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       django-admin - Utility script for the Django Web framework

       django-admin  is  Django's  command-line  utility for administrative tasks.  This document
       outlines all it can do.

       In addition, is automatically created in each Django  project.  does
       the same thing as django-admin but takes care of a few things for you:

       · It puts your project's package on sys.path.

       · It  sets  the  DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE  environment  variable  so  that it points to your
         project's file.

       The django-admin script should be on your system path if  you  installed  Django  via  its  utility.  If  it's not on your path, you can find it in site-packages/django/bin
       within your Python installation. Consider symlinking it from some place on your path, such
       as /usr/local/bin.

       For  Windows  users,  who  do  not  have  symlinking functionality available, you can copy
       django-admin.exe to a location on your existing path or  edit  the  PATH  settings  (under
       Settings  -  Control Panel - System - Advanced - Environment...) to point to its installed

       Generally, when working on a single Django project, it's  easier  to  use  than
       django-admin.  If  you  need  to  switch  between  multiple  Django  settings  files,  use
       django-admin with DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE or the --settings command line option.

       The command-line examples throughout this document use django-admin to be consistent,  but
       any example can use or python -m django just as well.


          $ django-admin <command> [options]
          $ <command> [options]
          $ python -m django <command> [options]

       command  should  be  one  of  the  commands  listed  in  this document.  options, which is
       optional, should be zero or more of the options available for the given command.

   Getting runtime help
       django-admin help

       Run django-admin help to display usage information and a list of the commands provided  by
       each application.

       Run django-admin help --commands to display a list of all available commands.

       Run  django-admin  help <command> to display a description of the given command and a list
       of its available options.

   App names
       Many commands take a list of "app names." An "app name" is the  basename  of  the  package
       containing   your  models.  For  example,  if  your  INSTALLED_APPS  contains  the  string
       '', the app name is blog.

   Determining the version
       django-admin version

       Run django-admin version to display the current Django version.

       The output follows the schema described in PEP 440:


   Displaying debug output
       Use --verbosity  to  specify  the  amount  of  notification  and  debug  information  that
       django-admin prints to the console.


       django-admin check [app_label [app_label ...]]

       Uses the system check framework to inspect the entire Django project for common problems.

       By  default,  all apps will be checked. You can check a subset of apps by providing a list
       of app labels as arguments:

          django-admin check auth admin myapp

       If you do not specify any app, all apps will be checked.

       --tag TAGS, -t TAGS

       The system check framework performs many different types of checks  that  are  categorized
       with  tags.  You  can  use  these tags to restrict the checks performed to just those in a
       particular category.  For example, to perform only models and compatibility checks, run:

          django-admin check --tag models --tag compatibility


       Lists all available tags.


       Activates some additional checks that are only relevant in a deployment setting.

       You can use this option in your  local  development  environment,  but  since  your  local
       development  settings  module  may  not  have  many  of your production settings, you will
       probably want to point the check command at a different settings module, either by setting
       the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable, or by passing the --settings option:

          django-admin check --deploy --settings=production_settings

       Or  you  could  run  it  directly on a production or staging deployment to verify that the
       correct settings are in use (omitting --settings). You could even make  it  part  of  your
       integration test suite.


       Specifies  the  message  level that will cause the command to exit with a non-zero status.
       Default is ERROR.

       django-admin compilemessages

       Compiles .po files created by makemessages to .mo files for use with the built-in  gettext
       support. See /topics/i18n/index.

       --locale LOCALE, -l LOCALE

       Specifies the locale(s) to process. If not provided, all locales are processed.

       --exclude EXCLUDE, -x EXCLUDE

       Specifies  the  locale(s)  to  exclude  from  processing.  If not provided, no locales are

       --use-fuzzy, -f

       Includes fuzzy translations into compiled files.

       Example usage:

          django-admin compilemessages --locale=pt_BR
          django-admin compilemessages --locale=pt_BR --locale=fr -f
          django-admin compilemessages -l pt_BR
          django-admin compilemessages -l pt_BR -l fr --use-fuzzy
          django-admin compilemessages --exclude=pt_BR
          django-admin compilemessages --exclude=pt_BR --exclude=fr
          django-admin compilemessages -x pt_BR
          django-admin compilemessages -x pt_BR -x fr

       django-admin createcachetable

       Creates the cache tables for use with the database cache  backend  using  the  information
       from your settings file. See /topics/cache for more information.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database in which the cache table(s) will be created. Defaults to default.


       Prints  the  SQL that would be run without actually running it, so you can customize it or
       use the migrations framework.

       django-admin dbshell

       Runs the command-line client for the database engine specified  in  your  ENGINE  setting,
       with the connection parameters specified in your USER, PASSWORD, etc., settings.

       · For PostgreSQL, this runs the psql command-line client.

       · For MySQL, this runs the mysql command-line client.

       · For SQLite, this runs the sqlite3 command-line client.

       · For Oracle, this runs the sqlplus command-line client.

       This  command  assumes  the programs are on your PATH so that a simple call to the program
       name (psql, mysql, sqlite3, sqlplus) will find the program in the right place. There's  no
       way to specify the location of the program manually.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database onto which to open a shell. Defaults to default.

       django-admin diffsettings

       Displays  differences  between the current settings file and Django's default settings (or
       another settings file specified by --default).

       Settings that don't appear in the defaults are followed by "###". For example, the default
       settings  don't define ROOT_URLCONF, so ROOT_URLCONF is followed by "###" in the output of


       Displays all settings, even if  they  have  Django's  default  value.  Such  settings  are
       prefixed by "###".

       --default MODULE

       The  settings  module  to  compare  the  current  settings against. Leave empty to compare
       against Django's default settings.

       django-admin dumpdata [app_label[.ModelName] [app_label[.ModelName] ...]]

       Outputs  to  standard  output  all  data  in  the  database  associated  with  the   named

       If no application name is provided, all installed applications will be dumped.

       The output of dumpdata can be used as input for loaddata.

       Note  that  dumpdata  uses  the  default manager on the model for selecting the records to
       dump. If you're using a custom manager as the default manager and it filters some  of  the
       available records, not all of the objects will be dumped.

       --all, -a

       Uses  Django's base manager, dumping records which might otherwise be filtered or modified
       by a custom manager.

       --format FORMAT

       Specifies the serialization format of the output. Defaults to JSON. Supported formats  are
       listed in serialization-formats.

       --indent INDENT

       Specifies  the  number  of indentation spaces to use in the output. Defaults to None which
       displays all data on single line.

       --exclude EXCLUDE, -e EXCLUDE

       Prevents specific applications or models (specified in the  form  of  app_label.ModelName)
       from  being  dumped.  If  you  specify a model name, the output will be restricted to that
       model, rather than the entire application.  You can also mix application names  and  model

       If you want to exclude multiple applications, pass --exclude more than once:

          django-admin dumpdata --exclude=auth --exclude=contenttypes

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database from which data will be dumped. Defaults to default.


       Uses  the  natural_key()  model  method  to  serialize  any  foreign  key and many-to-many
       relationship  to  objects  of  the  type  that  defines  the  method.  If  you're  dumping
       contrib.auth  Permission  objects  or contrib.contenttypes ContentType objects, you should
       probably use this flag. See the natural keys documentation for more details  on  this  and
       the next option.


       Omits  the  primary  key  in the serialized data of this object since it can be calculated
       during deserialization.

       --pks PRIMARY_KEYS

       Outputs only the objects specified by a comma separated list of  primary  keys.   This  is
       only  available  when  dumping  one  model.  By  default, all the records of the model are

       --output OUTPUT, -o OUTPUT

       Specifies a file to write the serialized data to. By default, the data  goes  to  standard

       When this option is set and --verbosity is greater than 0 (the default), a progress bar is
       shown in the terminal.

       django-admin flush

       Removes all data from the database and re-executes any post-synchronization handlers.  The
       table of which migrations have been applied is not cleared.

       If  you  would  rather  start from an empty database and re-run all migrations, you should
       drop and recreate the database and then run migrate instead.

       --noinput, --no-input

       Suppresses all user prompts.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database to flush. Defaults to default.

       django-admin inspectdb [table [table ...]]

       Introspects the database tables in the database pointed-to by the NAME setting and outputs
       a Django model module (a file) to standard output. You may choose what tables to
       inspect by passing their names as arguments.

       Use this if you have a legacy database with which you'd like to use  Django.   The  script
       will inspect the database and create a model for each table within it.

       As  you  might  expect,  the  created models will have an attribute for every field in the
       table. Note that inspectdb has a few special cases in its field-name output:

       · If inspectdb cannot map a column's type to a model field type, it'll use  TextField  and
         will  insert  the  Python comment 'This field type is a guess.' next to the field in the
         generated model.

       · If the database column name is a Python  reserved  word  (such  as  'pass',  'class'  or
         'for'),  inspectdb  will  append '_field' to the attribute name. For example, if a table
         has a column 'for', the  generated  model  will  have  a  field  'for_field',  with  the
         db_column  attribute  set  to  'for'.  inspectdb  will  insert the Python comment 'Field
         renamed because it was a Python reserved word.' next to the field.

       This feature is meant as a shortcut, not as definitive model generation. After you run it,
       you'll  want  to  look  over  the  generated  models  yourself  to make customizations. In
       particular, you'll need to rearrange models' order, so that models  that  refer  to  other
       models are ordered properly.

       Primary  keys  are  automatically  introspected for PostgreSQL, MySQL and SQLite, in which
       case Django puts in the primary_key=True where needed.

       inspectdb works with PostgreSQL, MySQL and SQLite. Foreign-key  detection  only  works  in
       PostgreSQL and with certain types of MySQL tables.

       Django  doesn't  create  database  defaults  when a default is specified on a model field.
       Similarly, database defaults aren't translated to model field defaults or detected in  any
       fashion by inspectdb.

       By  default,  inspectdb  creates unmanaged models. That is, managed = False in the model's
       Meta class tells Django not to manage each table's creation, modification,  and  deletion.
       If  you do want to allow Django to manage the table's lifecycle, you'll need to change the
       managed option to True (or simply remove it because True is its default value).

       Support for the table argument(s) to choose what tables should be inspected was added.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database to introspect. Defaults to default.

       django-admin loaddata fixture [fixture ...]

       Searches for and loads the contents of the named fixture into the database.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database into which the data will be loaded. Defaults to default.

       --ignorenonexistent, -i

       Ignores fields and models that may have been removed  since  the  fixture  was  originally

       --app APP_LABEL

       Specifies a single app to look for fixtures in rather than looking in all apps.

       --exclude EXCLUDE, -e EXCLUDE

       Excludes  loading  the  fixtures from the given applications and/or models (in the form of
       app_label or app_label.ModelName). Use the option multiple times to exclude more than  one
       app or model.

   What's a fixture ?
       A  fixture  is a collection of files that contain the serialized contents of the database.
       Each fixture has a unique name, and the files that comprise the fixture can be distributed
       over multiple directories, in multiple applications.

       Django will search in three locations for fixtures:

       1. In the fixtures directory of every installed application

       2. In any directory named in the FIXTURE_DIRS setting

       3. In the literal path named by the fixture

       Django  will load any and all fixtures it finds in these locations that match the provided
       fixture names.

       If the named fixture has a file extension, only fixtures of that type will be loaded.  For

          django-admin loaddata mydata.json

       would  only load JSON fixtures called mydata. The fixture extension must correspond to the
       registered name of a serializer (e.g., json or xml).

       If you omit the extensions, Django will search all available fixture types for a  matching
       fixture. For example:

          django-admin loaddata mydata

       would  look  for  any  fixture  of  any fixture type called mydata. If a fixture directory
       contained mydata.json, that fixture would be loaded as a JSON fixture.

       The fixtures that are named can include directory components. These  directories  will  be
       included in the search path. For example:

          django-admin loaddata foo/bar/mydata.json

       would  search  <app_label>/fixtures/foo/bar/mydata.json  for  each  installed application,
       <dirname>/foo/bar/mydata.json for each directory in FIXTURE_DIRS,  and  the  literal  path

       When  fixture files are processed, the data is saved to the database as is.  Model defined
       save() methods are not called, and any pre_save or post_save signals will be  called  with
       raw=True since the instance only contains attributes that are local to the model. You may,
       for example, want to disable handlers that  access  related  fields  that  aren't  present
       during fixture loading and would otherwise raise an exception:

          from django.db.models.signals import post_save
          from .models import MyModel

          def my_handler(**kwargs):
              # disable the handler during fixture loading
              if kwargs['raw']:

          post_save.connect(my_handler, sender=MyModel)

       You could also write a simple decorator to encapsulate this logic:

          from functools import wraps

          def disable_for_loaddata(signal_handler):
              Decorator that turns off signal handlers when loading fixture data.
              def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
                  if kwargs['raw']:
                  signal_handler(*args, **kwargs)
              return wrapper

          def my_handler(**kwargs):

       Just be aware that this logic will disable the signals whenever fixtures are deserialized,
       not just during loaddata.

       Note that the order in which fixture  files  are  processed  is  undefined.  However,  all
       fixture  data  is  installed as a single transaction, so data in one fixture can reference
       data in another fixture. If the database backend  supports  row-level  constraints,  these
       constraints will be checked at the end of the transaction.

       The dumpdata command can be used to generate input for loaddata.

   Compressed fixtures
       Fixtures may be compressed in zip, gz, or bz2 format. For example:

          django-admin loaddata mydata.json

       would  look  for  any of mydata.json,, mydata.json.gz, or mydata.json.bz2.
       The first file contained within a zip-compressed archive is used.

       Note that if two fixtures with the same name but different  fixture  type  are  discovered
       (for  example, if mydata.json and mydata.xml.gz were found in the same fixture directory),
       fixture installation will be aborted, and any data installed in the call to loaddata  will
       be removed from the database.

          MySQL with MyISAM and fixtures

                 The  MyISAM storage engine of MySQL doesn't support transactions or constraints,
                 so if you use MyISAM, you won't get validation of fixture data, or a rollback if
                 multiple transaction files are found.

   Database-specific fixtures
       If  you're  in  a  multi-database setup, you might have fixture data that you want to load
       onto one database, but not onto another.  In  this  situation,  you  can  add  a  database
       identifier into the names of your fixtures.

       For  example,  if your DATABASES setting has a 'master' database defined, name the fixture
       mydata.master.json or mydata.master.json.gz and the fixture will only be loaded  when  you
       specify you want to load data into the master database.

       django-admin makemessages

       Runs over the entire source tree of the current directory and pulls out all strings marked
       for translation. It creates (or updates) a message file in the conf/locale (in the  Django
       tree)  or  locale  (for  project  and  application) directory. After making changes to the
       messages files you need to compile them with compilemessages  for  use  with  the  builtin
       gettext support. See the i18n documentation for details.

       This   command   doesn't  require  configured  settings.  However,  when  settings  aren't
       configured, the command can't ignore the MEDIA_ROOT and STATIC_ROOT directories or include
       LOCALE_PATHS. It will also write files in UTF-8 rather than in FILE_CHARSET.

       --all, -a

       Updates the message files for all available languages.

       --extension EXTENSIONS, -e EXTENSIONS

       Specifies  a  list of file extensions to examine (default: html, txt, py or js if --domain
       is js).

       Example usage:

          django-admin makemessages --locale=de --extension xhtml

       Separate multiple extensions with commas or use -e or --extension multiple times:

          django-admin makemessages --locale=de --extension=html,txt --extension xml

       --locale LOCALE, -l LOCALE

       Specifies the locale(s) to process.

       --exclude EXCLUDE, -x EXCLUDE

       Specifies the locale(s) to exclude from  processing.  If  not  provided,  no  locales  are

       Example usage:

          django-admin makemessages --locale=pt_BR
          django-admin makemessages --locale=pt_BR --locale=fr
          django-admin makemessages -l pt_BR
          django-admin makemessages -l pt_BR -l fr
          django-admin makemessages --exclude=pt_BR
          django-admin makemessages --exclude=pt_BR --exclude=fr
          django-admin makemessages -x pt_BR
          django-admin makemessages -x pt_BR -x fr

       --domain DOMAIN, -d DOMAIN

       Specifies the domain of the messages files. Supported options are:

       · django for all *.py, *.html and *.txt files (default)

       · djangojs for *.js files

       --symlinks, -s

       Follows symlinks to directories when looking for new translation strings.

       Example usage:

          django-admin makemessages --locale=de --symlinks

       --ignore PATTERN, -i PATTERN

       Ignores  files or directories matching the given glob-style pattern. Use multiple times to
       ignore more.

       These patterns are used by default: 'CVS', '.*', '*~', '*.pyc'.

       Example usage:

          django-admin makemessages --locale=en_US --ignore=apps/* --ignore=secret/*.html


       Disables the default values of --ignore.


       Disables breaking long message lines into several lines in language files.


       Suppresses writing '#: filename:line’ comment lines in language files.  Using this  option
       makes it harder for technically skilled translators to understand each message's context.


       Prevents deleting the temporary .pot files generated before creating the .po file. This is
       useful for debugging errors which may prevent the final language files from being created.

       SEE ALSO:
          See customizing-makemessages for instructions on how to  customize  the  keywords  that
          makemessages passes to xgettext.

       django-admin makemigrations [app_label [app_label ...]]

       Creates  new  migrations  based on the changes detected to your models.  Migrations, their
       relationship with apps and more are covered in depth in the migrations documentation.

       Providing one or more app names as arguments will limit  the  migrations  created  to  the
       app(s)  specified and any dependencies needed (the table at the other end of a ForeignKey,
       for example).

       To add migrations to an app that doesn't have a migrations directory,  run  makemigrations
       with the app's app_label.

       --noinput, --no-input

       Suppresses  all user prompts. If a suppressed prompt cannot be resolved automatically, the
       command will exit with error code 3.


       Outputs an empty migration for the  specified  apps,  for  manual  editing.  This  is  for
       advanced  users  and should not be used unless you are familiar with the migration format,
       migration operations, and the dependencies between your migrations.


       Shows what migrations would be made without actually writing any migrations files to disk.
       Using  this  option  along with --verbosity 3 will also show the complete migrations files
       that would be written.


       Enables fixing of migration conflicts.

       --name NAME, -n NAME

       Allows naming the generated migration(s) instead of using a generated name.

       --exit, -e

       Deprecated since version 1.10: Use the --check option instead.

       Makes makemigrations exit with error code 1 when no migrations are created (or would  have
       been created, if combined with --dry-run).


       Makes makemigrations exit with a non-zero status when model changes without migrations are

       django-admin migrate [app_label] [migration_name]

       Synchronizes  the  database  state  with  the  current  set  of  models  and   migrations.
       Migrations,  their  relationship with apps and more are covered in depth in the migrations

       The behavior of this command changes depending on the arguments provided:

       · No arguments: All apps have all of their migrations run.

       · <app_label>: The specified app has its migrations run, up to the most recent  migration.
         This may involve running other apps' migrations too, due to dependencies.

       · <app_label>  <migrationname>:  Brings  the  database  schema  to a state where the named
         migration is applied, but no later migrations in the same  app  are  applied.  This  may
         involve  unapplying migrations if you have previously migrated past the named migration.
         Use the name zero to unapply all migrations for an app.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database to migrate. Defaults to default.


       Tells Django to mark the migrations as having  been  applied  or  unapplied,  but  without
       actually running the SQL to change your database schema.

       This  is intended for advanced users to manipulate the current migration state directly if
       they're manually applying changes; be warned that using --fake runs the  risk  of  putting
       the  migration  state  table  into  a  state  where manual recovery will be needed to make
       migrations run correctly.


       Allows Django to skip an app's initial migration if all database tables with the names  of
       all  models  created  by  all CreateModel operations in that migration already exist. This
       option is intended  for  use  when  first  running  migrations  against  a  database  that
       preexisted  the  use  of  migrations.  This  option  does not, however, check for matching
       database schema beyond matching table names and  so  is  only  safe  to  use  if  you  are
       confident that your existing schema matches what is recorded in your initial migration.


       Allows  creating  tables  for  apps  without migrations. While this isn't recommended, the
       migrations framework is sometimes too slow on large projects with hundreds of models.

       --noinput, --no-input

       Suppresses all user prompts. An example prompt is  asking  about  removing  stale  content

       django-admin runserver [addrport]

       Starts  a  lightweight development Web server on the local machine. By default, the server
       runs on port 8000 on the IP address You can pass in  an  IP  address  and  port
       number explicitly.

       If  you run this script as a user with normal privileges (recommended), you might not have
       access to start a port on a low port  number.  Low  port  numbers  are  reserved  for  the
       superuser (root).

       This server uses the WSGI application object specified by the WSGI_APPLICATION setting.

       DO NOT USE THIS SERVER IN A PRODUCTION SETTING. It has not gone through security audits or
       performance tests. (And that's how it's gonna stay. We're in the business  of  making  Web
       frameworks,  not  Web  servers, so improving this server to be able to handle a production
       environment is outside the scope of Django.)

       The development server automatically reloads Python code for each request, as needed.  You
       don't  need  to restart the server for code changes to take effect.  However, some actions
       like adding files don't trigger a restart, so you'll have to restart the server  in  these

       If  you  are  using Linux and install pyinotify, kernel signals will be used to autoreload
       the server (rather than polling file modification timestamps  each  second).  This  offers
       better  scaling  to  large projects, reduction in response time to code modification, more
       robust change detection, and battery usage reduction.

       When you start the server, and each time you  change  Python  code  while  the  server  is
       running,  the system check framework will check your entire Django project for some common
       errors (see the check command). If any errors are found, they will be printed to  standard

       You  can run as many concurrent servers as you want, as long as they're on separate ports.
       Just execute django-admin runserver more than once.

       Note that the default IP address,, is not accessible from other machines on your
       network.  To  make  your development server viewable to other machines on the network, use
       its own IP address (e.g. or or :: (with IPv6 enabled).

       You can provide an IPv6 address surrounded by brackets (e.g.  [200a::1]:8000).  This  will
       automatically enable IPv6 support.

       A hostname containing ASCII-only characters can also be used.

       If  the staticfiles contrib app is enabled (default in new projects) the runserver command
       will be overridden with its own runserver command.

       If migrate was not previously executed, the table that stores the history of migrations is
       created at first run of runserver.

       Logging  of  each  request  and response of the server is sent to the django-server-logger

       In older versions, log messages were  written  to  sys.stderr  instead  of  being  handled
       through Python logging.


       Disables  the  auto-reloader. This means any Python code changes you make while the server
       is running will not take effect if the particular Python modules have already been  loaded
       into memory.


       Disables  use  of  threading  in  the  development  server. The server is multithreaded by

       --ipv6, -6

       Uses IPv6 for the development server. This changes the default IP address  from
       to ::1.

   Examples of using different ports and addresses
       Port 8000 on IP address

          django-admin runserver

       Port 8000 on IP address

          django-admin runserver

       Port 7000 on IP address

          django-admin runserver 7000

       Port 7000 on IP address

          django-admin runserver

       Port 8000 on IPv6 address ::1:

          django-admin runserver -6

       Port 7000 on IPv6 address ::1:

          django-admin runserver -6 7000

       Port 7000 on IPv6 address 2001:0db8:1234:5678::9:

          django-admin runserver [2001:0db8:1234:5678::9]:7000

       Port 8000 on IPv4 address of host localhost:

          django-admin runserver localhost:8000

       Port 8000 on IPv6 address of host localhost:

          django-admin runserver -6 localhost:8000

   Serving static files with the development server
       By  default,  the development server doesn't serve any static files for your site (such as
       CSS files, images, things under MEDIA_URL and so forth). If you want to  configure  Django
       to serve static media, read /howto/static-files/index.

       django-admin sendtestemail [email [email ...]]

       Sends  a  test  email  (to  confirm  email  sending  through  Django  is  working)  to the
       recipient(s) specified. For example:

          django-admin sendtestemail

       There are a couple of options, and you may use any combination of them together:


       Mails the email addresses specified in MANAGERS using mail_managers().


       Mails the email addresses specified in ADMINS using mail_admins().

       django-admin shell

       Starts the Python interactive interpreter.

       --interface {ipython,bpython,python}, -i {ipython,bpython,python}

       Specifies the shell to use. By default, Django will use IPython or bpython  if  either  is
       installed. If both are installed, specify which one you want like so:


          django-admin shell -i ipython


          django-admin shell -i bpython

       If  you  have  a  "rich"  shell  installed  but  want  to  force use of the "plain" Python
       interpreter, use python as the interface name, like so:

          django-admin shell -i python

       Deprecated since version 1.10: In older versions, use the --plain  option  instead  of  -i
       python. This is deprecated and will be removed in Django 2.0.


       Disables  reading  the  startup script for the "plain" Python interpreter. By default, the
       script pointed to by the PYTHONSTARTUP environment variable or the  ~/  script
       is read.

       --command COMMAND, -c COMMAND

       Lets you pass a command as a string to execute it as Django, like so:

          django-admin shell --command="import django; print(django.__version__)"

       You can also pass code in on standard input to execute it. For example:

          $ django-admin shell <<EOF
          > import django
          > print(django.__version__)
          > EOF

       On  Windows,  the  REPL  is output due to implementation limits of on that

       In older versions, the REPL is also output on UNIX systems.

       django-admin showmigrations [app_label [app_label ...]]

       Shows all migrations in a project. You can choose from one of two formats:

       --list, -l

       Lists all of the apps Django knows about, the  migrations  available  for  each  app,  and
       whether or not each migration is applied (marked by an [X] next to the migration name).

       Apps without migrations are also listed, but have (no migrations) printed under them.

       This is the default output format.

       --plan, -p

       Shows  the  migration  plan  Django  will follow to apply migrations. Like --list, applied
       migrations are marked by an [X]. For a --verbosity of 2 and above, all dependencies  of  a
       migration will also be shown.

       app_labels  arguments limit the output, however, dependencies of provided apps may also be

       In older versions, showmigrations --plan ignores app labels.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database to examine. Defaults to default.

       django-admin sqlflush

       Prints the SQL statements that would be executed for the flush command.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database for which to print the SQL. Defaults to default.

       django-admin sqlmigrate app_label migration_name

       Prints the SQL for the named migration. This requires an active database connection, which
       it  will  use  to resolve constraint names; this means you must generate the SQL against a
       copy of the database you wish to later apply it on.

       Note that sqlmigrate doesn't colorize its output.


       Generates the SQL for unapplying the migration. By default, the SQL created is for running
       the migration in the forwards direction.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database for which to generate the SQL. Defaults to default.

       django-admin sqlsequencereset app_label [app_label ...]

       Prints the SQL statements for resetting sequences for the given app name(s).

       Sequences are indexes used by some database engines to track the next available number for
       automatically incremented fields.

       Use this command to generate SQL which will fix cases where a sequence is out of sync with
       its automatically incremented field data.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database for which to print the SQL. Defaults to default.

       django-admin squashmigrations app_label [start_migration_name] migration_name

       Squashes  the  migrations for app_label up to and including migration_name down into fewer
       migrations, if  possible.  The  resulting  squashed  migrations  can  live  alongside  the
       unsquashed ones safely. For more information, please read migration-squashing.

       When  start_migration_name is given, Django will only include migrations starting from and
       including this migration. This helps to mitigate the squashing limitation of RunPython and
       django.db.migrations.operations.RunSQL migration operations.


       Disables  the  optimizer when generating a squashed migration. By default, Django will try
       to optimize the operations in your migrations to reduce the size of  the  resulting  file.
       Use this option if this process is failing or creating incorrect migrations, though please
       also file a Django bug report about the behavior, as optimization is meant to be safe.

       --noinput, --no-input

       Suppresses all user prompts.

       django-admin startapp name [directory]

       Creates a Django app directory structure for the given app name in the  current  directory
       or the given destination.

       By  default  the directory created contains a file and other app template files.
       (See the source for more details.) If only the app name is given, the app  directory  will
       be created in the current working directory.

       If  the  optional  destination is provided, Django will use that existing directory rather
       than creating a new one. You can use '.' to denote the current working directory.

       For example:

          django-admin startapp myapp /Users/jezdez/Code/myapp

       --template TEMPLATE

       Provides the path to a directory with a custom app template file or a path to a compressed
       file (.tar.gz, .tar.bz2, .tgz, .tbz, .zip) containing the app template files.

       For  example, this would look for an app template in the given directory when creating the
       myapp app:

          django-admin startapp --template=/Users/jezdez/Code/my_app_template myapp

       Django will also accept URLs (http, https,  ftp)  to  compressed  archives  with  the  app
       template files, downloading and extracting them on the fly.

       For example, taking advantage of GitHub's feature to expose repositories as zip files, you
       can use a URL like:

          django-admin startapp --template= myapp

       --extension EXTENSIONS, -e EXTENSIONS

       Specifies which file extensions in the app template should be rendered with  the  template
       engine. Defaults to py.

       --name FILES, -n FILES

       Specifies  which  files  in  the  app template (in addition to those matching --extension)
       should be rendered with the template engine. Defaults to an empty list.

       The template context used for all matching files is:

       · Any option passed to the startapp command (among the command's supported options)

       · app_name -- the app name as passed to the command

       · app_directory -- the full path of the newly created app

       · camel_case_app_name -- the app name in camel case format

       · docs_version -- the version of the documentation: 'dev' or '1.x'

          When the app template files are rendered with the Django template  engine  (by  default
          all  *.py  files), Django will also replace all stray template variables contained. For
          example, if one of the Python  files  contains  a  docstring  explaining  a  particular
          feature related to template rendering, it might result in an incorrect example.

          To  work  around  this problem, you can use the templatetag templatetag to "escape" the
          various parts of the template syntax.

          In addition, to allow Python template  files  that  contain  Django  template  language
          syntax while also preventing packaging systems from trying to byte-compile invalid *.py
          files, template files ending with .py-tpl will be renamed to .py.

       django-admin startproject name [directory]

       Creates a Django project directory structure for the given project  name  in  the  current
       directory or the given destination.

       By  default,  the  new  directory  contains and a project package (containing a and other files). See the template source for details.

       If only the project name is given, both the project directory and project package will  be
       named  <projectname>  and  the  project  directory  will be created in the current working

       If the optional destination is provided, Django will use that existing  directory  as  the
       project  directory,  and  create  and the project package within it. Use '.' to
       denote the current working directory.

       For example:

          django-admin startproject myproject /Users/jezdez/Code/myproject_repo

       --template TEMPLATE

       Specifies a directory, file path, or URL of a custom project template.  See  the  startapp
       --template documentation for examples and usage.

       --extension EXTENSIONS, -e EXTENSIONS

       Specifies  which  file  extensions  in  the  project  template should be rendered with the
       template engine. Defaults to py.

       --name FILES, -n FILES

       Specifies which files in the project template (in addition to those matching  --extension)
       should be rendered with the template engine. Defaults to an empty list.

       The template context used is:

       · Any option passed to the startproject command (among the command's supported options)

       · project_name -- the project name as passed to the command

       · project_directory -- the full path of the newly created project

       · secret_key -- a random key for the SECRET_KEY setting

       · docs_version -- the version of the documentation: 'dev' or '1.x'

       Please also see the rendering warning as mentioned for startapp.

       django-admin test [test_label [test_label ...]]

       Runs tests for all installed apps. See /topics/testing/index for more information.


       Stops running tests and reports the failure immediately after a test fails.

       --testrunner TESTRUNNER

       Controls  the  test  runner  class that is used to execute tests. This value overrides the
       value provided by the TEST_RUNNER setting.

       --noinput, --no-input

       Suppresses all user prompts. A typical prompt is a warning about deleting an existing test

   Test runner options
       The  test  command receives options on behalf of the specified --testrunner. These are the
       options of the default test runner: DiscoverRunner.

       --keepdb, -k

       Preserves the test database between test runs. This has the advantage of skipping both the
       create  and  destroy  actions which can greatly decrease the time to run tests, especially
       those in a large test suite. If the test database does not exist, it will  be  created  on
       the  first  run  and then preserved for each subsequent run. Any unapplied migrations will
       also be applied to the test database before running the test suite.

       --reverse, -r

       Sorts test cases in the opposite execution order. This may  help  in  debugging  the  side
       effects  of  tests that aren't properly isolated. Grouping by test class is preserved when
       using this option.


       Sets the DEBUG setting to True prior to running tests. This  may  help  troubleshoot  test

       --debug-sql, -d

       Enables  SQL logging for failing tests. If --verbosity is 2, then queries in passing tests
       are also output.

       --parallel [N]

       Runs tests in separate parallel processes. Since modern processors  have  multiple  cores,
       this allows running tests significantly faster.

       By  default --parallel runs one process per core according to multiprocessing.cpu_count().
       You can adjust the number of processes either by providing it as the option's value,  e.g.
       --parallel=4, or by setting the DJANGO_TEST_PROCESSES environment variable.

       Django  distributes  test cases — unittest.TestCase subclasses — to subprocesses. If there
       are fewer test cases than configured processes, Django will reduce the number of processes

       Each process gets its own database. You must ensure that different test cases don't access
       the same resources. For instance, test cases that touch the  filesystem  should  create  a
       temporary directory for their own use.

       This option requires the third-party tblib package to display tracebacks correctly:

          $ pip install tblib

       This  feature isn't available on Windows. It doesn't work with the Oracle database backend

       If you want to use  pdb  while  debugging  tests,  you  must  disable  parallel  execution
       (--parallel=1). You'll see something like bdb.BdbQuit if you don't.

          When  test parallelization is enabled and a test fails, Django may be unable to display
          the exception traceback. This can make  debugging  difficult.  If  you  encounter  this
          problem,  run  the  affected  test  without parallelization to see the traceback of the

          This is a known limitation. It arises from the need to serialize objects  in  order  to
          exchange them between processes. See What can be pickled and unpickled? for details.

       --tag TAGS

       Runs  only  tests  marked  with  the  specified tags.  May be specified multiple times and
       combined with test --exclude-tag.

       --exclude-tag EXCLUDE_TAGS

       Excludes tests marked with the specified  tags.   May  be  specified  multiple  times  and
       combined with test --tag.

       django-admin testserver [fixture [fixture ...]]

       Runs a Django development server (as in runserver) using data from the given fixture(s).

       For example, this command:

          django-admin testserver mydata.json

       ...would perform the following steps:

       1. Create a test database, as described in the-test-database.

       2. Populate  the  test  database  with fixture data from the given fixtures.  (For more on
          fixtures, see the documentation for loaddata above.)

       3. Runs the Django development server (as in runserver), pointed  at  this  newly  created
          test database instead of your production database.

       This is useful in a number of ways:

       · When  you're writing unit tests of how your views act with certain fixture data, you can
         use testserver to interact with the views in a Web browser, manually.

       · Let's say you're developing your Django application and have  a  "pristine"  copy  of  a
         database  that  you'd  like  to  interact  with. You can dump your database to a fixture
         (using the dumpdata command, explained above), then  use  testserver  to  run  your  Web
         application  with that data.  With this arrangement, you have the flexibility of messing
         up your data in any way, knowing that whatever data changes you're making are only being
         made to a test database.

       Note that this server does not automatically detect changes to your Python source code (as
       runserver does). It does, however, detect changes to templates.

       --addrport ADDRPORT

       Specifies a different port, or IP address and port, from the  default  of
       This  value  follows  exactly  the same format and serves exactly the same function as the
       argument to the runserver command.


       To run the test server on port 7000 with fixture1 and fixture2:

          django-admin testserver --addrport 7000 fixture1 fixture2
          django-admin testserver fixture1 fixture2 --addrport 7000

       (The above statements are equivalent. We include both  of  them  to  demonstrate  that  it
       doesn't matter whether the options come before or after the fixture arguments.)

       To run on with a test fixture:

          django-admin testserver --addrport test

       --noinput, --no-input

       Suppresses all user prompts. A typical prompt is a warning about deleting an existing test


       Some commands are only available when the django.contrib application that implements  them
       has been enabled. This section describes them grouped by their application.

       django-admin changepassword [<username>]

       This  command is only available if Django's authentication system (django.contrib.auth) is

       Allows changing a user's password. It prompts you to enter a new password  twice  for  the
       given  user.  If  the entries are identical, this immediately becomes the new password. If
       you do not supply a user, the command will attempt to change the password  whose  username
       matches the current user.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database to query for the user. Defaults to default.

       Example usage:

          django-admin changepassword ringo

       django-admin createsuperuser

       This  command is only available if Django's authentication system (django.contrib.auth) is

       Creates a superuser account (a user who has all permissions). This is useful if  you  need
       to  create  an  initial  superuser  account  or  if  you need to programmatically generate
       superuser accounts for your site(s).

       When run interactively, this command will prompt for a  password  for  the  new  superuser
       account.  When  run  non-interactively, no password will be set, and the superuser account
       will not be able to log in until a password has been manually set for it.

       --username USERNAME

       --email EMAIL

       The username and email address for the new account can be supplied by using the --username
       and  --email  arguments  on  the  command  line.  If  either  of  those  is  not supplied,
       createsuperuser will prompt for it when running interactively.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database into which the superuser object will be saved.

       You can subclass the management command and  override  get_input_data()  if  you  want  to
       customize  data  input and validation. Consult the source code for details on the existing
       implementation and the method's parameters. For example, it could be useful if you have  a
       ForeignKey  in  REQUIRED_FIELDS and want to allow creating an instance instead of entering
       the primary key of an existing instance.

       django-admin remove_stale_contenttypes

       This command is only available if Django's contenttypes app  (django.contrib.contenttypes)
       is installed.

       Deletes  stale  content  types  (from  deleted  models) in your database. Any objects that
       depend on the deleted content types will also be deleted. A list of deleted  objects  will
       be displayed before you confirm it's okay to proceed with the deletion.

       --database DATABASE

       Specifies the database to use. Defaults to default.

       This command is only available if GeoDjango (django.contrib.gis) is installed.

       Please refer to its description in the GeoDjango documentation.

       django-admin clearsessions

       Can be run as a cron job or directly to clean out expired sessions.

       This  command  is  only  available  if the Sitemaps framework (django.contrib.sitemaps) is

       Please refer to its description in the Sitemaps documentation.

       This    command    is    only    available    if    the    static    files     application
       (django.contrib.staticfiles) is installed.

       Please refer to its description in the staticfiles documentation.

       This     command    is    only    available    if    the    static    files    application
       (django.contrib.staticfiles) is installed.

       Please refer to its description in the staticfiles documentation.


       Although some commands may allow their own custom options, every command  allows  for  the
       following options:

       --pythonpath PYTHONPATH

       Adds  the  given filesystem path to the Python import search path. If this isn't provided,
       django-admin will use the PYTHONPATH environment variable.

       This option is unnecessary in, because it takes care of setting the Python  path
       for you.

       Example usage:

          django-admin migrate --pythonpath='/home/djangoprojects/myproject'

       --settings SETTINGS

       Specifies  the  settings  module  to  use. The settings module should be in Python package
       syntax,  e.g.  mysite.settings.  If  this  isn't  provided,  django-admin  will  use   the
       DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable.

       This  option  is  unnecessary  in, because it uses from the current
       project by default.

       Example usage:

          django-admin migrate --settings=mysite.settings


       Displays a full stack trace when a CommandError is raised. By default,  django-admin  will
       show  a  simple  error  message  when a CommandError occurs and a full stack trace for any
       other exception.

       Example usage:

          django-admin migrate --traceback

       --verbosity {0,1,2,3}, -v {0,1,2,3}

       Specifies the amount of notification and debug information that a command should print  to
       the console.

       · 0 means no output.

       · 1 means normal output (default).

       · 2 means verbose output.

       · 3 means very verbose output.

       Example usage:

          django-admin migrate --verbosity 2


       Disables colorized command output.  Some commands format their output to be colorized. For
       example, errors will be printed to the console in red and SQL statements  will  be  syntax

       Example usage:

          django-admin runserver --no-color


   Syntax coloring
       The  django-admin / commands will use pretty color-coded output if your terminal
       supports ANSI-colored output. It won't use the color codes if you're piping the  command's
       output to another program.

       Under  Windows,  the  native  console  doesn't support ANSI escape sequences so by default
       there is no color output. But you can install the ANSICON  third-party  tool,  the  Django
       commands  will  detect its presence and will make use of its services to color output just
       like on Unix-based platforms.

       The colors used for syntax highlighting can be customized. Django ships with  three  color

       · dark,  suited  to  terminals  that  show  white  text on a black background. This is the
         default palette.

       · light, suited to terminals that show black text on a white background.

       · nocolor, which disables syntax highlighting.

       You select a palette by setting  a  DJANGO_COLORS  environment  variable  to  specify  the
       palette  you  want  to use. For example, to specify the light palette under a Unix or OS/X
       BASH shell, you would run the following at a command prompt:

          export DJANGO_COLORS="light"

       You can also customize the colors that are used. Django specifies a  number  of  roles  in
       which color is used:

       · error - A major error.

       · notice - A minor error.

       · success - A success.

       · warning - A warning.

       · sql_field - The name of a model field in SQL.

       · sql_coltype - The type of a model field in SQL.

       · sql_keyword - An SQL keyword.

       · sql_table - The name of a model in SQL.

       · http_info - A 1XX HTTP Informational server response.

       · http_success - A 2XX HTTP Success server response.

       · http_not_modified - A 304 HTTP Not Modified server response.

       · http_redirect - A 3XX HTTP Redirect server response other than 304.

       · http_not_found - A 404 HTTP Not Found server response.

       · http_bad_request - A 4XX HTTP Bad Request server response other than 404.

       · http_server_error - A 5XX HTTP Server Error response.

       · migrate_heading - A heading in a migrations management command.

       · migrate_label - A migration name.

       Each  of  these roles can be assigned a specific foreground and background color, from the
       following list:

       · black

       · red

       · green

       · yellow

       · blue

       · magenta

       · cyan

       · white

       Each of these colors can then be modified by using the following display options:

       · bold

       · underscore

       · blink

       · reverse

       · conceal

       A color specification follows one of the following patterns:

       · role=fg

       · role=fg/bg

       · role=fg,option,option

       · role=fg/bg,option,option

       where role is the name of a valid color role, fg  is  the  foreground  color,  bg  is  the
       background  color  and  each  option is one of the color modifying options. Multiple color
       specifications are then separated by a semicolon. For example:

          export DJANGO_COLORS="error=yellow/blue,blink;notice=magenta"

       would specify that errors  be  displayed  using  blinking  yellow  on  blue,  and  notices
       displayed using magenta. All other color roles would be left uncolored.

       Colors  can  also be specified by extending a base palette. If you put a palette name in a
       color specification, all the colors implied by that palette will be loaded. So:

          export DJANGO_COLORS="light;error=yellow/blue,blink;notice=magenta"

       would specify the use of all the colors in the light color palette, except for the  colors
       for errors and notices which would be overridden as specified.

   Bash completion
       If  you  use  the Bash shell, consider installing the Django bash completion script, which
       lives  in  extras/django_bash_completion  in   the   Django   distribution.   It   enables
       tab-completion of django-admin and commands, so you can, for instance...

       · Type django-admin.

       · Press [TAB] to see all available options.

       · Type sql, then [TAB], to see all available options whose names start with sql.

       See /howto/custom-management-commands for how to add customized actions., *args, **options)

       To call a management command from code use call_command.

       name   the  name of the command to call or a command object. Passing the name is preferred
              unless the object is required for testing.

       *args  a list of arguments accepted by the command. Arguments are passed to  the  argument
              parser,  so  you  can  use  the  same  style  as you would on the command line. For
              example, call_command('flush', 'verbosity=0').

              named options accepted on the command-line.  Options  are  passed  to  the  command
              without triggering the argument parser, which means you'll need to pass the correct
              type. For example, call_command('flush', verbosity=0)  (zero  must  be  an  integer
              rather than a string).


          from django.core import management
          from import loaddata

          management.call_command('flush', verbosity=0, interactive=False)
          management.call_command('loaddata', 'test_data', verbosity=0)
          management.call_command(loaddata.Command(), 'test_data', verbosity=0)

       Note  that  command  options  that  take  no arguments are passed as keywords with True or
       False, as you can see with the interactive option above.

       Named arguments can be passed by using either one of the following syntaxes:

          # Similar to the command line
          management.call_command('dumpdata', '--natural-foreign')

          # Named argument similar to the command line minus the initial dashes and
          # with internal dashes replaced by underscores
          management.call_command('dumpdata', natural_foreign=True)

          # `use_natural_foreign_keys` is the option destination variable
          management.call_command('dumpdata', use_natural_foreign_keys=True)

       Some  command  options  have  different  names  when  using  call_command()   instead   of
       django-admin or For example, django-admin createsuperuser --no-input translates
       to call_command('createsuperuser', interactive=False). To find what keyword argument  name
       to use for call_command(), check the command's source code for the dest argument passed to

       Command options which take multiple options are passed a list:

          management.call_command('dumpdata', exclude=['contenttypes', 'auth'])

       The return value of the call_command() function is the same as the  return  value  of  the
       handle() method of the command.

       call_command()  now  returns  the  value received from the command.handle() method. It now
       also accepts a command object as the first argument.


       Note that you can redirect standard output and error streams as all commands  support  the
       stdout and stderr options. For example, you could write:

          with open('/path/to/command_output') as f:
              management.call_command('dumpdata', stdout=f)


       Django Software Foundation


       Django Software Foundation and contributors