  not  to  escape  any  control  characters.   To  escape transmitted
              characters, use the escape option.

       auth   Require the peer to authenticate itself before allowing network packets to be  sent
              or  received.   This  option  is the default if the system has a default route.  If
              neither this option nor the noauth option is specified, pppd will  only  allow  the
              peer to use IP addresses to which the system does not already have a route.

       call name
              Read  additional  options from the file /etc/ppp/peers/name.  This file may contain
              privileged options, such as noauth, even if pppd is not being  run  by  root.   The
              name string may not begin with / or include .. as a pathname component.  The format
              of the options file is described below.

       connect script
              Usually there is something which needs to be done to prepare the  link  before  the
              PPP  protocol  can be started; for instance, with a dial-up modem, commands need to
              be sent to the modem to dial the appropriate phone number.  This  option  specifies
              an  command  for  pppd  to  execute (by passing it to a shell) before attempting to
              start PPP negotiation.  The chat (8) program is often useful here, as it provides a
              way  to  send  arbitrary  strings to a modem and respond to received characters.  A
              value for this option from a privileged source  cannot  be  overridden  by  a  non-
              privileged user.

       crtscts
              Specifies  that  pppd should set the serial port to use hardware flow control using
              the RTS and CTS signals in the RS-232  interface.   If  neither  the  crtscts,  the
              nocrtscts, the cdtrcts nor the nocdtrcts option is given, the hardware flow control
              setting for the serial  port  is  left  unchanged.   Some  serial  ports  (such  as
              Macintosh  serial ports) lack a true RTS output. Such serial ports use this mode to
              implement unidirectional flow control. The serial port  will  suspend  transmission
              when  requested  by  the modem (via CTS) but will be unable to request the modem to
              stop sending to the computer. This mode retains the ability to use DTR as  a  modem
              control line.

       defaultroute
              Add  a  default  route to the system routing tables, using the peer as the gateway,
              when IPCP negotiation is successfully completed.  This entry is  removed  when  the
              PPP  connection  is broken.  This option is privileged if the nodefaultroute option
              has been specified.

       replacedefaultroute
              This option is a flag to the defaultroute option. If defaultroute is set  and  this
              flag  is  also  set,  pppd  replaces an existing default route with the new default
              route.

       disconnect script
              Execute the command specified by script, by passing it to a shell, after  pppd  has
              terminated  the link.  This command could, for example, issue commands to the modem
              to cause it to hang up if hardware modem control signals were not  available.   The
              disconnect  script  is  not run if the modem has already hung up.  A value for this
              option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       escape xx,yy,...
              Specifies that certain characters should be escaped on transmission (regardless  of
              whether the peer requests them to be escaped with its async control character map).
              The characters to be escaped are specified as a list of hex  numbers  separated  by
              commas.   Note  that  almost  any character can be specified for the escape option,
              unlike the asyncmap option which only allows control characters  to  be  specified.
              The  characters  which  may not be escaped are those with hex values 0x20 - 0x3f or
              0x5e.

       file name
              Read options from file name (the format is described  below).   The  file  must  be
              readable by the user who has invoked pppd.

       init script
              Execute  the  command  specified by script, by passing it to a shell, to initialize
              the serial line.  This script would typically use the chat(8) program to  configure
              the  modem to enable auto answer.  A value for this option from a privileged source
              cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       lock   Specifies that pppd should create a UUCP-style lock file for the serial  device  to
              ensure  exclusive  access  to  the device.  By default, pppd will not create a lock
              file.

       mru n  Set the MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] value to n. Pppd  will  ask  the  peer  to  send
              packets of no more than n bytes.  The value of n must be between 128 and 16384; the
              default is 1500.  A value of 296 works well on very slow links (40 bytes for TCP/IP
              header  +  256 bytes of data).  Note that for the IPv6 protocol, the MRU must be at
              least 1280.

       mtu n  Set the MTU [Maximum Transmit Unit] value to n.  Unless the peer requests a smaller
              value  via  MRU negotiation, pppd will request that the kernel networking code send
              data packets of no more than n bytes through the PPP network interface.  Note  that
              for the IPv6 protocol, the MTU must be at least 1280.

       passive
              Enables  the  "passive"  option in the LCP.  With this option, pppd will attempt to
              initiate a connection; if no reply is received from the peer, pppd will  then  just
              wait  passively  for  a  valid  LCP packet from the peer, instead of exiting, as it
              would without this option.

OPTIONS

       <local_IP_address>:<remote_IP_address>
              Set the local and/or remote interface IP addresses.  Either  one  may  be  omitted.
              The IP addresses can be specified with a host name or in decimal dot notation (e.g.
              150.234.56.78).  The default local address is the (first) IP address of the  system
              (unless the noipdefault option is given).  The remote address will be obtained from
              the peer if not specified in any option.  Thus, in simple cases, this option is not
              required.   If a local and/or remote IP address is specified with this option, pppd
              will not accept a different value from the peer in the IPCP negotiation, unless the
              ipcp-accept-local and/or ipcp-accept-remote options are given, respectively.

       +ipv6  Enable the IPv6CP and IPv6 protocols.

       ipv6 <local_interface_identifier>,<remote_interface_identifier>
              Set the local and/or remote 64-bit interface identifier. Either one may be omitted.
              The identifier must be specified in standard ASCII notation of IPv6 addresses (e.g.
              ::dead:beef). If the ipv6cp-use-ipaddr option is given, the local identifier is the
              local IPv4 address (see above).  On systems which supports a unique persistent  id,
              such  as EUI-48 derived from the Ethernet MAC address, ipv6cp-use-persistent option
              can be used to replace the ipv6 <local>,<remote> option. Otherwise  the  identifier
              is randomized.

       active-filter filter-expression
              Specifies  a packet filter to be applied to data packets to determine which packets
              are to be regarded as link activity, and therefore reset the idle timer,  or  cause
              the  link  to  be  brought  up  in  demand-dialling mode.  This option is useful in
              conjunction with the idle option if  there  are  packets  being  sent  or  received
              regularly  over  the  link  (for  example, routing information packets) which would
              otherwise prevent the link from ever appearing to be idle.   The  filter-expression
              syntax   is   as  described  for  tcpdump(1),  except  that  qualifiers  which  are
              inappropriate for a PPP link, such as ether and arp, are not permitted.   Generally
              the  filter expression should be enclosed in single-quotes to prevent whitespace in
              the expression from being interpreted by the shell. This option is  currently  only
              available  under  Linux, and requires that the kernel was configured to include PPP
              filtering support (CONFIG_PPP_FILTER).  Note that it is possible to apply different
              constraints  to  incoming  and  outgoing  packets  using  the  inbound and outbound
              qualifiers.

       allow-ip address(es)
              Allow  peers  to  use  the  given  IP  address  or  subnet  without  authenticating
              themselves.   The parameter is parsed as for each element of the list of allowed IP
              addresses in the secrets files (see the AUTHENTICATION section below).

       allow-number number
              Allow peers to connect from the given telephone number.  A trailing  `*'  character
              will match all numbers beginning with the leading part.

       bsdcomp nr,nt
              Request  that  the  peer  compress  packets  that  it sends, using the BSD-Compress
              scheme, with a maximum code size of nr bits, and agree to compress packets sent  to
              the  peer with a maximum code size of nt bits.  If nt is not specified, it defaults
              to the value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for nr and  nt;
              larger   values  give  better  compression  but  consume  more  kernel  memory  for
              compression dictionaries.  Alternatively, a value  of  0  for  nr  or  nt  disables
              compression  in the corresponding direction.  Use nobsdcomp or bsdcomp 0 to disable
              BSD-Compress compression entirely.

       ca ca-file
              (EAP-TLS) Use the file ca-file as the X.509 Certificate Authority (CA) file (in PEM
              format),  needed  for setting up an EAP-TLS connection.  This option is used on the
              client-side in conjunction with the cert and key options.

       cdtrcts
              Use a non-standard hardware flow control (i.e. DTR/CTS) to control the flow of data
              on  the  serial  port.   If neither the crtscts, the nocrtscts, the cdtrcts nor the
              nocdtrcts option is given, the hardware flow control setting for the serial port is
              left unchanged.  Some serial ports (such as Macintosh serial ports) lack a true RTS
              output. Such serial ports use this  mode  to  implement  true  bi-directional  flow
              control.  The sacrifice is that this flow control mode does not permit using DTR as
              a modem control line.

       cert certfile
              (EAP-TLS) Use the file certfile as the X.509 certificate (in  PEM  format),  needed
              for  setting  up  an  EAP-TLS connection. This option is used on the client-side in
              conjunction with the ca and key options.

       chap-interval n
              If this option is given, pppd will rechallenge the peer every n seconds.

       chap-max-challenge n
              Set the maximum number of CHAP challenge transmissions to n (default 10).

       chap-restart n
              Set the CHAP restart interval (retransmission timeout for challenges) to n  seconds
              (default 3).

       child-timeout n
              When exiting, wait for up to n seconds for any child processes (such as the command
              specified with the pty command) to exit before exiting.  At the end of the timeout,
              pppd will send a SIGTERM signal to any remaining child processes and exit.  A value
              of 0 means no timeout, that is, pppd will  wait  until  all  child  processes  have
              exited.

       connect-delay n
              Wait  for  up  to  n milliseconds after the connect script finishes for a valid PPP
              packet from the peer.  At the end of this time, or  when  a  valid  PPP  packet  is
              received  from  the  peer,  pppd will commence negotiation by sending its first LCP
              packet.  The default value is 1000 (1 second).  This wait period  only  applies  if
              the connect or pty option is used.

       crl filename
              (EAP-TLS) Use the file filename as the Certificate Revocation List to check for the
              validity of the peer's certificate. This option is not mandatory for setting up  an
              EAP-TLS connection. Also see the crl-dir option.

       crl-dir directory
              (EAP-TLS)  Use  the  directory  directory  to  scan  for  CRL  files  in has format
              ($hash.r0) to check for the validity of the peer's certificate.  This option is not
              mandatory for setting up an EAP-TLS connection.  Also see the crl option.

       debug  Enables  connection  debugging  facilities.  If this option is given, pppd will log
              the contents of all control packets sent or  received  in  a  readable  form.   The
              packets  are  logged  through  syslog  with  facility daemon and level debug.  This
              information can be directed to a file by setting up /etc/syslog.conf  appropriately
              (see syslog.conf(5)).

       default-asyncmap
              Disable asyncmap negotiation, forcing all control characters to be escaped for both
              the transmit and the receive direction.

       default-mru
              Disable MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] negotiation.  With this option,  pppd  will  use
              the default MRU value of 1500 bytes for both the transmit and receive direction.

       deflate nr,nt
              Request  that  the  peer  compress packets that it sends, using the Deflate scheme,
              with a maximum window size of 2**nr bytes, and agree to compress  packets  sent  to
              the  peer  with  a  maximum window size of 2**nt bytes.  If nt is not specified, it
              defaults to the value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for nr
              and  nt;  larger  values give better compression but consume more kernel memory for
              compression dictionaries.  Alternatively, a value  of  0  for  nr  or  nt  disables
              compression  in the corresponding direction.  Use nodeflate or deflate 0 to disable
              Deflate  compression  entirely.   (Note:  pppd  requests  Deflate  compression   in
              preference to BSD-Compress if the peer can do either.)

       demand Initiate  the  link  only  on demand, i.e. when data traffic is present.  With this
              option, the remote IP address may be specified by the user on the command  line  or
              in  an  options file, or if not, pppd will use an arbitrary address in the 10.x.x.x
              range.  Pppd will initially configure the interface and enable it  for  IP  traffic
              without  connecting  to  the peer.  When traffic is available, pppd will connect to
              the peer and perform negotiation, authentication, etc.   When  this  is  completed,
              pppd will commence passing data packets (i.e., IP packets) across the link.

              The  demand  option  implies the persist option.  If this behaviour is not desired,
              use the nopersist option after the demand option.  The idle and holdoff options are
              also useful in conjunction with the demand option.

       domain d
              Append  the  domain name d to the local host name for authentication purposes.  For
              example, if gethostname() returns the name porsche, but the fully qualified  domain
              name is porsche.Quotron.COM, you could specify domain Quotron.COM.  Pppd would then
              use the name porsche.Quotron.COM for looking up secrets in the secrets file, and as
              the  default name to send to the peer when authenticating itself to the peer.  This
              option is privileged.

       dryrun With the dryrun option, pppd will print out all the option values which  have  been
              set  and  then  exit, after parsing the command line and options files and checking
              the option values, but before initiating the link.  The option values are logged at
              level  info,  and  also  printed  to  standard output unless the device on standard
              output is the device that pppd would be using to communicate with the peer.

       dump   With the dump option, pppd will print out all the option  values  which  have  been
              set.   This  option  is  like the dryrun option except that pppd proceeds as normal
              rather than exiting.

       enable-session
              Enables session accounting via PAM or wtwp/wtmpx,  as  appropriate.   When  PAM  is
              enabled,  the PAM "account" and "session" module stacks determine behavior, and are
              enabled for all PPP authentication protocols.  When  PAM  is  disabled,  wtmp/wtmpx
              entries are recorded regardless of whether the peer name identifies a valid user on
              the local system, making peers  visible  in  the  last(1)  log.   This  feature  is
              automatically  enabled  when  the pppd login option is used.  Session accounting is
              disabled by default.

       endpoint <epdisc>
              Sets the endpoint discriminator sent by  the  local  machine  to  the  peer  during
              multilink  negotiation  to  <epdisc>.  The default is to use the MAC address of the
              first ethernet interface  on  the  system,  if  any,  otherwise  the  IPv4  address
              corresponding  to  the  hostname,  if  any,  provided it is not in the multicast or
              locally-assigned IP  address  ranges,  or  the  localhost  address.   The  endpoint
              discriminator  can  be  the  string null or of the form type:value, where type is a
              decimal number or one of the strings local, IP, MAC, magic, or phone.  The value is
              an  IP  address in dotted-decimal notation for the IP type, or a string of bytes in
              hexadecimal, separated by periods or colons for the other types.  For the MAC type,
              the  value  may also be the name of an ethernet or similar network interface.  This
              option is currently only available under Linux.

       eap-interval n
              If this option is given and pppd authenticates the peer  with  EAP  (i.e.,  is  the
              server),  pppd  will restart EAP authentication every n seconds.  For EAP SRP-SHA1,
              see also the srp-interval option, which enables lightweight rechallenge.

       eap-max-rreq n
              Set the maximum number of EAP Requests to which pppd will  respond  (as  a  client)
              without hearing EAP Success or Failure.  (Default is 20.)

       eap-max-sreq n
              Set  the  maximum  number  of EAP Requests that pppd will issue (as a server) while
              attempting authentication.  (Default is 10.)

       eap-restart n
              Set  the  retransmit  timeout  for  EAP  Requests   when   acting   as   a   server
              (authenticator).  (Default is 3 seconds.)

       eap-timeout n
              Set  the  maximum time to wait for the peer to send an EAP Request when acting as a
              client (authenticatee).  (Default is 20 seconds.)

       hide-password
              When logging the contents of PAP packets, this option causes pppd  to  exclude  the
              password string from the log.  This is the default.

       holdoff n
              Specifies  how  many  seconds  to  wait  before  re-initiating  the  link  after it
              terminates.  This option only has any effect if the persist  or  demand  option  is
              used.   The holdoff period is not applied if the link was terminated because it was
              idle.

       idle n Specifies that pppd should disconnect if the link is idle for n seconds.  The  link
              is  idle  when no data packets (i.e. IP packets) are being sent or received.  Note:
              it is not advisable to use this option with the persist option without  the  demand
              option.   If  the active-filter option is given, data packets which are rejected by
              the specified activity filter also count as the link being idle.

       ipcp-accept-local
              With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of our local IP address, even if
              the local IP address was specified in an option.

       ipcp-accept-remote
              With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of its (remote) IP address, even
              if the remote IP address was specified in an option.

       ipcp-max-configure n
              Set the maximum number of IPCP configure-request transmissions to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-failure n
              Set the maximum number of IPCP configure-NAKs  returned  before  starting  to  send
              configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-terminate n
              Set the maximum number of IPCP terminate-request transmissions to n (default 3).

       ipcp-restart n
              Set the IPCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n seconds (default 3).

       ipparam string
              Provides  an  extra parameter to the ip-up, ip-pre-up and ip-down scripts.  If this
              option is given, the string supplied  is  given  as  the  6th  parameter  to  those
              scripts.

       ipv6cp-accept-local
              With  this  option,  pppd  will  accept the peer's idea of our local IPv6 interface
              identifier, even if the local IPv6 interface identifier was specified in an option.

       ipv6cp-accept-remote
              With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of its (remote)  IPv6  interface
              identifier,  even  if  the  remote  IPv6  interface  identifier was specified in an
              option.

       ipv6cp-max-configure n
              Set the maximum number of IPv6CP configure-request transmissions to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-failure n
              Set the maximum number of IPv6CP configure-NAKs returned before  starting  to  send
              configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-terminate n
              Set the maximum number of IPv6CP terminate-request transmissions to n (default 3).

       ipv6cp-restart n
              Set the IPv6CP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n seconds (default 3).

       ipx    Enable  the IPXCP and IPX protocols.  This option is presently only supported under
              Linux, and only if your kernel has been configured to include IPX support.

       ipx-network n
              Set the IPX network number in the IPXCP configure request frame to n, a hexadecimal
              number  (without  a leading 0x).  There is no valid default.  If this option is not
              specified, the network number is obtained from the peer.  If the peer does not have
              the network number, the IPX protocol will not be started.

       ipx-node n:m
              Set the IPX node numbers. The two node numbers are separated from each other with a
              colon character. The first number n is the local node number. The second  number  m
              is  the  peer's  node  number. Each node number is a hexadecimal number, at most 10
              digits long. The node numbers on the ipx-network must be unique. There is no  valid
              default.  If  this  option is not specified then the node numbers are obtained from
              the peer.

       ipx-router-name <string>
              Set the name of the router. This is a string and is sent to the peer as information
              data.

       ipx-routing n
              Set  the  routing protocol to be received by this option. More than one instance of
              ipx-routing may be specified. The 'none' option (0) may be specified  as  the  only
              instance  of  ipx-routing.  The  values may be 0 for NONE, 2 for RIP/SAP, and 4 for
              NLSP.

       ipxcp-accept-local
              Accept the peer's NAK for the node number specified in the ipx-node  option.  If  a
              node number was specified, and non-zero, the default is to insist that the value be
              used. If you include this option then you will permit  the  peer  to  override  the
              entry of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-network
              Accept  the  peer's NAK for the network number specified in the ipx-network option.
              If a network number was specified, and non-zero, the default is to insist that  the
              value be used. If you include this option then you will permit the peer to override
              the entry of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-remote
              Use the peer's network number specified in the configure request frame. If  a  node
              number  was specified for the peer and this option was not specified, the peer will
              be forced to use the value which you have specified.

       ipxcp-max-configure n
              Set the maximum number of IPXCP configure request frames which the system will send
              to n. The default is 10.

       ipxcp-max-failure n
              Set  the maximum number of IPXCP NAK frames which the local system will send before
              it rejects the options. The default value is 3.

       ipxcp-max-terminate n
              Set the maximum number of IPXCP terminate request frames before  the  local  system
              considers that the peer is not listening to them. The default value is 3.

       kdebug n
              Enable  debugging  code in the kernel-level PPP driver.  The argument values depend
              on the specific kernel driver, but in general a value  of  1  will  enable  general
              kernel  debug  messages.   (Note  that  these  messages are usually only useful for
              debugging the kernel driver itself.)  For the Linux 2.2.x kernel driver, the  value
              is  a  sum  of  bits:  1  to  enable  general debug messages, 2 to request that the
              contents of received packets be printed, and 4 to  request  that  the  contents  of
              transmitted  packets  be  printed.  On most systems, messages printed by the kernel
              are logged by syslog(1) to a file as directed in the /etc/syslog.conf configuration
              file.

       key keyfile
              (EAP-TLS)  Use the file keyfile as the private key file (in PEM format), needed for
              setting up an EAP-TLS connection.  This  option  is  used  on  the  client-side  in
              conjunction with the ca and cert options.

       ktune  Enables  pppd  to  alter  kernel  settings  as appropriate.  Under Linux, pppd will
              enable IP forwarding (i.e. set /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward to 1) if the  proxyarp
              option  is  used,  and  will  enable  the  dynamic  IP  address  option  (i.e.  set
              /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr to 1) in demand mode if the local address changes.

       lcp-echo-adaptive
              If this option is used with the lcp-echo-failure option then  pppd  will  send  LCP
              echo-request  frames  only  if no traffic was received from the peer since the last
              echo-request was sent.

       lcp-echo-failure n
              If this option is  given,  pppd  will  presume  the  peer  to  be  dead  if  n  LCP
              echo-requests  are sent without receiving a valid LCP echo-reply.  If this happens,
              pppd will terminate the connection.  Use of this option requires a  non-zero  value
              for  the  lcp-echo-interval  parameter.   This option can be used to enable pppd to
              terminate after the physical connection has been broken (e.g., the modem  has  hung
              up) in situations where no hardware modem control lines are available.

       lcp-echo-interval n
              If this option is given, pppd will send an LCP echo-request frame to the peer every
              n seconds.  Normally the peer should respond to  the  echo-request  by  sending  an
              echo-reply.   This  option  can  be used with the lcp-echo-failure option to detect
              that the peer is no longer connected.

       lcp-max-configure n
              Set the maximum number of LCP configure-request transmissions to n (default 10).

       lcp-max-failure n
              Set the maximum number of LCP  configure-NAKs  returned  before  starting  to  send
              configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       lcp-max-terminate n
              Set the maximum number of LCP terminate-request transmissions to n (default 3).

       lcp-restart n
              Set the LCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n seconds (default 3).

       linkname name
              Sets  the  logical  name  of  the  link  to  name.   Pppd  will create a file named
              ppp-name.pid in /var/run (or /etc/ppp on some systems) containing its  process  ID.
              This  can  be  useful  in determining which instance of pppd is responsible for the
              link to a given peer system.  This is a privileged option.

       local  Don't use the modem control lines.  With this option, pppd will ignore the state of
              the  CD (Carrier Detect) signal from the modem and will not change the state of the
              DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal.  This is the opposite of the modem option.

       logfd n
              Send log messages to file descriptor n.  Pppd will send log messages to at most one
              file  or  file  descriptor (as well as sending the log messages to syslog), so this
              option and the logfile option are mutually exclusive.  The default is for  pppd  to
              send  log messages to stdout (file descriptor 1), unless the serial port is already
              open on stdout.

       logfile filename
              Append log messages to the file filename (as well as sending the  log  messages  to
              syslog).   The  file is opened with the privileges of the user who invoked pppd, in
              append mode.

       login  Use the system password database for authenticating the peer using PAP, and  record
              the  user  in  the  system wtmp file.  Note that the peer must have an entry in the
              /etc/ppp/pap-secrets file as well as the system password  database  to  be  allowed
              access.  See also the enable-session option.

       master_detach
              If  multilink  is enabled and this pppd process is the multilink bundle master, and
              the link controlled by this pppd process terminates, this pppd process continues to
              run  in  order to maintain the bundle.  If the master_detach option has been given,
              pppd will detach from its controlling terminal  in  this  situation,  even  if  the
              nodetach option has been given.

       maxconnect n
              Terminate  the  connection  when  it  has  been available for network traffic for n
              seconds (i.e. n seconds after the first network control protocol comes up).

       maxfail n
              Terminate after n consecutive failed connection attempts.  A value of  0  means  no
              limit.  The default value is 10.

       modem  Use  the  modem control lines.  This option is the default.  With this option, pppd
              will wait for the CD (Carrier Detect) signal from the modem  to  be  asserted  when
              opening  the serial device (unless a connect script is specified), and it will drop
              the DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal briefly when the connection is terminated  and
              before  executing the connect script.  On Ultrix, this option implies hardware flow
              control, as for the crtscts option.  This is the opposite of the local option.

       mp     Enables the use of PPP multilink; this is an  alias  for  the  `multilink'  option.
              This option is currently only available under Linux.

       mppe-stateful
              Allow  MPPE  to  use  stateful mode.  Stateless mode is still attempted first.  The
              default is to disallow stateful mode.

       mpshortseq
              Enables the use of short (12-bit) sequence numbers in multilink headers, as opposed
              to  24-bit  sequence  numbers.  This option is only available under Linux, and only
              has any effect if multilink is enabled (see the multilink option).

       mrru n Sets the Maximum Reconstructed Receive Unit to n.  The MRRU is the maximum size for
              a  received  packet  on  a  multilink  bundle,  and is analogous to the MRU for the
              individual links.  This option is currently only available under  Linux,  and  only
              has any effect if multilink is enabled (see the multilink option).

       ms-dns <addr>
              If  pppd  is  acting  as a server for Microsoft Windows clients, this option allows
              pppd to supply one or two DNS (Domain Name Server) addresses to the  clients.   The
              first  instance  of  this  option  specifies  the  primary  DNS address; the second
              instance (if given) specifies the secondary DNS address.  (This option was  present
              in some older versions of pppd under the name dns-addr.)

       ms-wins <addr>
              If pppd is acting as a server for Microsoft Windows or "Samba" clients, this option
              allows pppd to supply one or two  WINS  (Windows  Internet  Name  Services)  server
              addresses  to the clients.  The first instance of this option specifies the primary
              WINS address; the second instance (if given) specifies the secondary WINS address.

       multilink
              Enables the use  of  the  PPP  multilink  protocol.   If  the  peer  also  supports
              multilink,  then this link can become part of a bundle between the local system and
              the peer.  If there is an existing bundle to the peer, pppd will join this link  to
              that  bundle,  otherwise  pppd will create a new bundle.  See the MULTILINK section
              below.  This option is currently only available under Linux.

       name name
              Set the name of the local system for authentication purposes to name.   This  is  a
              privileged  option.   With  this  option,  pppd will use lines in the secrets files
              which have name  as  the  second  field  when  looking  for  a  secret  to  use  in
              authenticating the peer.  In addition, unless overridden with the user option, name
              will be used as the name to send to the peer when authenticating the  local  system
              to the peer.  (Note that pppd does not append the domain name to name.)

       noaccomp
              Disable Address/Control compression in both directions (send and receive).

       need-peer-eap
              (EAP-TLS) Require the peer to verify our authentication credentials.

       noauth Do not require the peer to authenticate itself.  This option is privileged.

       nobsdcomp
              Disables  BSD-Compress  compression;  pppd  will  not  request or agree to compress
              packets using the BSD-Compress scheme.

       noccp  Disable CCP (Compression Control Protocol) negotiation.  This option should only be
              required  if  the  peer  is  buggy  and gets confused by requests from pppd for CCP
              negotiation.

       nocrtscts
              Disable hardware flow control (i.e. RTS/CTS) on the serial port.   If  neither  the
              crtscts  nor  the  nocrtscts nor the cdtrcts nor the nocdtrcts option is given, the
              hardware flow control setting for the serial port is left unchanged.

       nocdtrcts
              This option is a synonym for nocrtscts. Either of these options will  disable  both
              forms of hardware flow control.

       nodefaultroute
              Disable  the  defaultroute  option.  The system administrator who wishes to prevent
              users from adding a default route with pppd can do so by placing this option in the
              /etc/ppp/options file.

       noreplacedefaultroute
              Disable  the  replacedefaultroute  option.  The  system administrator who wishes to
              prevent users from replacing a default route with pppd can do so  by  placing  this
              option in the /etc/ppp/options file.

       nodeflate
              Disables  Deflate  compression;  pppd will not request or agree to compress packets
              using the Deflate scheme.

       nodetach
              Don't detach from the controlling terminal.   Without  this  option,  if  a  serial
              device  other  than the terminal on the standard input is specified, pppd will fork
              to become a background process.

       noendpoint
              Disables pppd from sending an endpoint discriminator to the peer or  accepting  one
              from  the  peer  (see  the  MULTILINK  section  below).  This option should only be
              required if the peer is buggy.

       noip   Disable IPCP negotiation and IP communication.  This option should only be required
              if the peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from pppd for IPCP negotiation.

       noipv6 Disable  IPv6CP  negotiation  and  IPv6  communication.  This option should only be
              required if the peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from  pppd  for  IPv6CP
              negotiation.

       noipdefault
              Disables  the  default behaviour when no local IP address is specified, which is to
              determine (if possible) the local IP address from the hostname.  With this  option,
              the  peer  will have to supply the local IP address during IPCP negotiation (unless
              it specified explicitly on the command line or in an options file).

       noipx  Disable the IPXCP and IPX protocols.  This option should only be  required  if  the
              peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from pppd for IPXCP negotiation.

       noktune
              Opposite of the ktune option; disables pppd from changing system settings.

       nolock Opposite  of  the  lock  option; specifies that pppd should not create a UUCP-style
              lock file for the serial device.  This option is privileged.

       nolog  Do not send log messages to a file or file descriptor.   This  option  cancels  the
              logfd and logfile options.

       nomagic
              Disable  magic  number negotiation.  With this option, pppd cannot detect a looped-
              back line.  This option should only be needed if the peer is buggy.

       nomp   Disables the use of PPP multilink.  This option is currently only  available  under
              Linux.

       nomppe Disables MPPE (Microsoft Point to Point Encryption).  This is the default.

       nomppe-40
              Disable 40-bit encryption with MPPE.

       nomppe-128
              Disable 128-bit encryption with MPPE.

       nomppe-stateful
              Disable MPPE stateful mode.  This is the default.

       nompshortseq
              Disables  the use of short (12-bit) sequence numbers in the PPP multilink protocol,
              forcing the use  of  24-bit  sequence  numbers.   This  option  is  currently  only
              available under Linux, and only has any effect if multilink is enabled.

       nomultilink
              Disables  the  use of PPP multilink.  This option is currently only available under
              Linux.

       nopcomp
              Disable protocol field compression negotiation in both the receive and the transmit
              direction.

       nopersist
              Exit  once  a  connection has been made and terminated.  This is the default unless
              the persist or demand option has been specified.

       nopredictor1
              Do not accept or agree to Predictor-1 compression.

       noproxyarp
              Disable the proxyarp option.  The system administrator who wishes to prevent  users
              from  creating  proxy ARP entries with pppd can do so by placing this option in the
              /etc/ppp/options file.

       noremoteip
              Allow pppd to operate without having an IP address for the peer.   This  option  is
              only available under Linux.  Normally, pppd will request the peer's IP address, and
              if the peer does not supply it, pppd will use an arbitrary address in the  10.x.x.x
              subnet.   With  this  option, if the peer does not supply its IP address, pppd will
              not ask the peer for it, and will not  set  the  destination  address  of  the  ppp
              interface.   In  this  situation,  the  ppp  interface  can  be used for routing by
              creating device routes, but the peer itself cannot be  addressed  directly  for  IP
              traffic.

       notty  Normally,  pppd  requires  a terminal device.  With this option, pppd will allocate
              itself a pseudo-tty master/slave pair and use the slave  as  its  terminal  device.
              Pppd  will  create  a  child  process  to  act  as  a `character shunt' to transfer
              characters between the pseudo-tty master and its standard input and  output.   Thus
              pppd  will transmit characters on its standard output and receive characters on its
              standard input even if they are not terminal devices.  This  option  increases  the
              latency  and CPU overhead of transferring data over the ppp interface as all of the
              characters sent and received must flow through the  character  shunt  process.   An
              explicit device name may not be given if this option is used.

       novj   Disable  Van  Jacobson style TCP/IP header compression in both the transmit and the
              receive direction.

       novjccomp
              Disable the connection-ID compression option in Van Jacobson  style  TCP/IP  header
              compression.   With this option, pppd will not omit the connection-ID byte from Van
              Jacobson compressed TCP/IP headers, nor ask the peer to do so.

       papcrypt
              Indicates that all secrets in the /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  file  which  are  used  for
              checking  the identity of the peer are encrypted, and thus pppd should not accept a
              password  which,  before  encryption,  is  identical  to  the   secret   from   the
              /etc/ppp/pap-secrets file.

       pap-max-authreq n
              Set the maximum number of PAP authenticate-request transmissions to n (default 10).

       pap-restart n
              Set the PAP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n seconds (default 3).

       pap-timeout n
              Set  the  maximum time that pppd will wait for the peer to authenticate itself with
              PAP to n seconds (0 means no limit).

       pass-filter filter-expression
              Specifies a packet filter to applied to data packets  being  sent  or  received  to
              determine  which  packets should be allowed to pass.  Packets which are rejected by
              the filter are silently discarded.  This option can be  used  to  prevent  specific
              network  daemons  (such  as  routed)  using up link bandwidth, or to provide a very
              basic firewall capability.   The  filter-expression  syntax  is  as  described  for
              tcpdump(1),  except that qualifiers which are inappropriate for a PPP link, such as
              ether and arp, are not  permitted.   Generally  the  filter  expression  should  be
              enclosed  in  single-quotes  to  prevent  whitespace  in  the expression from being
              interpreted by the shell.  Note that it is possible to apply different  constraints
              to  incoming  and  outgoing packets using the inbound and outbound qualifiers. This
              option is currently only available under Linux, and requires that  the  kernel  was
              configured to include PPP filtering support (CONFIG_PPP_FILTER).

       password password-string
              Specifies  the  password to use for authenticating to the peer.  Use of this option
              is discouraged, as the password is likely to be  visible  to  other  users  on  the
              system (for example, by using ps(1)).

       persist
              Do not exit after a connection is terminated; instead try to reopen the connection.
              The maxfail option still has an effect on persistent connections.

       plugin filename
              Load the shared library object file filename as a plugin.   This  is  a  privileged
              option.   If  filename  does  not  contain  a  slash  (/),  pppd  will  look in the
              /usr/lib/pppd/version directory for the plugin, where version is the version number
              of pppd (for example, 2.4.2).

       predictor1
              Request  that the peer compress frames that it sends using Predictor-1 compression,
              and agree to compress transmitted  frames  with  Predictor-1  if  requested.   This
              option has no effect unless the kernel driver supports Predictor-1 compression.

       privgroup group-name
              Allows members of group group-name to use privileged options.  This is a privileged
              option.  Use of this option requires care as there is no guarantee that members  of
              group-name  cannot  use  pppd to become root themselves.  Consider it equivalent to
              putting the members of group-name in the kmem or disk group.

       proxyarp
              Add an entry to this system's ARP [Address Resolution Protocol] table with  the  IP
              address  of  the  peer and the Ethernet address of this system.  This will have the
              effect of making the peer appear to other systems to be on the local ethernet.

       pty script
              Specifies that the command script is to  be  used  to  communicate  rather  than  a
              specific terminal device.  Pppd will allocate itself a pseudo-tty master/slave pair
              and use the slave as its terminal device.  The  script  will  be  run  in  a  child
              process  with  the pseudo-tty master as its standard input and output.  An explicit
              device name may not be given if this option is used.  (Note: if the  record  option
              is  used  in  conjunction with the pty option, the child process will have pipes on
              its standard input and output.)

       receive-all
              With this option, pppd will accept all control characters from the peer,  including
              those marked in the receive asyncmap.  Without this option, pppd will discard those
              characters as specified in RFC1662.  This option should only be needed if the  peer
              is buggy.

       record filename
              Specifies  that pppd should record all characters sent and received to a file named
              filename.  This file is opened  in  append  mode,  using  the  user's  user-ID  and
              permissions.   This  option  is  implemented  using  a  pseudo-tty and a process to
              transfer characters between the pseudo-tty and the real serial device, so  it  will
              increase  the latency and CPU overhead of transferring data over the ppp interface.
              The characters are stored  in  a  tagged  format  with  timestamps,  which  can  be
              displayed in readable form using the pppdump(8) program.

       remotename name
              Set the assumed name of the remote system for authentication purposes to name.

       remotenumber number
              Set  the  assumed telephone number of the remote system for authentication purposes
              to number.

       refuse-chap
              With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate  itself  to  the  peer  using
              CHAP.

       refuse-mschap
              With  this  option,  pppd  will  not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using
              MS-CHAP.

       refuse-mschap-v2
              With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate  itself  to  the  peer  using
              MS-CHAPv2.

       refuse-eap
              With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using EAP.

       refuse-pap
              With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using PAP.

       require-chap
              Require   the   peer   to  authenticate  itself  using  CHAP  [Challenge  Handshake
              Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-mppe
              Require the use of  MPPE  (Microsoft  Point  to  Point  Encryption).   This  option
              disables  all other compression types.  This option enables both 40-bit and 128-bit
              encryption.  In order for MPPE to successfully come up, you must have authenticated
              with  either  MS-CHAP  or MS-CHAPv2.  This option is presently only supported under
              Linux, and only if your kernel has been configured to include MPPE support.

       require-mppe-40
              Require the use of MPPE, with 40-bit encryption.

       require-mppe-128
              Require the use of MPPE, with 128-bit encryption.

       require-mschap
              Require  the  peer  to  authenticate  itself  using  MS-CHAP  [Microsoft  Challenge
              Handshake Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-mschap-v2
              Require  the  peer  to  authenticate  itself  using  MS-CHAPv2 [Microsoft Challenge
              Handshake Authentication Protocol, Version 2] authentication.

       require-eap
              Require the peer  to  authenticate  itself  using  EAP  [Extensible  Authentication
              Protocol] authentication.

       require-pap
              Require  the  peer  to  authenticate  itself  using  PAP  [Password  Authentication
              Protocol] authentication.

       set name=value
              Set an environment variable for scripts that are invoked by pppd.  When  set  by  a
              privileged  source,  the  variable  specified  by name cannot be changed by options
              contained in an unprivileged source.  See also the unset option and the environment
              described in SCRIPTS.

       show-password
              When  logging  the  contents  of  PAP  packets, this option causes pppd to show the
              password string in the log message.

       silent With this option, pppd will not transmit LCP packets to initiate a connection until
              a  valid  LCP  packet  is  received from the peer (as for the `passive' option with
              ancient versions of pppd).

       srp-interval n
              If this parameter is given and pppd uses EAP  SRP-SHA1  to  authenticate  the  peer
              (i.e.,  is the server), then pppd will use the optional lightweight SRP rechallenge
              mechanism at intervals of n seconds.   This  option  is  faster  than  eap-interval
              reauthentication  because  it uses a hash-based mechanism and does not derive a new
              session key.

       srp-pn-secret string
              Set the long-term pseudonym-generating  secret  for  the  server.   This  value  is
              optional and if set, needs to be known at the server (authenticator) side only, and
              should be different for each server (or poll of identical  servers).   It  is  used
              along  with  the current date to generate a key to encrypt and decrypt the client's
              identity contained in the pseudonym.

       srp-use-pseudonym
              When operating as an EAP SRP-SHA1 client, attempt to use the  pseudonym  stored  in
              ~/.ppp_pseudonym first as the identity, and save in this file any pseudonym offered
              by the peer during authentication.

       sync   Use synchronous HDLC serial encoding instead of asynchronous.  The device  used  by
              pppd  with  this  option  must  have  sync  support.   Currently supports Microgate
              SyncLink adapters under Linux and FreeBSD 2.2.8 and later.

       unit num
              Sets the ppp unit number (for a ppp0 or  ppp1  etc  interface  name)  for  outbound
              connections.   If the unit is already in use a dynamically allocated number will be
              used.

       ifname string
              Set the ppp interface name for outbound connections.   If  the  interface  name  is
              already  in  use,  or  if  the  name cannot be used for any other reason, pppd will
              terminate.

       unset name
              Remove a variable from the environment variable for scripts  that  are  invoked  by
              pppd.   When  specified  by a privileged source, the variable name cannot be set by
              options contained in an unprivileged source.  See  also  the  set  option  and  the
              environment described in SCRIPTS.

       updetach
              With  this  option,  pppd  will  detach  from  its controlling terminal once it has
              successfully established the ppp connection (to the point where the  first  network
              control protocol, usually the IP control protocol, has come up).

       usehostname
              Enforce  the  use of the hostname (with domain name appended, if given) as the name
              of the local system for authentication purposes (overrides the name option).   This
              option is not normally needed since the name option is privileged.

       usepeerdns
              Ask  the peer for up to 2 DNS server addresses.  The addresses supplied by the peer
              (if any) are passed to the /etc/ppp/ip-up script in the environment variables  DNS1
              and  DNS2,  and the environment variable USEPEERDNS will be set to 1.  In addition,
              pppd will create an /etc/ppp/resolv.conf file  containing  one  or  two  nameserver
              lines with the address(es) supplied by the peer.

       user name
              Sets the name used for authenticating the local system to the peer to name.

       vj-max-slots n
              Sets  the  number  of connection slots to be used by the Van Jacobson TCP/IP header
              compression  and  decompression  code  to  n,  which  must  be  between  2  and  16
              (inclusive).

       welcome script
              Run  the  executable  or  shell  command  specified by script before initiating PPP
              negotiation, after the connect script (if any) has completed.   A  value  for  this
              option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       xonxoff
              Use software flow control (i.e. XON/XOFF) to control the flow of data on the serial
              port.

OPTIONS FILES

       Options can be taken from files as well as the command line.  Pppd reads options from  the
       files  /etc/ppp/options,  ~/.ppprc  and  /etc/ppp/options.ttyname  (in  that order) before
       processing the options on the command  line.   (In  fact,  the  command-line  options  are
       scanned  to  find  the terminal name before the options.ttyname file is read.)  In forming
       the name of the options.ttyname file, the initial /dev/ is removed from the terminal name,
       and any remaining / characters are replaced with dots.

       An options file is parsed into a series of words, delimited by whitespace.  Whitespace can
       be included in a word by enclosing the word in double-quotes (").  A backslash (\)  quotes
       the  following  character.   A hash (#) starts a comment, which continues until the end of
       the line.  There is no restriction on using the file or call  options  within  an  options
       file.

SECURITY

       pppd  provides  system  administrators with sufficient access control that PPP access to a
       server machine can be provided to  legitimate  users  without  fear  of  compromising  the
       security  of  the  server  or  the  network  it's  on.   This  control is provided through
       restrictions on which IP addresses the peer may use, based on its  authenticated  identity
       (if  any),  and  through  restrictions  on  which  options  a non-privileged user may use.
       Several of pppd's options are privileged, in particular  those  which  permit  potentially
       insecure  configurations;  these  options  are  only accepted in files which are under the
       control of the system administrator, or if pppd is being run by root.

       The default behaviour of pppd is to allow an  unauthenticated  peer  to  use  a  given  IP
       address only if the system does not already have a route to that IP address.  For example,
       a system with a permanent connection to the wider internet will normally  have  a  default
       route,  and  thus  all  peers  will  have  to authenticate themselves in order to set up a
       connection.  On such a system, the auth option is the  default.   On  the  other  hand,  a
       system  where the PPP link is the only connection to the internet will not normally have a
       default  route,  so  the  peer  will  be  able  to  use  almost  any  IP  address  without
       authenticating itself.

       As  indicated above, some security-sensitive options are privileged, which means that they
       may not be used by an ordinary non-privileged user running a setuid-root pppd,  either  on
       the  command  line, in the user's ~/.ppprc file, or in an options file read using the file
       option.  Privileged options may be used in /etc/ppp/options file or  in  an  options  file
       read using the call option.  If pppd is being run by the root user, privileged options can
       be used without restriction.

       When opening the device, pppd uses either the invoking user's user  ID  or  the  root  UID
       (that is, 0), depending on whether the device name was specified by the user or the system
       administrator.   If  the  device  name  comes  from  a   privileged   source,   that   is,
       /etc/ppp/options  or  an  options  file  read  using  the call option, pppd uses full root
       privileges when  opening  the  device.   Thus,  by  creating  an  appropriate  file  under
       /etc/ppp/peers, the system administrator can allow users to establish a ppp connection via
       a device which they would not normally have permission to access.  Otherwise pppd uses the
       invoking user's real UID when opening the device.

AUTHENTICATION

       Authentication  is the process whereby one peer convinces the other of its identity.  This
       involves the first peer sending its name to the other, together with some kind  of  secret
       information  which could only come from the genuine authorized user of that name.  In such
       an exchange, we will call the first peer the "client" and the  other  the  "server".   The
       client  has  a name by which it identifies itself to the server, and the server also has a
       name by which it identifies itself to the client.  Generally  the  genuine  client  shares
       some  secret  (or  password)  with the server, and authenticates itself by proving that it
       knows that secret.  Very often, the  names  used  for  authentication  correspond  to  the
       internet hostnames of the peers, but this is not essential.

       At  present,  pppd  supports  three  authentication protocols: the Password Authentication
       Protocol  (PAP),  Challenge  Handshake  Authentication  Protocol  (CHAP),  and  Extensible
       Authentication  Protocol  (EAP).  PAP involves the client sending its name and a cleartext
       password to the server to authenticate itself.  In contrast, the server initiates the CHAP
       authentication  exchange  by  sending  a  challenge  to  the  client (the challenge packet
       includes the server's name).  The client must respond with a response which  includes  its
       name plus a hash value derived from the shared secret and the challenge, in order to prove
       that it knows the secret.  EAP supports CHAP-style authentication, and also  includes  the
       SRP-SHA1  mechanism, which is resistant to dictionary-based attacks and does not require a
       cleartext password on the server side.

       The  PPP  protocol,  being  symmetrical,  allows  both  peers  to  require  the  other  to
       authenticate  itself.  In that case, two separate and independent authentication exchanges
       will occur.  The two exchanges  could  use  different  authentication  protocols,  and  in
       principle, different names could be used in the two exchanges.

       The default behaviour of pppd is to agree to authenticate if requested, and to not require
       authentication from the peer.  However, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself with  a
       particular protocol if it has no secrets which could be used to do so.

       Pppd  stores  secrets for use in authentication in secrets files (/etc/ppp/pap-secrets for
       PAP, /etc/ppp/chap-secrets for  CHAP,  MS-CHAP,  MS-CHAPv2,  and  EAP  MD5-Challenge,  and
       /etc/ppp/srp-secrets  for  EAP  SRP-SHA1).   All  secrets files have the same format.  The
       secrets files can contain secrets for pppd  to  use  in  authenticating  itself  to  other
       systems, as well as secrets for pppd to use when authenticating other systems to itself.

       Each  line  in  a  secrets  file  contains  one  secret.   A given secret is specific to a
       particular combination of client and server - it can  only  be  used  by  that  client  to
       authenticate  itself  to  that  server.   Thus  each line in a secrets file has at least 3
       fields: the name of the client, the name of the server, and the secret.  These fields  may
       be  followed  by  a  list  of  the  IP  addresses  that  the specified client may use when
       connecting to the specified server.

       A secrets file is parsed into words as for a options file, so the client name, server name
       and  secrets  fields  must  each  be  one  word, with any embedded spaces or other special
       characters quoted or escaped.  Note that case is significant  in  the  client  and  server
       names and in the secret.

       If  the  secret  starts with an `@', what follows is assumed to be the name of a file from
       which to read the secret.  A "*" as the client or server  name  matches  any  name.   When
       selecting a secret, pppd takes the best match, i.e.  the match with the fewest wildcards.

       Any following words on the same line are taken to be a list of acceptable IP addresses for
       that client.  If there are only 3 words on the line, or if the first word is "-", then all
       IP  addresses  are  disallowed.   To allow any address, use "*".  A word starting with "!"
       indicates that the specified address is not acceptable.  An address may be followed by "/"
       and  a  number n, to indicate a whole subnet, i.e. all addresses which have the same value
       in the most significant n bits.  In this form, the address may be followed by a plus  sign
       ("+") to indicate that one address from the subnet is authorized, based on the ppp network
       interface unit number in use.  In this case, the host part of the address will be  set  to
       the unit number plus one.

       Thus  a  secrets  file  contains  both secrets for use in authenticating other hosts, plus
       secrets which we use for authenticating ourselves to others.  When pppd is  authenticating
       the  peer  (checking the peer's identity), it chooses a secret with the peer's name in the
       first field and the name of the local system in the second field.  The name of  the  local
       system  defaults  to  the  hostname, with the domain name appended if the domain option is
       used.  This default can be overridden with the name option, except  when  the  usehostname
       option  is  used.   (For  EAP SRP-SHA1, see the srp-entry(8) utility for generating proper
       validator entries to be used in the "secret" field.)

       When pppd is choosing a secret to use in authenticating  itself  to  the  peer,  it  first
       determines  what name it is going to use to identify itself to the peer.  This name can be
       specified by the user with the user option.  If this option is not used, the name defaults
       to  the name of the local system, determined as described in the previous paragraph.  Then
       pppd looks for a secret with this name in the first field  and  the  peer's  name  in  the
       second  field.  Pppd will know the name of the peer if CHAP or EAP authentication is being
       used, because the peer will have sent it in the challenge  packet.   However,  if  PAP  is
       being  used, pppd will have to determine the peer's name from the options specified by the
       user.  The user  can  specify  the  peer's  name  directly  with  the  remotename  option.
       Otherwise, if the remote IP address was specified by a name (rather than in numeric form),
       that name will be used as the peer's name.  Failing that, pppd will use the null string as
       the peer's name.

       When  authenticating  the  peer with PAP, the supplied password is first compared with the
       secret from the secrets file.  If the password doesn't match the secret, the  password  is
       encrypted  using  crypt()  and  checked  against  the  secret  again.   Thus  secrets  for
       authenticating the peer can be stored in encrypted  form  if  desired.   If  the  papcrypt
       option is given, the first (unencrypted) comparison is omitted, for better security.

       Furthermore, if the login option was specified, the username and password are also checked
       against the system password database.  Thus, the  system  administrator  can  set  up  the
       pap-secrets  file to allow PPP access only to certain users, and to restrict the set of IP
       addresses that each user can use.  Typically, when using the login option, the  secret  in
       /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  would  be  "",  which  will match any password supplied by the peer.
       This avoids the need to have the same secret in two places.

       Authentication must be satisfactorily completed before IPCP (or any other Network  Control
       Protocol) can be started.  If the peer is required to authenticate itself, and fails to do
       so, pppd will terminated the link (by closing LCP).  If IPCP negotiates an unacceptable IP
       address for the remote host, IPCP will be closed.  IP packets can only be sent or received
       when IPCP is open.

       In some cases it is desirable to allow some hosts which can't authenticate  themselves  to
       connect  and  use  one  of  a  restricted  set  of  IP addresses, even when the local host
       generally requires authentication.  If  the  peer  refuses  to  authenticate  itself  when
       requested, pppd takes that as equivalent to authenticating with PAP using the empty string
       for the username and password.  Thus, by adding a  line  to  the  pap-secrets  file  which
       specifies the empty string for the client and password, it is possible to allow restricted
       access to hosts which refuse to authenticate themselves.

ROUTING

       When IPCP negotiation is completed successfully, pppd will inform the kernel of the  local
       and  remote IP addresses for the ppp interface.  This is sufficient to create a host route
       to the remote end of the link, which  will  enable  the  peers  to  exchange  IP  packets.
       Communication  with  other  machines  generally  requires  further modification to routing
       tables and/or ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) tables.  In most  cases  the  defaultroute
       and/or proxyarp options are sufficient for this, but in some cases further intervention is
       required.  The /etc/ppp/ip-up script can be used for this.

       Sometimes it is desirable to add a default route through the remote host, as in  the  case
       of  a  machine  whose  only  connection to the Internet is through the ppp interface.  The
       defaultroute option causes pppd to create such a default route when  IPCP  comes  up,  and
       delete it when the link is terminated.

       In  some cases it is desirable to use proxy ARP, for example on a server machine connected
       to a LAN, in order to allow other hosts to communicate with the remote host.  The proxyarp
       option  causes  pppd to look for a network interface on the same subnet as the remote host
       (an interface supporting broadcast and ARP, which  is  up  and  not  a  point-to-point  or
       loopback  interface).  If found, pppd creates a permanent, published ARP entry with the IP
       address of the remote host and the hardware address of the network interface found.

       When the demand option is used, the interface IP addresses have already been  set  at  the
       point  when IPCP comes up.  If pppd has not been able to negotiate the same addresses that
       it used to configure the interface (for example when the peer is an ISP that uses  dynamic
       IP  address  assignment),  pppd has to change the interface IP addresses to the negotiated
       addresses.  This may disrupt existing connections, and the use  of  demand  dialling  with
       peers that do dynamic IP address assignment is not recommended.

MULTILINK

       Multilink  PPP  provides the capability to combine two or more PPP links between a pair of
       machines into a single `bundle', which appears as a single virtual PPP link which has  the
       combined  bandwidth  of  the individual links.  Currently, multilink PPP is only supported
       under Linux.

       Pppd detects that the link it is controlling is connected to the same peer as another link
       using  the peer's endpoint discriminator and the authenticated identity of the peer (if it
       authenticates itself).  The endpoint discriminator is a block of data which  is  hopefully
       unique  for  each  peer.   Several  types  of data can be used, including locally-assigned
       strings of bytes, IP addresses, MAC addresses, randomly strings of bytes, or  E-164  phone
       numbers.   The  endpoint  discriminator  sent  to  the  peer  by pppd can be set using the
       endpoint option.

       In some circumstances the peer may send no endpoint discriminator or a  non-unique  value.
       The bundle option adds an extra string which is added to the peer's endpoint discriminator
       and authenticated identity when matching up links to be joined together in a bundle.   The
       bundle  option can also be used to allow the establishment of multiple bundles between the
       local system and the peer.  Pppd uses a TDB database in  /var/run/pppd2.tdb  to  match  up
       links.

       Assuming  that  multilink  is enabled and the peer is willing to negotiate multilink, then
       when pppd is invoked to bring up the first link to the peer, it will detect that no  other
       link  is  connected  to  the  peer  and  create a new bundle, that is, another ppp network
       interface unit.  When another pppd is invoked to bring up another link  to  the  peer,  it
       will detect the existing bundle and join its link to it.

       If  the  first  link  terminates  (for  example,  because  of  a  hangup or a received LCP
       terminate-request) the bundle is not destroyed unless there are no other  links  remaining
       in  the  bundle.   Rather  than  exiting,  the  first  pppd  keeps  running after its link
       terminates, until all the links in the bundle have terminated.  If the first pppd receives
       a  SIGTERM  or  SIGINT  signal,  it  will destroy the bundle and send a SIGHUP to the pppd
       processes for each of the links in the bundle.   If  the  first  pppd  receives  a  SIGHUP
       signal, it will terminate its link but not the bundle.

       Note: demand mode is not currently supported with multilink.

EXAMPLES

       The  following examples assume that the /etc/ppp/options file contains the auth option (as
       in the default /etc/ppp/options file in the ppp distribution).

       Probably the most common use of pppd is to dial out to an ISP.  This can be  done  with  a
       command such as

              pppd call isp

       where  the  /etc/ppp/peers/isp  file  is  set  up  by  the system administrator to contain
       something like this:

              ttyS0 19200 crtscts
              connect '/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/chat-isp'
              noauth

       In this example, we are using chat to dial the  ISP's  modem  and  go  through  any  logon
       sequence  required.  The /etc/ppp/chat-isp file contains the script used by chat; it could
       for example contain something like this:

              ABORT "NO CARRIER"
              ABORT "NO DIALTONE"
              ABORT "ERROR"
              ABORT "NO ANSWER"
              ABORT "BUSY"
              ABORT "Username/Password Incorrect"
              "" "at"
              OK "at&d0&c1"
              OK "atdt2468135"
              "name:" "^Umyuserid"
              "word:" "\qmypassword"
              "ispts" "\q^Uppp"
              "~-^Uppp-~"

       See the chat(8) man page for details of chat scripts.

       Pppd can also be used to provide a dial-in ppp service for users.  If  the  users  already
       have login accounts, the simplest way to set up the ppp service is to let the users log in
       to their accounts and run pppd (installed setuid-root) with a command such as

              pppd proxyarp

       To allow a user to use the PPP facilities, you need to allocate an  IP  address  for  that
       user's  machine  and  create  an  entry in /etc/ppp/pap-secrets, /etc/ppp/chap-secrets, or
       /etc/ppp/srp-secrets (depending on which authentication method the PPP  implementation  on
       the  user's  machine  supports),  so that the user's machine can authenticate itself.  For
       example, if Joe has a machine called "joespc" that is to be allowed  to  dial  in  to  the
       machine  called "server" and use the IP address joespc.my.net, you would add an entry like
       this to /etc/ppp/pap-secrets or /etc/ppp/chap-secrets:

              joespc    server    "joe's secret" joespc.my.net

       (See srp-entry(8) for a means to generate the server's entry when  SRP-SHA1  is  in  use.)
       Alternatively,  you can create a username called (for example) "ppp", whose login shell is
       pppd and whose home directory is /etc/ppp.  Options to be used when pppd is run  this  way
       can be put in /etc/ppp/.ppprc.

       If  your  serial  connection is any more complicated than a piece of wire, you may need to
       arrange for some control characters to be escaped.  In particular, it is often  useful  to
       escape  XON  (^Q) and XOFF (^S), using asyncmap a0000.  If the path includes a telnet, you
       probably should escape ^] as well (asyncmap 200a0000).  If the path  includes  an  rlogin,
       you  will  need to use the escape ff option on the end which is running the rlogin client,
       since many rlogin implementations are not  transparent;  they  will  remove  the  sequence
       [0xff, 0xff, 0x73, 0x73, followed by any 8 bytes] from the stream.

DIAGNOSTICS

       Messages are sent to the syslog daemon using facility LOG_DAEMON.  (This can be overridden
       by recompiling pppd with the macro LOG_PPP defined as  the  desired  facility.)   See  the
       syslog(8)  documentation  for  details of where the syslog daemon will write the messages.
       On most systems,  the  syslog  daemon  uses  the  /etc/syslog.conf  file  to  specify  the
       destination(s) for syslog messages.  You may need to edit that file to suit.

       The debug option causes the contents of all control packets sent or received to be logged,
       that is, all LCP, PAP, CHAP, EAP, or  IPCP  packets.   This  can  be  useful  if  the  PPP
       negotiation  does  not  succeed  or  if  authentication fails.  If debugging is enabled at
       compile time, the debug option also causes other debugging messages to be logged.

       Debugging can also be enabled or disabled by sending a SIGUSR1 signal to the pppd process.
       This signal acts as a toggle.

EXIT STATUS

       The  exit  status of pppd is set to indicate whether any error was detected, or the reason
       for the link being terminated.  The values used are:

       0      Pppd has detached, or otherwise the connection  was  successfully  established  and
              terminated at the peer's request.

       1      An  immediately fatal error of some kind occurred, such as an essential system call
              failing, or running out of virtual memory.

       2      An error was detected in  processing  the  options  given,  such  as  two  mutually
              exclusive options being used.

       3      Pppd is not setuid-root and the invoking user is not root.

       4      The kernel does not support PPP, for example, the PPP kernel driver is not included
              or cannot be loaded.

       5      Pppd terminated because it was sent a SIGINT, SIGTERM or SIGHUP signal.

       6      The serial port could not be locked.

       7      The serial port could not be opened.

       8      The connect script failed (returned a non-zero exit status).

       9      The command specified as the argument to the pty option could not be run.

       10     The PPP negotiation failed, that is, it didn't reach the point where at  least  one
              network protocol (e.g. IP) was running.

       11     The peer system failed (or refused) to authenticate itself.

       12     The link was established successfully and terminated because it was idle.

       13     The link was established successfully and terminated because the connect time limit
              was reached.

       14     Callback was negotiated and an incoming call should arrive shortly.

       15     The link was terminated because the peer is not responding to echo requests.

       16     The link was terminated by the modem hanging up.

       17     The PPP negotiation failed because serial loopback was detected.

       18     The init script failed (returned a non-zero exit status).

       19     We failed to authenticate ourselves to the peer.

SCRIPTS

       Pppd invokes scripts at various stages in its processing which  can  be  used  to  perform
       site-specific ancillary processing.  These scripts are usually shell scripts, but could be
       executable code files instead.  Pppd does not wait for the scripts to finish  (except  for
       the  ip-pre-up  script).   The  scripts  are executed as root (with the real and effective
       user-id set to 0), so that they can do  things  such  as  update  routing  tables  or  run
       privileged  daemons.  Be careful that the contents of these scripts do not compromise your
       system's security.  Pppd runs the scripts with standard input, output and error redirected
       to  /dev/null, and with an environment that is empty except for some environment variables
       that give information about the link.  The environment variables that pppd sets are:

       DEVICE The name of the serial tty device being used.

       IFNAME The name of the network interface being used.

       IPLOCAL
              The IP address for the local end of the link.  This is only set when IPCP has  come
              up.

       IPREMOTE
              The IP address for the remote end of the link.  This is only set when IPCP has come
              up.

       PEERNAME
              The authenticated name of the peer.  This is only set  if  the  peer  authenticates
              itself.

       SPEED  The baud rate of the tty device.

       ORIG_UID
              The real user-id of the user who invoked pppd.

       PPPLOGNAME
              The username of the real user-id that invoked pppd. This is always set.

       For  the  ip-down  and  auth-down  scripts,  pppd also sets the following variables giving
       statistics for the connection:

       CONNECT_TIME
              The number of seconds from when the PPP negotiation started  until  the  connection
              was terminated.

       BYTES_SENT
              The number of bytes sent (at the level of the serial port) during the connection.

       BYTES_RCVD
              The  number  of  bytes  received  (at  the  level  of  the  serial port) during the
              connection.

       LINKNAME
              The logical name of the link, set with the linkname option.

       CALL_FILE
              The value of the call option.

       DNS1   If the peer supplies DNS server addresses, this variable is set to  the  first  DNS
              server address supplied (whether or not the usepeerdns option was given).

       DNS2   If  the  peer supplies DNS server addresses, this variable is set to the second DNS
              server address supplied (whether or not the usepeerdns option was given).

       Pppd invokes the following scripts, if they exist.  It is  not  an  error  if  they  don't
       exist.

       /etc/ppp/auth-up
              A  program  or  script  which  is  executed  after  the  remote system successfully
              authenticates itself.  It is executed with the parameters

              interface-name peer-name user-name tty-device speed

              Note that this script is not executed if the peer doesn't authenticate itself,  for
              example when the noauth option is used.

       /etc/ppp/auth-down
              A  program or script which is executed when the link goes down, if /etc/ppp/auth-up
              was previously executed.   It  is  executed  in  the  same  manner  with  the  same
              parameters as /etc/ppp/auth-up.

       /etc/ppp/ip-pre-up
              A  program  or  script  which  is executed just before the ppp network interface is
              brought up.  It is executed with the same parameters as the ip-up  script  (below).
              At this point the interface exists and has IP addresses assigned but is still down.
              This can be used to add firewall rules before any IP traffic can pass  through  the
              interface.   Pppd will wait for this script to finish before bringing the interface
              up, so this script should run quickly.

       /etc/ppp/ip-up
              A program or script which is executed when the link is available  for  sending  and
              receiving  IP  packets  (that  is,  IPCP  has  come  up).   It is executed with the
              parameters

              interface-name tty-device speed local-IP-address remote-IP-address ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ip-down
              A program or script which is executed when the link  is  no  longer  available  for
              sending  and receiving IP packets.  This script can be used for undoing the effects
              of the /etc/ppp/ip-up and /etc/ppp/ip-pre-up scripts.  It is invoked  in  the  same
              manner and with the same parameters as the ip-up script.

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-up
              Like  /etc/ppp/ip-up,  except  that  it  is executed when the link is available for
              sending and receiving IPv6 packets. It is executed with the parameters

              interface-name tty-device speed local-link-local-address  remote-link-local-address
              ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-down
              Similar  to /etc/ppp/ip-down, but it is executed when IPv6 packets can no longer be
              transmitted on the link. It is executed with the same  parameters  as  the  ipv6-up
              script.

       /etc/ppp/ipx-up
              A  program  or  script which is executed when the link is available for sending and
              receiving IPX packets (that is, IPXCP has  come  up).   It  is  executed  with  the
              parameters

              interface-name     tty-device     speed    network-number    local-IPX-node-address
              remote-IPX-node-address   local-IPX-routing-protocol    remote-IPX-routing-protocol
              local-IPX-router-name remote-IPX-router-name ipparam pppd-pid

              The  local-IPX-routing-protocol and remote-IPX-routing-protocol field may be one of
              the following:

              NONE      to indicate that there is no routing protocol
              RIP       to indicate that RIP/SAP should be used
              NLSP      to indicate that Novell NLSP should be used
              RIP NLSP  to indicate that both RIP/SAP and NLSP should be used

       /etc/ppp/ipx-down
              A program or script which is executed when the link  is  no  longer  available  for
              sending and receiving IPX packets.  This script can be used for undoing the effects
              of the /etc/ppp/ipx-up script.  It is invoked in the same manner and with the  same
              parameters as the ipx-up script.

FILES

       /var/run/pppn.pid (BSD or Linux), /etc/ppp/pppn.pid (others)
              Process-ID for pppd process on ppp interface unit n.

       /var/run/ppp-name.pid (BSD or Linux),
              /etc/ppp/ppp-name.pid  (others)  Process-ID  for pppd process for logical link name
              (see the linkname option).

       /var/run/pppd2.tdb
              Database containing information about pppd processes, interfaces  and  links,  used
              for  matching links to bundles in multilink operation.  May be examined by external
              programs to obtain information about running pppd  instances,  the  interfaces  and
              devices   they  are  using,  IP  address  assignments,  etc.   /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
              Usernames, passwords and IP addresses for PAP authentication.  This file should  be
              owned  by  root  and  not  readable or writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a
              warning if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
              Names, secrets and IP addresses for CHAP/MS-CHAP/MS-CHAPv2 authentication.  As  for
              /etc/ppp/pap-secrets,  this  file  should  be  owned  by  root  and not readable or
              writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a warning if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/srp-secrets
              Names,   secrets,   and   IP   addresses   for   EAP   authentication.    As    for
              /etc/ppp/pap-secrets,  this  file  should  be  owned  by  root  and not readable or
              writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a warning if this is not the case.

       ~/.ppp_pseudonym
              Saved  client-side  SRP-SHA1  pseudonym.   See  the  srp-use-pseudonym  option  for
              details.

       /etc/ppp/options
              System  default  options for pppd, read before user default options or command-line
              options.

       ~/.ppprc
              User default options, read before /etc/ppp/options.ttyname.

       /etc/ppp/options.ttyname
              System default options for the serial port being used,  read  after  ~/.ppprc.   In
              forming  the  ttyname  part of this filename, an initial /dev/ is stripped from the
              port name (if present), and any slashes in the  remaining  part  are  converted  to
              dots.

       /etc/ppp/peers
              A  directory containing options files which may contain privileged options, even if
              pppd was invoked by a user other than root.  The system  administrator  can  create
              options  files in this directory to permit non-privileged users to dial out without
              requiring the peer to authenticate, but only to certain trusted peers.

SEE ALSO

       chat(8), pppstats(8)

       RFC1144
              Jacobson, V.  Compressing TCP/IP headers  for  low-speed  serial  links.   February
              1990.

       RFC1321
              Rivest, R.  The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm.  April 1992.

       RFC1332
              McGregor, G.  PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP).  May 1992.

       RFC1334
              Lloyd, B.; Simpson, W.A.  PPP authentication protocols.  October 1992.

       RFC1661
              Simpson, W.A.  The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).  July 1994.

       RFC1662
              Simpson, W.A.  PPP in HDLC-like Framing.  July 1994.

       RFC2284
              Blunk,  L.;  Vollbrecht,  J.,  PPP Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP).  March
              1998.

       RFC2472
              Haskin, D.  IP Version 6 over PPP December 1998.

       RFC2945
              Wu, T., The SRP Authentication and Key Exchange System September 2000.

       draft-ietf-pppext-eap-srp-03.txt
              Carlson, J.; et al., EAP SRP-SHA1 Authentication Protocol.  July 2001.

NOTES

       Some limited degree of control can be exercised over a running pppd process by sending  it
       a signal from the list below.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
              These signals cause pppd to terminate the link (by closing LCP), restore the serial
              device settings, and exit.  If a connector or  disconnector  process  is  currently
              running,  pppd  will  send the same signal to its process group, so as to terminate
              the connector or disconnector process.

       SIGHUP This signal causes pppd to terminate the link, restore the serial device  settings,
              and  close  the serial device.  If the persist or demand option has been specified,
              pppd will try to reopen the serial device and start another connection  (after  the
              holdoff  period).  Otherwise pppd will exit.  If this signal is received during the
              holdoff period, it causes pppd  to  end  the  holdoff  period  immediately.   If  a
              connector or disconnector process is running, pppd will send the same signal to its
              process group.

       SIGUSR1
              This signal toggles the state of the debug option.

       SIGUSR2
              This signal causes pppd to renegotiate compression.  This  can  be  useful  to  re-
              enable  compression after it has been disabled as a result of a fatal decompression
              error.  (Fatal decompression errors generally  indicate  a  bug  in  one  or  other
              implementation.)

AUTHORS

       Paul  Mackerras  (paulus@samba.org), based on earlier work by Drew Perkins, Brad Clements,
       Karl Fox, Greg Christy, and Brad Parker.

COPYRIGHT

       Pppd is copyrighted and made available under conditions  which  provide  that  it  may  be
       copied  and  used  in source or binary forms provided that the conditions listed below are
       met.  Portions of pppd are covered by the following copyright notices:

       Copyright (c) 1984-2000 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1993-2004 Paul Mackerras. All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1995 Pedro Roque Marques.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1995 Eric Rosenquist.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1999 Tommi Komulainen.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (C) Andrew Tridgell 1999
       Copyright (c) 2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 2001 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 2002 Google, Inc.  All rights reserved.

       The copyright notices contain the following statements.

       Redistribution and use in source and binary  forms,  with  or  without  modification,  are
       permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

       1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
          notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

       2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
          notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
          the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
          distribution.

       3. The name "Carnegie Mellon University" must not be used to
          endorse or promote products derived from this software without
          prior written permission. For permission or any legal
          details, please contact
            Office of Technology Transfer
            Carnegie Mellon University
            5000 Forbes Avenue
            Pittsburgh, PA  15213-3890
            (412) 268-4387, fax: (412) 268-7395
            tech-transfer@andrew.cmu.edu

       3b. The name(s) of the authors of this software must not be used to
          endorse or promote products derived from this software without
          prior written permission.

       4. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
          acknowledgements:
          "This product includes software developed by Computing Services
           at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/)."
          "This product includes software developed by Paul Mackerras
           <paulus@samba.org>".
          "This product includes software developed by Pedro Roque Marques
           <pedro_m@yahoo.com>".
          "This product includes software developed by Tommi Komulainen
           <Tommi.Komulainen@iki.fi>".

       CARNEGIE  MELLON  UNIVERSITY  DISCLAIMS  ALL  WARRANTIES  WITH  REGARD  TO  THIS SOFTWARE,
       INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES  OF  MERCHANTABILITY  AND  FITNESS,  IN  NO  EVENT  SHALL
       CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR
       ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN  AN  ACTION
       OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE
       USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

       THE AUTHORS OF THIS SOFTWARE  DISCLAIM  ALL  WARRANTIES  WITH  REGARD  TO  THIS  SOFTWARE,
       INCLUDING  ALL  IMPLIED  WARRANTIES  OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
       AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL,  INDIRECT  OR  CONSEQUENTIAL  DAMAGES  OR  ANY  DAMAGES
       WHATSOEVER  RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
       NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR  IN  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  USE  OR
       PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

                                                                                          PPPD(8)