Provided by: borgbackup_1.1.7-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       borg-create - Create new archive

SYNOPSIS

       borg [common options] create [options] ARCHIVE [PATH...]

DESCRIPTION

       This  command  creates  a  backup  archive  containing  all  files found while recursively
       traversing all paths specified. Paths are added to the archive as  they  are  given,  that
       means if relative paths are desired, the command has to be run from the correct directory.

       When giving '-' as path, borg will read data from standard input and create a file 'stdin'
       in the created archive from that data.

       The archive will consume almost no disk space for  files  or  parts  of  files  that  have
       already been stored in other archives.

       The  archive  name needs to be unique. It must not end in '.checkpoint' or '.checkpoint.N'
       (with N being a number), because these names are  used  for  checkpoints  and  treated  in
       special ways.

       In  the  archive  name,  you  may use the following placeholders: {now}, {utcnow}, {fqdn},
       {hostname}, {user} and some others.

       Backup speed is increased by not reprocessing files that  are  already  part  of  existing
       archives  and  weren't  modified.  The  detection of unmodified files is done by comparing
       multiple file metadata values with previous values kept in the files cache.

       This comparison can operate in different modes as given by --files-cache:

       · ctime,size,inode (default)

       · mtime,size,inode (default behaviour of borg versions older than 1.1.0rc4)

       · ctime,size (ignore the inode number)

       · mtime,size (ignore the inode number)

       · rechunk,ctime (all files are considered modified - rechunk, cache ctime)

       · rechunk,mtime (all files are considered modified - rechunk, cache mtime)

       · disabled (disable the files cache, all files considered modified - rechunk)

       inode number: better safety, but often unstable on network filesystems

       Normally, detecting file modifications will take inode information into  consideration  to
       improve  the  reliability of file change detection.  This is problematic for files located
       on sshfs and similar network file systems which do not provide stable inode numbers,  such
       files  will always be considered modified. You can use modes without inode in this case to
       improve performance, but reliability of change detection might be reduced.

       ctime vs. mtime: safety vs. speed

       · ctime is a rather safe way to detect changes to a file (metadata and contents) as it can
         not be set from userspace. But, a metadata-only change will already update the ctime, so
         there might be some unnecessary chunking/hashing  even  without  content  changes.  Some
         filesystems do not support ctime (change time).

       · mtime  usually  works  and  only updates if file contents were changed. But mtime can be
         arbitrarily set from userspace, e.g. to set mtime back to the same value it had before a
         content change happened. This can be used maliciously as well as well-meant, but in both
         cases mtime based cache modes can be problematic.

       The mount points of filesystems or filesystem snapshots  should  be  the  same  for  every
       creation of a new archive to ensure fast operation. This is because the file cache that is
       used to determine changed files quickly uses absolute filenames.  If this is not possible,
       consider creating a bind mount to a stable location.

       The --progress option shows (from left to right) Original, Compressed and Deduplicated (O,
       C and D, respectively), then the Number of files (N) processed so  far,  followed  by  the
       currently processed path.

       When using --stats, you will get some statistics about how much data was added - the "This
       Archive" deduplicated size there is most interesting as that is how much  your  repository
       will  grow.  Please  note that the "All archives" stats refer to the state after creation.
       Also, the --stats and --dry-run options are mutually exclusive because  the  data  is  not
       actually compressed and deduplicated during a dry run.

       See the output of the "borg help patterns" command for more help on exclude patterns.  See
       the output of the "borg help placeholders" command for more help on placeholders.

OPTIONS

       See borg-common(1) for common options of Borg commands.

   arguments
       ARCHIVE
              name of archive to create (must be also a valid directory name)

       PATH   paths to archive

   optional arguments
       -n, --dry-run
              do not create a backup archive

       -s, --stats
              print statistics for the created archive

       --list output verbose list of items (files, dirs, ...)

       --filter STATUSCHARS
              only display items with the given status characters (see description)

       --json output stats as JSON. Implies --stats.

       --no-cache-sync
              experimental: do not synchronize the cache. Implies not using the files cache.

       --no-files-cache
              do not load/update the file metadata cache used to detect unchanged files

       --stdin-name NAME
              use NAME in archive for stdin data (default: "stdin")

   Exclusion options
       -e PATTERN, --exclude PATTERN
              exclude paths matching PATTERN

       --exclude-from EXCLUDEFILE
              read exclude patterns from EXCLUDEFILE, one per line

       --pattern PATTERN
              experimental: include/exclude paths matching PATTERN

       --patterns-from PATTERNFILE
              experimental: read include/exclude patterns from PATTERNFILE, one per line

       --exclude-caches
              exclude     directories     that     contain     a     CACHEDIR.TAG     file     (‐
              http://www.brynosaurus.com/cachedir/spec.html)

       --exclude-if-present NAME
              exclude  directories  that  are  tagged  by containing a filesystem object with the
              given NAME

       --keep-exclude-tags, --keep-tag-files
              if tag objects are specified with --exclude-if-present, don't omit the tag  objects
              themselves from the backup archive

       --exclude-nodump
              exclude files flagged NODUMP

   Filesystem options
       -x, --one-file-system
              stay in the same file system and do not store mount points of other file systems

       --numeric-owner
              only store numeric user and group identifiers

       --noatime
              do not store atime into archive

       --noctime
              do not store ctime into archive

       --nobirthtime
              do not store birthtime (creation date) into archive

       --nobsdflags
              do not read and store bsdflags (e.g. NODUMP, IMMUTABLE) into archive

       --ignore-inode
              ignore inode data in the file metadata cache used to detect unchanged files.

       --files-cache MODE
              operate files cache in MODE. default: ctime,size,inode

       --read-special
              open  and read block and char device files as well as FIFOs as if they were regular
              files. Also follows symlinks pointing to these kinds of files.

   Archive options
       --comment COMMENT
              add a comment text to the archive

       --timestamp TIMESTAMP
              manually specify the archive creation date/time (UTC, yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss  format).
              Alternatively, give a reference file/directory.

       -c SECONDS, --checkpoint-interval SECONDS
              write checkpoint every SECONDS seconds (Default: 1800)

       --chunker-params PARAMS
              specify  the  chunker  parameters  (CHUNK_MIN_EXP,  CHUNK_MAX_EXP,  HASH_MASK_BITS,
              HASH_WINDOW_SIZE). default: 19,23,21,4095

       -C COMPRESSION, --compression COMPRESSION
              select compression algorithm, see the output of the "borg help compression" command
              for details.

EXAMPLES

          # Backup ~/Documents into an archive named "my-documents"
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::my-documents ~/Documents

          # same, but list all files as we process them
          $ borg create --list /path/to/repo::my-documents ~/Documents

          # Backup ~/Documents and ~/src but exclude pyc files
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::my-files \
              ~/Documents                       \
              ~/src                             \
              --exclude '*.pyc'

          # Backup home directories excluding image thumbnails (i.e. only
          # /home/<one directory>/.thumbnails is excluded, not /home/*/*/.thumbnails etc.)
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::my-files /home \
              --exclude 'sh:/home/*/.thumbnails'

          # Backup the root filesystem into an archive named "root-YYYY-MM-DD"
          # use zlib compression (good, but slow) - default is lz4 (fast, low compression ratio)
          $ borg create -C zlib,6 --one-file-system /path/to/repo::root-{now:%Y-%m-%d} /

          # Backup a remote host locally ("pull" style) using sshfs
          $ mkdir sshfs-mount
          $ sshfs root@example.com:/ sshfs-mount
          $ cd sshfs-mount
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::example.com-root-{now:%Y-%m-%d} .
          $ cd ..
          $ fusermount -u sshfs-mount

          # Make a big effort in fine granular deduplication (big chunk management
          # overhead, needs a lot of RAM and disk space, see formula in internals
          # docs - same parameters as borg < 1.0 or attic):
          $ borg create --chunker-params 10,23,16,4095 /path/to/repo::small /smallstuff

          # Backup a raw device (must not be active/in use/mounted at that time)
          $ dd if=/dev/sdx bs=10M | borg create /path/to/repo::my-sdx -

          # No compression (none)
          $ borg create --compression none /path/to/repo::arch ~

          # Super fast, low compression (lz4, default)
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::arch ~

          # Less fast, higher compression (zlib, N = 0..9)
          $ borg create --compression zlib,N /path/to/repo::arch ~

          # Even slower, even higher compression (lzma, N = 0..9)
          $ borg create --compression lzma,N /path/to/repo::arch ~

          # Only compress compressible data with lzma,N (N = 0..9)
          $ borg create --compression auto,lzma,N /path/to/repo::arch ~

          # Use short hostname, user name and current time in archive name
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::{hostname}-{user}-{now} ~
          # Similar, use the same datetime format as borg 1.1 will have as default
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::{hostname}-{user}-{now:%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S} ~
          # As above, but add nanoseconds
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::{hostname}-{user}-{now:%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S.%f} ~

          # Backing up relative paths by moving into the correct directory first
          $ cd /home/user/Documents
          # The root directory of the archive will be "projectA"
          $ borg create /path/to/repo::daily-projectA-{now:%Y-%m-%d} projectA

NOTES

       The  --exclude  patterns  are  not  like  tar. In tar --exclude .bundler/gems will exclude
       foo/.bundler/gems. In borg it will not, you need to use --exclude '*/.bundler/gems' to get
       the same effect. See borg help patterns for more information.

       In  addition  to  using  --exclude patterns, it is possible to use --exclude-if-present to
       specify the name of a filesystem object (e.g. a file or folder name) which, when contained
       within  another  folder,  will  prevent  the  containing  folder from being backed up.  By
       default, the containing folder and all of its contents will be omitted  from  the  backup.
       If,  however,  you  wish  to only include the objects specified by --exclude-if-present in
       your backup, and not include any other contents of the  containing  folder,  this  can  be
       enabled through using the --keep-exclude-tags option.

   Item flags
       --list  outputs a list of all files, directories and other file system items it considered
       (no matter whether they had content  changes  or  not).  For  each  item,  it  prefixes  a
       single-letter flag that indicates type and/or status of the item.

       If you are interested only in a subset of that output, you can give e.g.  --filter=AME and
       it will only show regular files with A, M or E status (see below).

       A uppercase character represents the status of a regular  file  relative  to  the  "files"
       cache  (not  relative  to  the  repo  -- this is an issue if the files cache is not used).
       Metadata is stored in any case and for 'A' and 'M' also new data chunks  are  stored.  For
       'U' all data chunks refer to already existing chunks.

       · 'A' = regular file, added (see also a_status_oddity in the FAQ)

       · 'M' = regular file, modified

       · 'U' = regular file, unchanged

       · 'E' = regular file, an error happened while accessing/reading this file

       A  lowercase  character  means  a  file  type other than a regular file, borg usually just
       stores their metadata:

       · 'd' = directory

       · 'b' = block device

       · 'c' = char device

       · 'h' = regular file, hardlink (to already seen inodes)

       · 's' = symlink

       · 'f' = fifo

       Other flags used include:

       · 'i' = backup data was read from standard input (stdin)

       · '-' = dry run, item was not backed up

       · 'x' = excluded, item was not backed up

       · '?' = missing status code (if you see this, please file a bug report!)

SEE ALSO

       borg-common(1),   borg-delete(1),    borg-prune(1),    borg-check(1),    borg-patterns(1),
       borg-placeholders(1), borg-compression(1)

AUTHOR

       The Borg Collective

                                            2018-08-11                             BORG-CREATE(1)