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       dvisvgm - converts DVI and EPS files to the XML-based SVG format


       dvisvgm [ options ] file [.dvi]

       dvisvgm --eps [ options ] file [.eps]

       dvisvgm --pdf [ options ] file [.pdf]


       The command-line utility dvisvgm converts DVI files, as generated by TeX/LaTeX, to the
       XML-based scalable vector graphics format SVG. It supports the classic DVI version 2 as
       well as version 3 (created by pTeX in vertical mode), and the XeTeX versions 5 to 7 which
       are also known as XDV. Besides the basic DVI commands, dvisvgm also evaluates many
       so-called specials which heavily extend the capabilities of the plain DVI format. For a
       more detailed overview, see section Supported Specials below.

       Since the current SVG standard 1.1 doesn’t specify multi-page graphics, dvisvgm creates
       separate SVG files for each DVI page. Because of compatibility reasons, only the first
       page is converted by default. In order to select a different page or arbitrary page
       sequences, use option -p which is described below.

       SVG is a vector-based graphics format and therefore dvisvgm tries to convert the glyph
       outlines of all fonts referenced in a DVI page section to scalable path descriptions. The
       fastest way to achieve this is to extract the path information from vector-based font
       files available in PFB, TTF, or OTF format. If dvisvgm is able to find such a file, it
       extracts all necessary outline information about the glyphs from it.

       However, TeX’s main source for font descriptions is Metafont, which produces bitmap output
       (GF files). That’s why not all obtainable TeX fonts are available in a scalable format. In
       these cases, dvisvgm tries to vectorize Metafont’s output by tracing the glyph bitmaps.
       The results are not as perfect as most (manually optimized) PFB or OTF counterparts, but
       are nonetheless really nice in most cases.

       When running dvisvgm without option --no-fonts, it creates font elements
       (<font>...</font>) to embed the font data into the SVG files. Unfortunately, only few SVG
       renderers support these elements yet. Most web browsers and vector graphics applications
       don’t evaluate them properly so that the text components of the resulting graphics might
       look strange. In order to create more compatible SVG files, command-line option --no-fonts
       can be given to replace the font elements by plain graphics paths.


       dvisvgm provides a POSIX-compliant command-line interface with short and long option
       names. They may be given before and/or after the name of the file to be converted. Also,
       the order of specifying the options is not significant, i.e. you can add them in any order
       without changing dvisvgm’s behavior. Certain options accept or require additional
       parameters which are directly appended to or separated by whitespace from a short option
       (e.g. -v0 or -v 0). Long options require an additional equals sign (=) between option name
       and argument but without any surrounding whitespace (e.g. --verbosity=0). Multiple short
       options that don’t expect a further parameter can be combined after a single dash (e.g.
       -ejs rather than -e -j -s).

       -b, --bbox=fmt
           Sets the bounding box of the generated graphic to the specified format. The parameter
           fmt takes either one of the format specifiers listed below, or a sequence of four
           comma- or whitespace-separated length values x1, y1, x2 and y2. The latter define the
           absolute coordinates of two diagonal corners of the bounding box. Each length value
           consists of a floating point number and an optional length unit (pt, bp, cm, mm, in,
           pc, dd, cc, or sp). If the unit is omitted, TeX points (pt) are assumed.

           It’s also possible to give only one length value l. In this case, the minimal bounding
           box is computed and enlarged by adding (-l,-l) to the upper left and (l,l) to the
           lower right corner.

           Additionally, dvisvgm also supports the following format specifiers:

           International DIN/ISO paper sizes
               An, Bn, Cn, Dn, where n is a non-negative integer, e.g. A4 or a4 for DIN/ISO A4
               format (210mm × 297mm).

           North American paper sizes
               invoice, executive, legal, letter, ledger

           Special bounding box sizes

               dvi         page size stored in the DVI file
               min         computes the minimal/tightest
                           bounding box
               none        no bounding box is assigned
               papersize   box sizes specified by papersize
                           specials present in the DVI file
               preview     bounding box data computed by
                           the preview package (if present
                           in the DVI file)

           Page orientation
               The default page orientation for DIN/ISO and American paper sizes is portrait,
               i.e.  width < height. Appending -landscape or simply -l to the format string
               switches to landscape mode (width > height). For symmetry reasons you can also
               explicitly add -portrait or -p to indicate the default portrait format. Note that
               these suffixes are part of the size string and not separate options. Thus, they
               must directly follow the size specifier without additional blanks. Furthermore,
               the orientation suffixes can’t be used with dvi, min, and none.

                   Option -b, --bbox only affects the bounding box and does not transform the
                   page content. Hence, if you choose a landscape format, the page won’t be

       -C, --cache[=dir]
           To speed up the conversion process of bitmap fonts, dvisvgm saves intermediate
           conversion information in cache files. By default, these files are stored in
           $HOME/.dvisvgm/cache. If you prefer a different location, use option --cache to
           overwrite the default. Furthermore, it is also possible to disable the font caching
           mechanism completely with option --cache=none. If argument dir is omitted, dvisvgm
           prints the path of the default cache directory together with further information about
           the stored fonts. Additionally, outdated and corrupted cache files are removed.

       -j, --clipjoin
           This option tells dvisvgm to compute all intersections of clipping paths itself rather
           than delegating this task to the SVG renderer. The resulting SVG files are more
           portable because some SVG viewers don’t support intersecting clipping paths which are
           defined by clipPath elements containing a clip-path attribute.

           Enables colorization of messages printed during the conversion process. The colors can
           be customized via environment variable DVISVGM_COLORS. See the Environment section
           below for further information.

           By default, dvisvgm exclusively uses RGB values of the form #RRGGBB to represent
           colors in the SVG file. According to the SVG standard, it’s also possible to use color
           names (like black and darkblue) for a limited number of predefined colors. In order to
           apply these color names rather than their RGB values, call dvisvgm with option
           --colornames. All colors without an SVG color name will still be represented by RGB

           Adds comments with further information about selected data to the SVG file. Currently,
           only font elements and font CSS rules related to native fonts are annotated.

       -E, --eps
           If this option is given, dvisvgm does not expect a DVI but an EPS input file, and
           tries to convert it to SVG. In order to do so, a single psfile special command is
           created and forwarded to the PostScript special handler. This option is only available
           if dvisvgm was built with PostScript support enabled, and requires Ghostscript to be
           available. See option --libgs for further information.

       -e, --exact
           This option tells dvisvgm to compute the precise bounding box of each character. By
           default, the values stored in a font’s TFM file are used to determine a glyph’s
           extent. As these values are intended to implement optimal character placements and are
           not designed to represent the exact dimensions, they don’t necessarily correspond with
           the bounds of the visual glyphs. Thus, width and/or height of some glyphs may be
           larger (or smaller) than the respective TFM values. As a result, this can lead to
           clipped characters at the bounds of the SVG graphics. With option --exact given,
           dvisvgm analyzes the actual shape of each character and derives a usually tight
           bounding box.

       -f, --font-format=format
           Selects the file format used to embed the font data into the SVG files. Following
           formats are supported: SVG (that’s the default), TTF (TrueType), WOFF, and WOFF2 (Web
           Open Font Format version 1 and 2). By default, dvisvgm creates unhinted fonts that
           might look bad on low-resolution devices. In order to improve the display quality, the
           generated TrueType, WOFF, or WOFF2 fonts can be autohinted. The autohinter is enabled
           by appending ,autohint or ,ah to the font format, e.g.  --font-format=woff,autohint or

           Option --font-format is only available if dvisvgm was built with WOFF support enabled.

       -m, --fontmap=filenames
           Loads and evaluates a single font map file or a sequence of font map files. These
           files are required to resolve font file names and encodings. dvisvgm does not provide
           its own map files but tries to read available ones coming with dvips or dvipdfm. If
           option --fontmap is omitted, dvisvgm looks for the default map files,
 ,, and (in this order). Otherwise, the files as
           option arguments are evaluated in the given order. Multiple filenames must be
           separated by commas without leading and/or trailing whitespace. By default, redefined
           mappings do not replace previous ones. However, each filename can be preceded by an
           optional mode specifier (+, -, or =) to change this behavior:

               Only those entries in the given map file that don’t redefine a font mapping are
               applied, i.e. fonts already mapped keep untouched. That’s also the default mode if
               no mode specifier is given.

               Ensures that none of the font mappings defined in the given map file are used,
               i.e. previously defined mappings for the specified fonts are removed.

               All mappings defined in the map file are applied. Previously defined settings for
               the same fonts are replaced.

               If the first filename in the filename sequence is preceded by a mode specifier,
               dvisvgm loads the default font map (see above) and applies the other map files
               afterwards. Otherwise, none of default map files will be loaded automatically.

               Examples:, loads followed by
      where all redefinitions of are ignored.
     , loads the default map file followed by
      and where all redefinitions of replace
               previous entries. Afterwards, all definitions for the fonts given in
               are removed from the font map tree.

               For further information about the map file formats and the mode specifiers, see
               the manuals of dvips and dvipdfm.

           Tells dvisvgm to create overlapping grid segments when approximating color gradient
           fills (also see option --grad-segments below). By default, adjacent segments don’t
           overlap but only touch each other like separate tiles. However, this alignment can
           lead to visible gaps between the segments because the background color usually
           influences the color at the boundary of the segments if the SVG renderer uses
           anti-aliasing to create smooth contours. One way to avoid this and to create
           seamlessly touching color regions is to enlarge the segments so that they extent into
           the area of their right and bottom neighbors. Since the latter are drawn on top of the
           overlapping parts, the visible size of all segments keeps unchanged. Just the former
           gaps disappear as the background is now completely covered by the correct colors.
           Currently, dvisvgm computes the overlapping segments separately for each patch of the
           mesh (a patch mesh may consist of multiple patches of the same type). Therefore, there
           still might be visible gaps at the seam of two adjacent patches.

           Determines the maximal number of segments per column and row used to approximate
           gradient color fills. Since SVG 1.1 only supports a small subset of the shading
           algorithms available in PostScript, dvisvgm approximates some of them by subdividing
           the area to be filled into smaller, monochromatic segments. Each of these segments
           gets the average color of the region it covers. Thus, increasing the number of
           segments leads to smaller monochromatic areas and therefore a better approximation of
           the actual color gradient. As a drawback, more segments imply bigger SVG files because
           every segment is represented by a separate path element.

           Currently, dvisvgm supports free- and lattice-form triangular patch meshes as well as
           Coons and tensor-product patch meshes. They are approximated by subdividing the area
           of each patch into a n×n grid of smaller segments. The maximal number of segments per
           column and row can be changed with option --grad-segments.

           If the size of the segments created to approximate gradient color fills falls below
           the given delta value, dvisvgm reduces their level of detail. For example, Bézier
           curves are replaced by straight lines, and triangular segments are combined to
           tetragons. For a small delta, these simplifications are usually not noticeable but
           reduce the size of the generated SVG files significantly.

       -h, --help[=mode]
           Prints a short summary of all available command-line options. The optional mode
           parameter is an integer value between 0 and 2. It selects the display variant of the
           help text. Mode 0 lists all options divided into categories with section headers. This
           is also the default if dvisvgm is called without parameters. Mode 1 lists all options
           ordered by the short option names, while mode 2 sorts the lines by the long option

           Disables the removal of temporary files as created by Metafont (usually .gf, .tfm, and
           .log files) or the TrueType/WOFF module.

           This option is only available if the Ghostscript library is not directly linked to
           dvisvgm and if PostScript support was not completely disabled during compilation. In
           this case, dvisvgm tries to load the shared GS library dynamically during runtime. By
           default, it expects the library’s name to be (on Unix-like systems, where X
           is the ABI version of the library) or gsdll32.dll/gsdll64.dll (Windows). Option
           --libgs can be used to give a different name. Alternatively, it’s also possible to set
           the GS library name by the environment variable LIBGS. The latter has less precedence
           than the command-line option, i.e. dvisvgm ignores variable LIBGS if --libgs is given.

       -L, --linkmark=style
           Selects the method how to mark hyperlinked areas. The style argument can take one of
           the values none, box, and line, where box is the default, i.e. a rectangle is drawn
           around the linked region if option --linkmark is omitted. Style argument line just
           draws the lower edge of the bounding rectangle, and none tells dvisvgm not to add any
           visible objects to hyperlinks. The lines and boxes get the current text color
           selected. In order to apply a different, constant color, a colon followed by a color
           specifier can be appended to the style string. A color specifier is either a
           hexadecimal RGB value of the form #RRGGBB, or a dvips color name

           Moreover, argument style can take a single color specifier to highlight the linked
           region by a frameless box filled with that color. An optional second color specifier
           separated by a colon selects the frame color.

           Examples: box:red or box:#ff0000 draws red boxes around the linked areas.  yellow:blue
           creates yellow filled rectangles with blue frames.

       -l, --list-specials
           Prints a list of registered special handlers and exits. Each handler processes a set
           of special statements belonging to the same category. In most cases, the categories
           are identified by the prefix of the special statements. It’s usually a leading string
           followed by a colon or a blank, e.g.  color or ps. The listed handler names, however,
           don’t need to match these prefixes, e.g. if there is no common prefix or if
           functionality is split into separate handlers in order to allow to disable them
           separately with option --no-specials. All special statements not covered by one of the
           special handlers are silently ignored.

       -M, --mag=factor
           Sets the magnification factor applied in conjunction with Metafont calls prior tracing
           the glyphs. The larger this value, the better the tracing results. Nevertheless, large
           magnification values can cause Metafont arithmetic errors due to number overflows. So,
           use this option with care. The default setting usually produces nice results.

           Puts every single character in a separate text element with corresponding x and y
           attributes. By default, new text or tspan elements are only created if a string starts
           at a location that differs from the regular position defined by the characters'
           advance values.

           Suppresses the generation of missing font files. If dvisvgm can’t find a font file
           through the kpathsea lookup mechanism, it calls the external tools mktextfm or
           mktexmf. This option disables these calls.

       -n, --no-fonts[=variant]
           If this option is given, dvisvgm doesn’t create SVG font elements but uses paths
           instead. The resulting SVG files tend to be larger but they are concurrently more
           compatible with most applications that don’t support SVG fonts yet. The optional
           argument variant selects the method how to substitute fonts by paths. Variant 0
           creates path and use elements in order to avoid lengthy duplicates. Variant 1 creates
           path elements only. Option --no-fonts implies --no-styles.

       -c, --scale=sx[,sy]
           Scales the page content horizontally by sx and vertically by sy. This option is
           equivalent to -TSsx,sy.

       -S, --no-specials[=names]
           Disable processing of special commands embedded in the DVI file. If no further
           parameter is given, all specials are ignored. To disable a selected set of specials,
           an optional comma-separated list of names can be appended to this option. A name is
           the unique identifier referencing the intended special handler as listed by option

           By default, dvisvgm creates CSS styles and class attributes to reference fonts. This
           variant is more compact than adding the complete font information to each text element
           over and over again. However, if you prefer direct font references, the default
           behavior can be disabled with option --no-styles.

       -o, --output=pattern
           Sets the pattern specifying the names of the generated SVG files. Parameter pattern is
           a string that may contain static character sequences as well as the variables %f, %p,
           and %P.  %f expands to the base name of the DVI file, i.e. the filename without
           suffix, %p is the current page number, and %P the total number of pages in the DVI
           file. An optional number (0-9) given directly after the percent sign specifies the
           minimal number of digits to be written. If a particular value consists of less digits,
           the number is padded with leading zeros. Example: %3p enforces 3 digits for the
           current page number (001, 002, etc.). Without an explicit width specifier, %p gets the
           same number of digits as %P.

           If you need more control over the numbering, you can use arithmetic expressions as
           part of a pattern. The syntax is %(expr) where expr may contain additions,
           subtractions, multiplications, and integer divisions with common precedence. The
           variables p and P contain the current page number and the total number of pages,
           respectively. For example, --output="%f-%(p-1)" creates filenames where the numbering
           starts with 0 rather than 1.

           The default pattern is %f-%p.svg if the DVI file consists of more than one page, and
           %f.svg otherwise. That means, a DVI file foo.dvi is converted to foo.svg if foo.dvi is
           a single-page document. Otherwise, multiple SVG files foo-01.svg, foo-02.svg, etc. are
           produced. In Windows environments, the percent sign indicates dereferenced environment
           variables, and must therefore be protected by a second percent sign, e.g.

       -p, --page=ranges
           This option selects the pages to be processed. Parameter ranges consists of a
           comma-separated list of single page numbers and/or page ranges. A page range is a pair
           of numbers separated by a hyphen, e.g. 5-12. Thus, a page sequence might look like
           this: 2-4,6,9-12,15. It doesn’t matter if a page is given more than once or if page
           ranges overlap. dvisvgm always extracts the page numbers in ascending order and
           converts them only once. In order to stay compatible with previous versions, the
           default page sequence is 1. dvisvgm therefore converts only the first page and not the
           whole document if option --page is omitted. Usually, page ranges consist of two
           numbers denoting the first and last page to be converted. If the conversion should
           start at page 1, or if it should continue up to the last DVI page, the first or second
           range number can be omitted, respectively. Example: --page=-10 converts all pages up
           to page 10, --page=10- converts all pages starting with page 10. Please consider that
           the page values don’t refer to the page numbers printed on the corresponding page.
           Instead, the physical page count is expected, where the first page always gets number

       -P, --pdf
           If this option is given, dvisvgm does not expect a DVI but a PDF input file, and tries
           to convert it to SVG. In order to do so, a single pdffile special command is created
           and forwarded to the PostScript special handler. This option is only available if
           dvisvgm was built with PostScript support enabled, and requires Ghostscript to be
           available. See option --libgs for further information.

       -d, --precision=digits
           Specifies the maximal number of decimal places applied to floating-point attribute
           values. All attribute values written to the generated SVG file(s) are rounded
           accordingly. The parameter digits accepts integer values from 0 to 6, where 0 enables
           the automatic selection of significant decimal places. This is also the default value
           if dvisvgm is called without option --precision.

           Enables a simple progress indicator shown when time-consuming operations like
           PostScript specials are processed. The indicator doesn’t appear before the given delay
           (in seconds) has elapsed. The default delay value is 0.5 seconds.

       -r, --rotate=angle
           Rotates the page content clockwise by angle degrees around the page center. This
           option is equivalent to -TRangle.

       -R, --relative
           SVG allows to define graphics paths by a sequence of absolute and/or relative path
           commands, i.e. each command expects either absolute coordinates or coordinates
           relative to the current drawing position. By default, dvisvgm creates paths made up of
           absolute commands. If option --relative is given, relative commands are created
           instead. This slightly reduces the size of the SVG files in most cases.

           Tells dvisvgm to read the DVI or EPS input data from stdin instead from a file.
           Alternatively to option --stdin, a single dash (-) can be given. The default name of
           the generated SVG file is stdin.svg which can be changed with option --output.

       -s, --stdout
           Don’t write the SVG output to a file but redirect it to stdout.

           In some cases, dvisvgm needs to create temporary files to work properly. These files
           go to the system’s temporary folder by default, e.g.  /tmp on Linux systems. Option
           --tmpdir allows to specify a different location if necessary for some reason. Please
           note that dvisvgm does not create this folder, so you must ensure that it actually
           exists before running dvisvgm.

           If the optional parameter path is omitted, dvisvgm prints the location of the system’s
           temp folder and exits.

       -a, --trace-all=[retrace]
           This option forces dvisvgm to vectorize not only the glyphs actually required to
           render the SVG file correctly – which is the default –, but processes all glyphs of
           all fonts referenced in the DVI file. Because dvisvgm stores the tracing results in a
           font cache, all following conversions of these fonts will speed up significantly. The
           boolean option retrace determines how to handle glyphs already stored in the cache. By
           default, these glyphs are skipped. Setting argument retrace to yes or true forces
           dvisvgm to retrace the corresponding bitmaps again.

               This option only takes effect if font caching is active. Therefore, --trace-all
               cannot be combined with option --cache=none.

       -T, --transform=commands
           Applies a sequence of transformations to the SVG content. Each transformation is
           described by a command beginning with a capital letter followed by a list of
           comma-separated parameters. Following transformation commands are supported:

           T tx[,ty]
               Translates (moves/shifts) the page in direction of vector (tx,ty). If ty is
               omitted, ty=0 is assumed. The expected unit length of tx and ty are TeX points
               (1pt = 1/72.27in). However, there are several constants defined to simplify the
               unit conversion (see below).

           S sx[,sy]
               Scales the page horizontally by sx and vertically by sy. If sy is omitted, sy=sx
               is assumed.

           R angle[,x,y]
               Rotates the page clockwise by angle degrees around point (x,y). If the optional
               arguments x and y are omitted, the page will be rotated around its center
               depending on the chosen page format. When option -bnone is given, the rotation
               center is origin (0,0).

           KX angle
               Skews the page along the x-axis by angle degrees. Argument angle can take any
               value except 90+180k, where k is an integer.

           KY angle
               Skews the page along the y-axis by angle degrees. Argument angle can take any
               value except 90+180k, where k is an integer.

           FH [y]
               Mirrors (flips) the page at the horizontal line through point (0,y). Omitting the
               optional argument leads to y=h/2, where h denotes the page height (see pre-defined
               constants below).

           FV [x]
               Mirrors (flips) the page at the vertical line through point (x,0). Omitting the
               optional argument leads to x=w/2, where w denotes the page width (see pre-defined
               constants below).

           M m1,...,m6
               Applies a transformation described by the 3×3 matrix
               ((m1,m2,m3),(m4,m5,m6),(0,0,1)), where the inner triples denote the rows.

                   All transformation commands of option -T, --transform are applied in the order
                   of their appearance. Multiple commands can optionally be separated by spaces.
                   In this case the whole transformation string has to be enclosed in double
                   quotes to keep them together. All parameters are expressions of floating point
                   type. You can either give plain numbers or arithmetic terms combined by the
                   operators + (addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication), / (division) or %
                   (modulo) with common associativity and precedence rules. Parentheses may be
                   used as well.

                   Additionally, some pre-defined constants are provided:

                   ux   horizontal position of upper
                        left page corner in TeX point
                   uy   vertical position of upper left
                        page corner in TeX point units
                   h    page height in TeX point units
                        (0 in case of -bnone)
                   w    page width in TeX point units (0
                        in case of -bnone)

                   Furthermore, you can use the length constants pt, mm, cm and in, e.g.  2cm or
                   1.6in. Thus, option -TT1in,0R45 moves the page content 1 inch to the right and
                   rotates it by 45 degrees around the page center afterwards.

                   For single transformations, there are also the short-hand options -c, -t and
                   -r available. In contrast to the --transform* commands, the order of these
                   options is not significant, so that it’s not possible to describe
                   transformation sequences with them.

       -t, --translate=tx[,ty]
           Translates (moves) the page content in direction of vector (tx,ty). This option is
           equivalent to -TTtx,ty.

       -v, --verbosity=level
           Controls the type of messages printed during a dvisvgm run:

           0   no message output at all
           1   error messages only
           2   warning messages only
           4   informational messages only

               By adding these values you can combine the categories. The default level is 7,
               i.e. all messages are printed.

       -V, --version[=extended]
           Prints the version of dvisvgm and exits. If the optional argument is set to yes, the
           version numbers of the linked libraries are printed as well.

       -z, --zip[=level]
           Creates a compressed SVG file with suffix .svgz. The optional argument specifies the
           compression level. Valid values are in the range of 1 to 9 (default value is 9).
           Larger values cause better compression results but may take slightly more computation

       -Z, --zoom=factor
           Multiplies the values of the width and height attributes of the SVG root element by
           argument factor while the coordinate system of the graphic content is retained. As a
           result, most SVG viewers zoom the graphics accordingly. If a negative zoom factor is
           given, the width and height attributes are omitted.


       dvisvgm supports several sets of special commands that can be used to enrich DVI files
       with additional features, like color, graphics, and hyperlinks. The evaluation of special
       commands is delegated to dedicated handlers provided by dvisvgm. Each handler is
       responsible for all special statements of the same command set, i.e. commands beginning
       with the same prefix. To get a list of the actually provided special handlers, use option
       --list-specials (see above). This section gives an overview of the special commands
       currently supported.

           Special statement for changing the background/page color. Since SVG 1.1 doesn’t
           support background colors, dvisvgm inserts a rectangle of the chosen color into the
           generated SVG document. This rectangle always gets the same size as the selected or
           computed bounding box. This background color command is part of the color special set
           but is handled separately in order to let the user turn it off. For an overview of the
           command syntax, see the documentation of dvips, for instance.

           Statements of this command set provide instructions to change the text/paint color.
           For an overview of the exact syntax, see the documentation of dvips, for instance.

           dvisvgm offers its own small set of specials. The following list gives a brief

           dvisvgm:raw text
               Adds an arbitrary sequence of characters to the page section of the SVG document.
               dvisvgm does not perform any validation here, thus the user has to ensure that the
               resulting SVG is still valid. Parameter text may contain the expressions {?x},
               {?y}, and {?color} that expand to the current x or y coordinate and the current
               color, respectively. Furthermore, {?nl} expands to a newline character.

           dvisvgm:rawdef text
               This command is similar to dvisvgm:raw, but puts the raw text into the <defs>
               section of the SVG document currently being generated.

           dvisvgm:rawset name ... dvisvgm:endrawset
               This pair of specials marks the begin and end of a definition of a named raw SVG
               fragment. All dvisvgm:raw and dvisvgm:rawdef specials enclosed by dvisvgm:rawset
               and dvisvgm:endrawset are not evaluated immediately but jointly stored under the
               given name for later use. Once defined, the named fragment can be referenced
               throughout the DVI file by dvisvgm:rawput (see below). The two commands
               dvisvgm:rawset and dvisvgm:endrawset must not be nested, i.e. each call of
               dvisvgm:rawset has to be followed by a corresponding call of dvisvgm:endrawset
               before another dvisvgm:rawset may occur. Also, the identifier name must be unique
               throughout the DVI file. Using dvisvgm:rawset multiple times together with the
               same name leads to warning messages.

           dvisvgm:rawput name
               Inserts raw SVG fragments previously stored under the given name. dvisvgm
               distinguishes between fragments that were specified with dvisvgm:raw or
               dvisvgm:rawdef, and handles them differently: It inserts all dvisvgm:raw parts
               every time dvisvgm:rawput is called, whereas the dvisvgm:rawdef portions go to the
               <defs> section of the current SVG document only once.

           dvisvgm:img width height file
               Creates an image element at the current graphic position referencing the given
               file. JPEG, PNG, and SVG images can be used here. However, dvisvgm does not check
               the file format or the file name suffix. The lengths width and height can be given
               together with a unit specifier (see option --bbox) or as plain floating point
               numbers. In the latter case, TeX point units are assumed (1in = 72.27pt).

           dvisvgm:bbox n[ew] name
               Defines or resets a local bounding box called name. The name may consist of
               letters and digits. While processing a DVI page, dvisvgm continuously updates the
               (global) bounding box of the current page in order to determine the minimal
               rectangle containing all visible page components (characters, images, drawing
               elements etc.) Additionally to the global bounding box, the user can request an
               arbitrary number of named local bounding boxes. Once defined, these boxes are
               updated together with the global bounding box starting with the first character
               that follows the definition. Thus, the local boxes can be used to compute the
               extent of parts of the page. This is useful for scenarios where the generated SVG
               file is post-processed. In conjunction with special dvisvgm:raw, the macro {?bbox
               name} expands to the four values x, y, w, and h (separated by spaces) specifying
               the coordinates of the upper left corner, width, and height of the local box name.
               If box name wasn’t previously defined, all four values equal to zero.

           dvisvgm:bbox width height [depth]
               Updates the bounding box of the current page by embedding a virtual rectangle (x,
               y, width, height) where the lower left corner is located at the current DVI
               drawing position (x,y). If the optional parameter depth is specified, dvisvgm
               embeds a second rectangle (x, y, width, -depth). The lengths width, height, and
               depth can be given together with a unit specifier (see option --bbox) or as plain
               floating point numbers. In the latter case, TeX point units are assumed (1in =
               72.27pt). Depending on size and position of the virtual rectangle, this command
               either enlarges the overall bounding box or leaves it as is. It’s not possible to
               reduce its extent. This special should be used together with dvisvgm:raw in order
               to update the viewport of the page properly.

           dvisvgm:bbox a[bs] x1 y1 x2 y2
               This variant of the bbox special updates the bounding box by embedding a virtual
               rectangle (x1,y1,x2,y2). The points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) denote the absolute
               coordinates of two diagonal corners of the rectangle.

           dvisvgm:bbox f[ix] x1 y1 x2 y2
               This variant of the bbox special assigns an absolute (final) bounding box to the
               resulting SVG. After executing this command, dvisvgm doesn’t further alter the
               bounding box coordinates, except this special is called again later. The points
               (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) denote the absolute coordinates of two diagonal corners of the

               The following TeX snippet adds two raw SVG elements to the output and updates the
               bounding box accordingly:

                   \special{dvisvgm:raw <circle cx='{?x}' cy='{?y}' r='10' stroke='black' fill='red'/>}%
                   \special{dvisvgm:bbox 10bp 10bp 10bp}%
                   \special{dvisvgm:bbox -10bp 10bp 10bp}

                   \special{dvisvgm:raw <path d='M50 200 L10 250 H100 Z' stroke='black' fill='blue'/>}
                   \special{dvisvgm:bbox abs 10bp 200bp 100bp 250bp}

           These specials were introduced with the emTeX distribution by Eberhard Mattes. They
           provide line drawing statements, instructions for embedding MSP, PCX, and BMP image
           files, as well as two PCL commands. dvisvgm supports only the line drawing statements
           and ignores all other em specials silently. A description of the command syntax can be
           found in the DVI driver documentation coming with emTeX (

           The hyperref specification defines several variants on how to mark hyperlinked areas
           in a DVI file. dvisvgm supports the plain HyperTeX special constructs as created with
           hyperref package option hypertex. By default, all linked areas of the document are
           marked by a rectangle. Option --linkmark allows to change this behavior. See above for
           further details. Information on syntax and semantics of the HyperTeX specials can be
           found in the hyperref manual (

           The papersize special, which is an extension introduced by dvips, can be used to
           specify the widths and heights of the pages in the DVI file. It affects the page it
           appears on as well as all following pages until another papersize special is found. If
           there is more than one papersize special present on a page, dvisvgm applies the last
           one. However, in order to stay compatible with previous versions of dvisvgm that did
           not evaluate these specials, their processing must be explicitly enabled by adding
           option --bbox=papersize on the command-line. Otherwise, dvisvgm ignores them and
           computes tight bounding boxes.

           pdfTeX and dvipdfmx introduced several special commands related to the generation of
           PDF files. Currently, only pdf:mapfile, pdf:mapline, pdf:pagesize, and PDF hyperlink
           specials are supported by dvisvgm. The latter are the PDF pendants to the HTML
           HyperTeX specials generated by the hyperref package in PDF mode.

           pdf:pagesize is similar to the papersize special (see above) which specifies the size
           of the current and all folowing pages. In order to actually apply the extents to the
           generated SVG files, option --bbox=papersize must be given.

           pdf:mapfile and pdf:mapline allow for modifying the font map tree while processing the
           DVI file. They are used by CTeX, for example. dvisvgm supports both, the dvips and
           dvipdfm font map format. For further information on the command syntax and semantics,
           see the documentation of \pdfmapfile in the pdfTeX user manual

           The famous DVI driver dvips introduced its own set of specials in order to embed
           PostScript code into DVI files, which greatly improves the capabilities of DVI
           documents. One aim of dvisvgm is to completely evaluate all PostScript snippets and to
           convert as many of them as possible to SVG. In contrast to dvips, dvisvgm uses
           floating point arithmetics to compute the precise position of each graphic element,
           i.e. it doesn’t round the coordinates. Therefore, the relative locations of the
           graphic elements may slightly differ from those computed by dvips.

           Since PostScript is a rather complex language, dvisvgm does not implement its own
           PostScript interpreter but relies on Ghostscript ( instead. If
           the Ghostscript library was not linked to the dvisvgm binary, it is looked up and
           loaded dynamically during runtime. In this case, dvisvgm looks for on
           Unix-like systems (supported ABI versions: 7,8,9), for libgs.X.dylib on macOS, and for
           gsdll32.dll or gsdll64.dll on Windows. You can override the default file names with
           environment variable LIBGS or the command-line option --libgs. The library must be
           reachable through the ld search path (*nix) or the PATH environment variable
           (Windows). Alternatively, the absolute file path can be specified. If the library
           cannot be found, dvisvgm disables the processing of PostScript specials and prints a
           warning message. Use option --list-specials to check whether PostScript support is
           available, i.e. entry ps is present.

           The PostScript handler also recognizes and evaluates bounding box data generated by
           the preview package ( with option tightpage. If such data
           is present in the DVI file and if dvisvgm is called with option --bbox=preview,
           dvisvgm sets the width and total height of the SVG file to the values derived from the
           preview data. Additionally, it prints a message showing the width, height, and depth
           of the box in TeX point units to the console. Especially, the depth value can be read
           by a post-processor to vertically align the SVG graphics with the baseline of
           surrounding text in HTML or XSL-FO documents, for example. Please note that SVG
           bounding boxes are defined by a width and (total) height. In contrast to TeX, SVG
           provides no means to differentiate between height and depth, i.e. the vertical extents
           above and below the baseline, respectively. Therefore, it is generally not possible to
           retrieve the depth value from the SVG file itself.

           If you call dvisvgm with option --bbox=min (the default) and preview data is present
           in the DVI file, dvisvgm doesn’t apply the preview extents but computes a bounding box
           that tightly encloses the page contents. The height, depth and width values written to
           console are adapted accordingly.

           The TPIC special set defines instructions for drawing simple geometric objects. Some
           LaTeX packages, like eepic and tplot, use these specials to describe graphics.


           dvisvgm file

       Converts the first page of file.dvi to file.svg.

           dvisvgm - < file.dvi

       Converts the first page of file.dvi to stdin.svg where the contents of file.dvi is read
       from stdin.

           dvisvgm -z file

       Converts the first page of file.dvi to file.svgz with default compression level 9.

           dvisvgm -p5 -z3 -ba4-l -onewfile file

       Converts the fifth page of file.dvi to newfile.svgz with compression level 3. The bounding
       box is set to DIN/ISO A4 in landscape format.

           dvisvgm --transform="R20,w/3,2h/5 T1cm,1cm S2,3" file

       Converts the first page of file.dvi to file.svg where three transformations are applied.


       dvisvgm uses the kpathsea library for locating the files that it opens. Hence, the
       environment variables described in the library’s documentation influence the converter.

       If dvisvgm was linked without the Ghostscript library, and if PostScript support has not
       been disabled, the shared Ghostscript library is looked up during runtime via dlopen().
       The environment variable LIBGS can be used to specify path and file name of the library.

       The pre-compiled Windows versions of dvisvgm require a working installation of MiKTeX 2.9
       or above. dvisvgm does not work together with the portable edition of MiKTeX because it
       relies on MiKTeX’s COM interface that is only accessible in a local installation. To
       enable the evaluation of PostScript specials, the original Ghostscript DLL gsdll32.dll
       must be present and reachable through the search path. 64-bit Windows builds require the
       64-bit Ghostscript DLL gsdll64.dll. Both DLLs come with the corresponding Ghostscript
       installers available from

       The environment variable DVISVGM_COLORS specifies the colors used to highlight various
       parts of dvisvgm’s message output. It is only evaluated if option --color is given. The
       value of DVISVGM_COLORS is a list of colon-separated entries of the form gg=BF, where gg
       denotes one of the color group indicators listed below, and BF are two hexadecimal digits
       specifying the background (first digit) and foreground/text color (second digit). The
       color values are defined as follows: 0=black, 1=red, 2=green, 3=yellow, 4=blue, 5=magenta,
       6=cyan, 7=gray, 8=bright red, 9=bright green, A=bright yellow, B=bright blue, C=bright
       magenta, D=bright cyan, E=bright gray, F=white. Depending on the terminal, the colors may
       differ. Rather than changing both the text and background color, it’s also possible to
       change only one of them: An asterisk (*) in place of a hexadecimal digit indicates the
       default text or background color of the terminal.

       All malformed entries in the list are silently ignored.

       er   error messages

       wn   warning messages

       pn   messages about page numbers

       ps   page size messages

       fw   information about the files

       sm   state messages

       tr   messages of the glyph tracer

       pi   progress indicator

       Example: er=01:pi=*5 sets the colors of error messages (er) to red (1) on black (0), and
       those of progress indicators (pi) to cyan (5) on default background (*).


       The location of the following files is determined by the kpathsea library. To check the
       actual kpathsea configuration you can use the kpsewhich utility.

       *.enc   Font encoding files

       *.fgd   Font glyph data files (cache
               files created by dvisvgm)

       *.map   Font map files

       *.mf    Metafont input files

       *.pfb   PostScript Type 1 font files

       *.pro   PostScript header/prologue files

       *.tfm   TeX font metric files

       *.ttf   TrueType font files

       *.vf    Virtual font files


       tex(1), mf(1), mktexmf(1), grodvi(1), potrace(1), and the kpathsea library info


       Project home page

       Code repository


       Please report bugs using the bug tracker at GitHub


       Written by Martin Gieseking <>


       Copyright © 2005-2018 Martin Gieseking. Free use of this software is granted under the
       terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 3 or, (at your option) any later