Provided by: refind_0.11.2-1_amd64 bug


       refind-install - Install rEFInd to the ESP and create an NVRAM entry


       refind-install  [--notesp  |  --usedefault  device-file  |  --root  mount-point | --ownhfs
       device-file  ]  [--keepname]   [--nodrivers   |   --alldrivers]   [--shim   shim-filename]
       [--localkeys] [--encryptkeys] [--yes]


       To  be  useful,  the  rEFInd  boot  manager must be installed to the computer's EFI System
       Partition (ESP) or other EFI-accessible location. In most cases, an NVRAM entry describing
       rEFInd's  location  must  also be created. These steps can be performed manually; however,
       the refind-install command provides an automated way to perform  these  tasks  under  both
       Linux and OS X.  The exact behavior and options vary depending on the OS, however.

       Some details that can affect how the script runs include the following:

       *      If  you  run the script as an ordinary user, it attempts to acquire root privileges
              by using the sudo command. This works on Mac OS  X  and  some  Linux  installations
              (such  as  under Ubuntu or if you've added yourself to the sudo users list), but on
              some  Linux  installations  this  will  fail.  On  such  systems,  you  should  run
              refind-install as root.

       *      Under  OS  X, you can run the script with a mouse by opening a Terminal session and
              then dragging-and-dropping the refind-install file to the Terminal  window.  You'll
              need to press the Return or Enter key to run the script.

       *      If  you're  using  OS X 10.7's Whole Disk Encryption (WDE) feature, or the loogical
              volumes feature in OS X 10.10, you must install rEFInd to the ESP or to a  separate
              HFS+  partition. The default in rEFInd 0.8.4 and later is to install to the ESP. If
              you prefer to use a separate  HFS+  volume,  the  --ownhfs  device-file  option  to
              refind-install is required.

       *      If you're not using WDE or logical volumes, you can install rEFInd to the OS X root
              (/) partition by using the --notesp option to refind-install. Using this option  is
              recommended when upgrading from a working rEFInd installation in this location.

       *      If   you're   replacing  rEFIt  with  rEFInd  on  a  Mac,  there's  a  chance  that
              refind-install  will  warn  you  about   the   presence   of   a   program   called
              /Library/StartupItems/rEFItBlesser  and ask if you want to delete it.  This program
              is designed to keep rEFIt set as the boot manager by automatically  re-blessing  it
              if  the  default boot manager changes. This is obviously undesirable if you install
              rEFInd as your primary boot manager, so it's generally best to remove this program.
              If  you prefer to keep your options open, you can answer N when refind-install asks
              if you want to delete rEFItBlesser, and instead manually copy it elsewhere. If  you
              subsequently decide to go back to using rEFIt as your primary boot manager, you can
              restore rEFItBlesser to its place.

       *      If you intend to boot BIOS-based OSes  on  a  UEFI-based  PC,  you  must  edit  the
              refind.conf  file's  scanfor  line  to  enable  the  relevant searches. This is not
              necessary on Macs, though; because of the popularity of dual boots with Windows  on
              Macs, the BIOS/legacy scans are enabled by default on Macs.

       *      On  Linux, refind-install checks the filesystem type of the /boot directory and, if
              a matching filesystem driver is  available,  installs  it.  Note  that  the  "/boot
              directory"  may  be  on  a  separate  partition  or it may be part of your root (/)
              filesystem, in which case the driver for your root filesystem  is  installed.  This
              feature is unlikely to work properly from an emergency system, although it might if
              you have a separate /boot partition and if you mount that  partition  at  /boot  in
              your emergency system, and the ESP at /boot/efi.

       *      On  OS  X,  refind-install  checks  your  partition  tables  for  signs  of a Linux
              installation. If such a sign is found,  the  script  installs  the  EFI  filesystem
              driver  for  the  Linux ext4 filesystem. This will enable rEFInd to read your Linux
              kernel if it's on an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem. Note that some  configurations
              will  require  a /boot/refind_linux.conf file, which can be reliably generated only
              under Linux. (The mkrlconf script that comes with rEFInd  will  do  this  job  once
              you've booted Linux.)  In the meantime, you can launch GRUB from rEFInd or press F2
              or Insert twice after highlighting the Linux option in rEFInd. This will enable you
              to  enter  a  root=/dev/whatever  specification,  where /dev/whatever is the device
              identifier of your Linux root (/) filesystem.

       *      If you run refind-install on Linux and if /boot/refind_linux.conf  doesn't  already
              exist, refind-install creates this file and populates it with a few sample entries.
              If /boot is on a FAT partition (or HFS+ on a Mac), or if it's on an ext2fs, ext3fs,
              ext4fs,  ReiserFS,  Btrfs, or HFS+ partition and you install an appropriate driver,
              the result is that rEFInd will  detect  your  kernel  and  will  probably  boot  it
              correctly.  Some  systems will require manual tweaking to refind_linux.conf, though
              -- for instance, to add dolvm to the boot options on Gentoo systems that use LVM.

       *      If you pass the --shim option to the script (along  with  a  filename  for  a  Shim
              binary),  the  script sets up for a Secure Boot configuration via Shim. By default,
              this causes the rEFInd binary to be renamed as grubx64.efi. Recent versions of Shim
              support  passing the name of the follow-on program to Shim via a parameter, though.
              If  you  want  to  use  this  feature,  you  can  pass  the  --keepname  option  to

       After  you  run  refind-install,  you  should  peruse  the  script's output to ensure that
       everything looks OK. refind-install displays error messages  when  it  encounters  errors,
       such  as  if the ESP is mounted read-only or if you run out of disk space. You may need to
       correct such problems manually and re-run the script. In some cases you may need  to  fall
       back  on  manual  installation,  which gives you better control over details such as which
       partition to use for installation.


              This option, which is valid only under OS X, tells refind-install to install rEFInd
              to the OS X root partition rather than to the ESP. This behavior was the default in
              rEFInd 0.8.3 and earlier, so you may want to use it when upgrading installations of
              that  version,  unless  you used --esp (which is now the default behavior, although
              the --esp option no longer exists) or --ownhfs. You may also want to  use  --notesp
              on  new  installations  if  you're  sure  you're not using whole-disk encryption or
              logical volumes.

       --usedefault device-file
              You  can  install  rEFInd  to  a  disk  using  the  default/fallback  filename   of
              EFI/BOOT/bootx64.efi  (as  well as EFI/BOOT/bootia32.efi and EFI/BOOT/bootaa64.efi,
              if the IA-32 and ARM64 builds are available) using  this  option.  The  device-file
              should  be  an  unmounted  ESP,  or  at  least  a FAT partition, as in --usedefault
              /dev/sdc1. Your computer's NVRAM entries will not be modified  when  installing  in
              this  way.  The intent is that you can create a bootable USB flash drive or install
              rEFInd on a computer that tends to "forget" its NVRAM settings  with  this  option.
              This option is mutually exclusive with --notesp and --root.

       --ownhfs device-file
              This  option should be used only under OS X. It's used to install rEFInd to an HFS+
              volume other than a standard Mac boot volume. The result should be that rEFInd will
              show  up in the Mac's own boot manager. More importantly, suspend-to-RAM operations
              may work correctly. Note that this option requires  an  HFS+  volume  that  is  not
              currently  an  OS  X  boot  volume. This can be a data volume or a dedicated rEFInd
              partition. The ESP might also work, if it's converted to use HFS+; however, HFS+ is
              a non-standard filesystem for an ESP, and so is not recommended.

       --root mount-point
              This  option is intended to help install rEFInd from a "live CD" or other emergency
              system. To use it, you should mount  your  regular  installation  at  /mount-point,
              including  your  /boot  directory  (if  it's separate) at /mount-point/boot and (on
              Linux) your ESP at that location or at  /mount-point/boot/efi.  The  refind-install
              script   then   installs   rEFInd   to   the  appropriate  location  --  on  Linux,
              /mount-point/boot/EFI/refind  or  /mount-point/boot/efi/EFI/refind,  depending   on
              where  you've  mounted  your  ESP.  Under  OS  X,  this  option  is  useful only in
              conjunction   with   --notesp,   in   which   case   rEFInd   will    install    to
              /mount-point/EFI/refind.  The script also adds an entry to your NVRAM for rEFInd at
              this location. You cannot use this option with --usedefault. Note that this  option
              is not needed when doing a dual-boot Linux/OS X installation; just install normally
              in OS X.

              Ordinarily refind-install attempts to install the driver required to read /boot  on
              Linux. This attempt works only if you're using ext2fs, ext3fs, ext4fs, ReiserFS, or
              Btrfs on the relevant partition. If you want to forego  this  driver  installation,
              pass the --nodrivers option. This option is implicit when you use --usedefault.

              When  you  specify this option, refind-install copies all the driver files for your
              architecture. You may want to remove unused driver files after you use this option.
              Note  that  some  computers  hang  or fail to work with any drivers if you use this
              option, so use it with caution.

       --shim shim-filename or --preloader preloader-filename
              If you pass this option to refind-install, the script will copy the specified  shim
              program  file  to  the target directory, copy the MokManager.efi file from the shim
              program file's directory to the target directory, copy the 64-bit version of rEFInd
              as  grubx64.efi,  and  register  shim  with  the  firmware.  (If  you  also specify
              --usedefault, the NVRAM registration is skipped. If you also  use  --keepname,  the
              renaming  to  grubx64.efi  is  skipped.)  When  the  target  file  is identified as
              PreLoader, much the same thing  happens,  but  refind-install  copies  HashTool.efi
              instead   of  MokManager.efi  and  copies  rEFInd  as  loader.efi  rather  than  as
              grubx64.efi. The intent is to simplify rEFInd installation on a computer that  uses
              Secure Boot; when so set up, rEFInd will boot in Secure Boot mode, with one caveat:
              The first time you boot, MokManager/HashTool will launch, and you must  use  it  to
              locate  and  install  a public key or register rEFInd as a trusted application. The
              rEFInd public key file will be located in the rEFInd directory's keys  subdirectory
              under the name refind.cer.

              This  option  tells refind-install to generate a new Machine Owner Key (MOK), store
              it in /etc/refind.d/keys as refind_local.*,  and  re-sign  all  the  64-bit  rEFInd
              binaries  with  this  key  before  installing  them.  This is the preferable way to
              install rEFInd in Secure Boot mode, since it means your  binaries  will  be  signed
              locally  rather  than  with  my  own  key,  which is used to sign many other users'
              binaries; however, this method requires that both the openssl and  sbsign  binaries
              be  installed. The former is readily available in most distributions' repositories,
              but the latter is not, so this option is not the default.

              Ordinarily, if you use the --localkeys option, refind-install stores the local  key
              files  on  your  hard  disk  in  an unencrypted form. Thus, should your computer be
              compromised, the intruder could use your own key to sign a  modified  boot  loader,
              eliminating  the  benefits of Secure Boot. If you use this option, then the private
              key is stored in an encrypted form, secured via an encryption  password.  You  must
              enter  this  password  before the key can be used to sign any binary, thus reducing
              the risk that an intruder could hijack your  boot  process.  This  is  obviously  a
              highly  desirable  option,  but the downside is that you must remember the password
              and enter it whenever you update rEFInd or  any  other  program  signed  with  your
              private key. This also makes a fully automated update of rEFInd impossible.

              This  option  is useful only in conjunction with --shim. It tells refind-install to
              keep rEFInd's regular filename (typically  refind_x64.efi)  when  used  with  shim,
              rather  than  rename the binary to grubx64.efi. This change cuts down on the chance
              of confusion because of filename issues; however, this feature requires  that  shim
              be  launched  with  a command-line parameter that points to the rEFInd binary under
              its real name. versions of shim prior to 0.7 do not properly support this  feature.
              (Version  0.4  supports  it but with a buggy interpretation of the follow-on loader
              specification.) If your NVRAM variables become corrupted  or  are  forgotten,  this
              feature  may  make  rEFInd  harder  to  launch.  This  option  is incompatible with
              --usedefault and is unavailable when run under OS X or without the  --shim  option.
              If  the  script  discovers  an  existing  rEFInd  installation  under  EFI/BOOT  or
              EFI/Microsoft/Boot and no other rEFInd installation when this option  is  used,  it
              will abort.

       --yes  This  option  causes the script to assume a Y input to every yes/no prompt that can
              be  generated  under  certain  conditions,  such  as  if  you  specify  --shim  but
              refind-install  detects  no  evidence of a Secure Boot installation. This option is
              intended mainly for use by scripts such as those that might be used as part  of  an
              installation via an RPM or Debian package.


       Primary author: Roderick W. Smith (


       mkrlconf (8), mvrefind (8)


       The refind-install command is part of the rEFInd package and is available from Roderick W.