Provided by: mysql-client-core-5.7_5.7.23-2ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       mysql - the MySQL command-line tool


       mysql [options] db_name


       mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing capabilities. It supports interactive
       and noninteractive use. When used interactively, query results are presented in an
       ASCII-table format. When used noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is
       presented in tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command options.

       If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets, use the --quick
       option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the server a row at a time rather than
       retrieving the entire result set and buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is
       done by returning the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
       client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

           Alternatively, MySQL Shell offers access to the X DevAPI. For details, see Chapter 18,
           MySQL Shell User Guide.

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command interpreter as

           shell> mysql db_name


           shell> mysql --user=user_name --password db_name
           Enter password: your_password

       Then type an SQL statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and press Enter.

       Typing Control+C interrupts the current statement if there is one, or cancels any partial
       input line otherwise.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

           shell> mysql db_name < script.sql >

       On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a history file. See
       the section called “MYSQL LOGGING”.


       mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the
       [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by
       MySQL programs, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

       ·   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       ·   --auto-rehash

           Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which enables database,
           table, and column name completion. Use --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing.
           That causes mysql to start faster, but you must issue the rehash command or its \#
           shortcut if you want to use name completion.

           To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the name is unambiguous,
           mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press Tab again to see the possible names that
           begin with what you have typed so far. Completion does not occur if there is no
           default database.

               This feature requires a MySQL client that is compiled with the readline library.
               Typically, the readline library is not available on Windows.

       ·   --auto-vertical-output

           Cause result sets to be displayed vertically if they are too wide for the current
           window, and using normal tabular format otherwise. (This applies to statements
           terminated by ; or \G.)

       ·   --batch, -B

           Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a new line. With
           this option, mysql does not use the history file.

           Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of special characters.
           Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see the description for the --raw option.

       ·   --binary-as-hex, -b

           When this option is given, mysql displays binary data using hexadecimal notation
           (0xvalue). This occurs whether the overall output dislay format is tabular, vertical,
           HTML, or XML.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.19.

       ·   --binary-mode

           This option helps when processing mysqlbinlog output that may contain BLOB values. By
           default, mysql translates \r\n in statement strings to \n and interprets \0 as the
           statement terminator.  --binary-mode disables both features. It also disables all
           mysql commands except charset and delimiter in non-interactive mode (for input piped
           to mysql or loaded using the source command).

       ·   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which
           interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

       ·   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.14, “Character Set

       ·   --column-names

           Write column names in results.

       ·   --column-type-info

           Display result set metadata.

       ·   --comments, -c

           Whether to strip or preserve comments in statements sent to the server. The default is
           --skip-comments (strip comments), enable with --comments (preserve comments).

               In MySQL 5.7, the mysql client always passes optimizer hints to the server,
               regardless of whether this option is given. To ensure that optimizer hints are not
               stripped if you are using an older version of the mysql client with a version of
               the server that understands optimizer hints, invoke mysql with the --comments

               Comment stripping is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.20. This feature and the options
               to control it will be removed in a future MySQL release.

       ·   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support

       ·   --connect-expired-password

           Indicate to the server that the client can handle sandbox mode if the account used to
           connect has an expired password. This can be useful for noninteractive invocations of
           mysql because normally the server disconnects noninteractive clients that attempt to
           connect using an account with an expired password. (See Section 6.3.8, “Password
           Expiration and Sandbox Mode”.)

       ·   --database=db_name, -D db_name

           The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

       ·   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default
           is d:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG. MySQL release
           binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this option.

       ·   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       ·   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program

       ·   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.9,
           “Pluggable Authentication”.

       ·   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set for the client and connection.

           This option can be useful if the operating system uses one character set and the mysql
           client by default uses another. In this case, output may be formatted incorrectly. You
           can usually fix such issues by using this option to force the client to use the system
           character set instead.

           For more information, see Section 10.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”,
           and Section 10.14, “Character Set Configuration”.

       ·   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user
           option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
           file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path
           name rather than a full path name.

       ·   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise
           inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted relative to the current
           directory if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

           Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read .mylogin.cnf.

       ·   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a
           suffix of str. For example, mysql normally reads the [client] and [mysql] groups. If
           the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql also reads the
           [client_other] and [mysql_other] groups.

       ·   --delimiter=str

           Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon character (;).

       ·   --disable-named-commands

           Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named commands only at the
           beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (;).  mysql starts with this option
           enabled by default. However, even with this option, long-format commands still work
           from the first line. See the section called “MYSQL COMMANDS”.

       ·   --enable-cleartext-plugin

           Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin. (See Section,
           “Client-Side Cleartext Pluggable Authentication”.)

       ·   --execute=statement, -e statement

           Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like that produced with
           --batch. See Section 4.2.4, “Using Options on the Command Line”, for some examples.
           With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

       ·   --force, -f

           Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

       ·   --get-server-public-key

           Request from the server the public key required for RSA key pair-based password
           exchange. This option applies to clients that that authenticate with the
           caching_sha2_password authentication plugin. For that plugin, the server does not send
           the public key unless requested. This option is ignored for accounts that do not
           authenticate with that plugin. It is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is
           not used, as is the case when the client connects to the server using a secure

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a valid public key file,
           it takes precedence over --get-server-public-key.

           For information about the caching_sha2_password plugin, see Section, “Caching
           SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.

           The --get-server-public-key option was added in MySQL 5.7.23.

       ·   --histignore

           A colon-separated list of one or more patterns specifying statements to ignore for
           logging purposes. These patterns are added to the default pattern list
           ("*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*"). The value specified for this option affects logging of
           statements written to the history file, and to syslog if the --syslog option is given.
           For more information, see the section called “MYSQL LOGGING”.

       ·   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       ·   --html, -H

           Produce HTML output.

       ·   --ignore-spaces, -i

           Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described in the discussion
           for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see Section 5.1.10, “Server SQL Modes”).

       ·   --init-command=str

           SQL statement to execute after connecting to the server. If auto-reconnect is enabled,
           the statement is executed again after reconnection occurs.

       ·   --line-numbers

           Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with --skip-line-numbers.

       ·   --local-infile[={0|1}]

           Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. For mysql, this capability is
           disabled by default. With no value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given
           as --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or enable LOCAL.
           Enabling local data loading also requires that the server permits it; see
           Section 6.1.6, “Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”

       ·   --login-path=name

           Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login path file. A “login
           path” is an option group containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect
           to and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use
           the mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).

       ·   --named-commands, -G

           Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are permitted, not just short-format
           commands. For example, quit and \q both are recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to
           disable named commands. See the section called “MYSQL COMMANDS”.

       ·   --no-auto-rehash, -A

           This has the same effect as --skip-auto-rehash. See the description for --auto-rehash.

       ·   --no-beep, -b

           Do not beep when errors occur.

       ·   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options
           from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read in all cases. This
           permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when
           --no-defaults is used. (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility.
           See mysql_config_editor(1).)

       ·   --one-database, -o

           Ignore statements except those that occur while the default database is the one named
           on the command line. This option is rudimentary and should be used with care.
           Statement filtering is based only on USE statements.

           Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because specifying a database
           db_name on the command line is equivalent to inserting USE db_name at the beginning of
           the input. Then, for each USE statement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects
           following statements depending on whether the database named is the one on the command
           line. The content of the statements is immaterial.

           Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:

               DELETE FROM db2.t2;
               USE db2;
               DROP TABLE db1.t1;
               CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
               USE db1;
               INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
               CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);

           If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql handles the input as

           ·   The DELETE statement is executed because the default database is db1, even though
               the statement names a table in a different database.

           ·   The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed because the default
               database is not db1, even though the statements name a table in db1.

           ·   The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because the default database
               is db1, even though the CREATE TABLE statement names a table in a different

       ·   --pager[=command]

           Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is omitted, the default
           pager is the value of your PAGER environment variable. Valid pagers are less, more,
           cat [> filename], and so forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive
           mode. To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called “MYSQL COMMANDS”,
           discusses output paging further.

       ·   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form
           (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the
           password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysql
           prompts for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See
           Section, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option
           file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

       ·   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the
           server supports named-pipe connections.

       ·   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth
           option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysql does not find it. See
           Section 6.3.9, “Pluggable Authentication”.

       ·   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       ·   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

       ·   --prompt=format_str

           Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The special sequences
           that the prompt can contain are described in the section called “MYSQL COMMANDS”.

       ·   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the
           other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the
           one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to
           the MySQL Server”.

       ·   --quick, -q

           Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received. This may slow down
           the server if the output is suspended. With this option, mysql does not use the
           history file.

       ·   --raw, -r

           For tabular output, the “boxing” around columns enables one column value to be
           distinguished from another. For nontabular output (such as is produced in batch mode
           or when the --batch or --silent option is given), special characters are escaped in
           the output so they can be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash are
           written as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this character escaping.

           The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output and the use of raw
           mode to disable escaping:

               % mysql
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               | CHAR(92) |
               | \        |
               % mysql -s
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               % mysql -s -r
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);

       ·   --reconnect

           If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to reconnect. A single
           reconnect attempt is made each time the connection is lost. To suppress reconnection
           behavior, use --skip-reconnect.

       ·   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

           Permit only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which rows to modify by
           using key values. If you have set this option in an option file, you can override it
           by using --safe-updates on the command line. See the section called “MYSQL TIPS”, for
           more information about this option.

       ·   --secure-auth

           Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections
           except for servers that use the newer password format.

           As of MySQL 5.7.5, this option is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL
           release. It is always enabled and attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth,
           --secure-auth=0) produces an error. Before MySQL 5.7.5, this option is enabled by
           default but can be disabled.

               Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure than passwords that
               use the native password hashing method and should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords
               are deprecated and support for them was removed in MySQL 5.7.5. For account
               upgrade instructions, see Section, “Migrating Away from Pre-4.1 Password
               Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin”.

       ·   --server-public-key-path=file_name

           The path name to a file containing a client-side copy of the public key required by
           the server for RSA key pair-based password exchange. The file must be in PEM format.
           This option applies to clients that authenticate with the sha256_password
           authentication plugin. This option is ignored for accounts that do not authenticate
           with one of those plugins. It is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not
           used, as is the case when the client connects to the server using a secure connection.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using OpenSSL.

           For information about the sha256_password and caching_sha2_password plugins, see
           Section, “SHA-256 Pluggable Authentication”, and Section, “Caching
           SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.

       ·   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to
           a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case-sensitive.

           The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory

       ·   --show-warnings

           Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any. This option applies
           to interactive and batch mode.

       ·   --sigint-ignore

           Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C).

       ·   --silent, -s

           Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple times to produce
           less and less output.

           This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of special characters.
           Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see the description for the --raw option.

       ·   --skip-column-names, -N

           Do not write column names in results.

       ·   --skip-line-numbers, -L

           Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to compare result files
           that include error messages.

       ·   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of
           the named pipe to use.

       ·   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and
           indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section 6.4.2, “Command Options
           for Encrypted Connections”.

       ·   --syslog, -j

           This option causes mysql to send interactive statements to the system logging
           facility. On Unix, this is syslog; on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The
           destination where logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the
           destination is often the /var/log/messages file.

           Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This output is
           formatted for readability; each logged message actually takes a single line.

               Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
                 SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
                 DB_SERVER:'', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
               Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
                 SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
                 DB_SERVER:'', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'

           For more information, see the section called “MYSQL LOGGING”.

           The --syslog option was added in MySQL 5.7.1.

       ·   --table, -t

           Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive use, but can be
           used to produce table output in batch mode.

       ·   --tee=file_name

           Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only in interactive mode.
           the section called “MYSQL COMMANDS”, discusses tee files further.

       ·   --tls-version=protocol_list

           The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections. The value is a
           comma-separated list containing one or more protocol names. The protocols that can be
           named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details,
           see Section 6.4.6, “Encrypted Connection Protocols and Ciphers”.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       ·   --unbuffered, -n

           Flush the buffer after each query.

       ·   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

       ·   --verbose, -v

           Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This option can be
           given multiple times to produce more and more output. (For example, -v -v -v produces
           table output format even in batch mode.)

       ·   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.

       ·   --vertical, -E

           Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value). Without this option,
           you can specify vertical output for individual statements by terminating them with \G.

       ·   --wait, -w

           If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting.

       ·   --xml, -X

           Produce XML output.

               <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

           The output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of mysqldump --xml. See
           mysqldump(1), for details.

           The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:

               shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="">
               <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
               <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
               <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
               <field name="Value">i686</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
               <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>

           (See Bug #25946.)

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value.

       ·   connect_timeout

           The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is 0.)

       ·   max_allowed_packet

           The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default is 16MB,
           the maximum is 1GB.

       ·   max_join_size

           The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates. (Default value is

       ·   net_buffer_length

           The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default value is 16KB.)

       ·   select_limit

           The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using --safe-updates. (Default value is


       mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be executed. There is also
       a set of commands that mysql itself interprets. For a list of these commands, type help or
       \h at the mysql> prompt:

           mysql> help
           List of all MySQL commands:
           Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
           ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
           clear     (\c) Clear the current input statement.
           connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
           delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
           edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
           ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
           exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
           go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
           help      (\h) Display this help.
           nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
           notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
           pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
           print     (\p) Print current command.
           prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
           quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
           rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
           source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
           status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
           system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
           tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
           use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
           charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                          binlog with multi-byte charsets.
           warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
           nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
           resetconnection(\x) Clean session context.
           For server side help, type 'help contents'

       If mysql is invoked with the --binary-mode option, all mysql commands are disabled except
       charset and delimiter in non-interactive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded using
       the source command).

       Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case-sensitive; the
       short form is. The long form can be followed by an optional semicolon terminator, but the
       short form should not.

       The use of short-form commands within multiple-line /* ... */ comments is not supported.

       ·   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

           Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

           If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a search string to
           access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL Reference Manual. For more
           information, see the section called “MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP”.

       ·   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

           Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement. This enables the
           character set to remain synchronized on the client and server if mysql is run with
           auto-reconnect enabled (which is not recommended), because the specified character set
           is used for reconnects.

       ·   clear, \c

           Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about executing the
           statement that you are entering.

       ·   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

           Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name arguments may be
           given to specify the default database or the host where the server is running. If
           omitted, the current values are used.

       ·   delimiter str, \d str

           Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between SQL statements. The
           default is the semicolon character (;).

           The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or quoted argument on the
           delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with either single quote ('), double quote
           ("), or backtick (`) characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either
           quote the string with a different quote character or escape the quote with a backslash
           (\) character. Backslash should be avoided outside of quoted strings because it is the
           escape character for MySQL. For an unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the
           first space or end of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the
           matching quote on the line.

           mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement delimiter anywhere
           it occurs, except within quoted strings. Be careful about defining a delimiter that
           might occur within other words. For example, if you define the delimiter as X, you
           will be unable to use the word INDEX in statements.  mysql interprets this as INDE
           followed by the delimiter X.

           When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other than the default of
           ;, instances of that character are sent to the server without interpretation. However,
           the server itself still interprets ; as a statement delimiter and processes statements
           accordingly. This behavior on the server side comes into play for multiple-statement
           execution (see Section 27.8.16, “C API Multiple Statement Execution Support”), and for
           parsing the body of stored procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see
           Section 23.1, “Defining Stored Programs”).

       ·   edit, \e

           Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the EDITOR and VISUAL
           environment variables to determine which editor to use. The default editor is vi if
           neither variable is set.

           The edit command works only in Unix.

       ·   ego, \G

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed and display the result using
           vertical format.

       ·   exit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       ·   go, \g

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

       ·   nopager, \n

           Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

           The nopager command works only in Unix.

       ·   notee, \t

           Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for tee.

       ·   nowarning, \w

           Disable display of warnings after each statement.

       ·   pager [command], \P [command]

           Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke mysql, it is
           possible to browse or search query results in interactive mode with Unix programs such
           as less, more, or any other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
           mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets the pager to that.
           Pager functionality works only in interactive mode.

           Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command and disabled with
           nopager. The command takes an optional argument; if given, the paging program is set
           to that. With no argument, the pager is set to the pager that was set on the command
           line, or stdout if no pager was specified.

           Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen() function, which does not
           exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee option can be used instead to save query
           output, although it is not as convenient as pager for browsing output in some

       ·   print, \p

           Print the current input statement without executing it.

       ·   prompt [str], \R [str]

           Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special character sequences that
           can be used in the prompt are described later in this section.

           If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets the prompt to the
           default of mysql>.

       ·   quit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       ·   rehash, \#

           Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and column name completion
           while you are entering statements. (See the description for the --auto-rehash option.)

       ·   resetconnection, \x

           Reset the connection to clear the session state.

           Resetting a connection has effects similar to mysql_change_user() or an auto-reconnect
           except that the connection is not closed and reopened, and re-authentication is not
           done. See Section, “mysql_change_user()”) and see Section 27.8.20, “C API
           Automatic Reconnection Control”).

           This example shows how resetconnection clears a value maintained in the session state:

               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(3);
               | LAST_INSERT_ID(3) |
               |                 3 |
               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
               | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
               |                3 |
               mysql> resetconnection;
               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
               | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
               |                0 |

       ·   source file_name, \. file_name

           Read the named file and executes the statements contained therein. On Windows, you can
           specify path name separators as / or \\.

       ·   status, \s

           Provide status information about the connection and the server you are using. If you
           are running in --safe-updates mode, status also prints the values for the mysql
           variables that affect your queries.

       ·   system command, \! command

           Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

           The system command works only in Unix.

       ·   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

           By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log statements and their
           output. All the data displayed on the screen is appended into a given file. This can
           be very useful for debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
           each statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee functionality works only in
           interactive mode.

           You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command. Without a parameter,
           the previous file is used. The tee file can be disabled with the notee command.
           Executing tee again re-enables logging.

       ·   use db_name, \u db_name

           Use db_name as the default database.

       ·   warnings, \W

           Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are any).

       Here are a few tips about the pager command:

       ·   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the file:

               mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

           You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use as your pager:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       ·   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very useful for browsing
           wide query results. Sometimes a very wide result set is difficult to read on the
           screen. The -S option to less can make the result set much more readable because you
           can scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys. You can also use
           -S interactively within less to switch the horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more
           information, read the less manual page:

               shell> man less

       ·   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if output fits on one
           screen, which is convenient when no scrolling is necessary:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X

       ·   You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query output:

               mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                         | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S

           In this example, the command would send query results to two files in two different
           directories on two different file systems mounted on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display
           the results onscreen using less.

       You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file enabled and pager set to
       less, and you are able to browse the results using the less program and still have
       everything appended into a file the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used
       with the pager command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee works
       even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee also logs everything that
       is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix tee used with pager does not log quite that
       much. Additionally, tee file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within
       mysql. This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not others.

       The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string for defining the
       prompt can contain the following special sequences.

       │OptionDescription                      │
       │                           │ The current connection           │
       │                           │ identifier                       │
       │                           │ A counter that increments for    │
       │                           │ each statement you issue         │
       │                           │ The full current date            │
       │                           │ The default database             │
       │                           │ The server host                  │
       │                           │ The current delimiter            │
       │                           │ Minutes of the current time      │
       │                           │ A newline character              │
       │                           │ The current month in three-      │
       │                           │ letter format (Jan, Feb, ...)    │
       │                           │ The current month in numeric     │
       │                           │ format                           │
       │P                          │ am/pm                            │
       │                           │ The current TCP/IP port or       │
       │                           │ socket file                      │
       │                           │ The current time, in 24-hour     │
       │                           │ military time (0–23)             │
       │                           │ The current time, standard       │
       │                           │ 12-hour time (1–12)              │
       │                           │ Semicolon                        │
       │                           │ Seconds of the current time      │
       │                           │ A tab character                  │
       │U                          │                                  │
       │                           │        Your full                 │
       │                           │        user_name@host_name       │
       │                           │        account name              │
       │                           │ Your user name                   │
       │                           │ The server version               │
       │                           │ The current day of the week in   │
       │                           │ three-letter format (Mon, Tue,   │
       │                           │ ...)                             │
       │                           │ The current year, four digits    │
       │y                          │ The current year, two digits     │
       │_                          │ A space                          │
       │\                          │ A space (a space follows the     │
       │                           │ backslash)                       │
       │´                          │ Single quote                     │
       │                           │ Double quote                     │
       │T}:T{ A literal  backslash │                                  │
       │character                  │                                  │
       │\fIx                       │                                  │
       │                           │        x, for any “x” not listed │
       │                           │        above                     │

       You can set the prompt in several ways:

       ·   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment variable to a
           prompt string. For example:

               shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

       ·   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the command line to
           mysql. For example:

               shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
               (user@host) [database]>

       ·   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql] group of any MySQL
           option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf file in your home directory. For

               prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_

           In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set the prompt using
           the prompt option in an option file, it is advisable to double the backslashes when
           using the special prompt options. There is some overlap in the set of permissible
           prompt options and the set of special escape sequences that are recognized in option
           files. (The rules for escape sequences in option files are listed in Section 4.2.6,
           “Using Option Files”.) The overlap may cause you problems if you use single
           backslashes. For example, \s is interpreted as a space rather than as the current
           seconds value. The following example shows how to define a prompt within an option
           file to include the current time in HH:MM:SS> format:

               prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

       ·   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt interactively by using the
           prompt (or \R) command. For example:

               mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
               PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
               (user@host) [database]>
               (user@host) [database]> prompt
               Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>


       The mysql client can do these types of logging for statements executed interactively:

       ·   On Unix, mysql writes the statements to a history file. By default, this file is named
           .mysql_history in your home directory. To specify a different file, set the value of
           the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.

       ·   On all platforms, if the --syslog option is given, mysql writes the statements to the
           system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog; on Windows, it is the Windows Event
           Log. The destination where logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the
           destination is often the /var/log/messages file.

       The following discussion describes characteristics that apply to all logging types and
       provides information specific to each logging type.  How Logging Occurs.PP For each
       enabled logging destination, statement logging occurs as follows:

       ·   Statements are logged only when executed interactively. Statements are noninteractive,
           for example, when read from a file or a pipe. It is also possible to suppress
           statement logging by using the --batch or --execute option.

       ·   Statements are ignored and not logged if they match any pattern in the “ignore” list.
           This list is described later.

       ·   mysql logs each nonignored, nonempty statement line individually.

       ·   If a nonignored statement spans multiple lines (not including the terminating
           delimiter), mysql concatenates the lines to form the complete statement, maps newlines
           to spaces, and logs the result, plus a delimiter.

       Consequently, an input statement that spans multiple lines can be logged twice. Consider
       this input:

           mysql> SELECT
               -> 'Today is'
               -> ,
               -> CURDATE()
               -> ;

       In this case, mysql logs the “SELECT”, “'Today is'”, “,”, “CURDATE()”, and “;” lines as it
       reads them. It also logs the complete statement, after mapping SELECT\n'Today
       is'\n,\nCURDATE() to SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE(), plus a delimiter. Thus, these lines
       appear in logged output:

           'Today is'
           SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE();

       mysql ignores for logging purposes statements that match any pattern in the “ignore” list.
       By default, the pattern list is "*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*", to ignore statements that refer
       to passwords. Pattern matching is not case sensitive. Within patterns, two characters are

       ·   ?  matches any single character.

       ·   * matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

       To specify additional patterns, use the --histignore option or set the MYSQL_HISTIGNORE
       environment variable. (If both are specified, the option value takes precedence.) The
       value should be a colon-separated list of one or more patterns, which are appended to the
       default pattern list.

       Patterns specified on the command line might need to be quoted or escaped to prevent your
       command interpreter from treating them specially. For example, to suppress logging for
       UPDATE and DELETE statements in addition to statements that refer to passwords, invoke
       mysql like this:

           shell> mysql --histignore="*UPDATE*:*DELETE*"

       Controlling the History File.PP The .mysql_history file should be protected with a
       restrictive access mode because sensitive information might be written to it, such as the
       text of SQL statements that contain passwords. See Section, “End-User Guidelines
       for Password Security”.

       If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove .mysql_history if it exists.
       Then use either of the following techniques to prevent it from being created again:

       ·   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable to /dev/null. To cause this setting to
           take effect each time you log in, put it in one of your shell's startup files.

       ·   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null; this need be done only once:

               shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history
       syslog Logging Characteristics.PP If the --syslog option is given, mysql writes
       interactive statements to the system logging facility. Message logging has the following

       Logging occurs at the “information” level. This corresponds to the LOG_INFO priority for
       syslog on Unix/Linux syslog capability and to EVENTLOG_INFORMATION_TYPE for the Windows
       Event Log. Consult your system documentation for configuration of your logging capability.

       Message size is limited to 1024 bytes.

       Messages consist of the identifier MysqlClient followed by these values:

       ·   SYSTEM_USER

           The system user name (login name) or -- if the user is unknown.

       ·   MYSQL_USER

           The MySQL user name (specified with the --user option) or -- if the user is unknown.

       ·   CONNECTION_ID:

           The client connection identifier. This is the same as the CONNECTION_ID() function
           value within the session.

       ·   DB_SERVER

           The server host or -- if the host is unknown.

       ·   DB

           The default database or -- if no database has been selected.

       ·   QUERY

           The text of the logged statement.

       Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This output is formatted
       for readability; each logged message actually takes a single line.

           Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
             SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
             DB_SERVER:'', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
           Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
             SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
             DB_SERVER:'', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'


           mysql> help search_string

       If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a search string to access
       server-side help from the contents of the MySQL Reference Manual. The proper operation of
       this command requires that the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help
       topic information (see Section 5.1.13, “Server-Side Help”).

       If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

           mysql> help me
           Nothing found
           Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics

       Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

           mysql> help contents
           You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
           For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
           following categories:
              Account Management
              Data Definition
              Data Manipulation
              Data Types
              Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
              Geographic Features
              Language Structure
              Storage Engines
              Stored Routines
              Table Maintenance

       If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of matching topics:

           mysql> help logs
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following topics:
              SHOW BINARY LOGS
              SHOW ENGINE
              SHOW LOGS

       Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:

           mysql> help show binary logs
           Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
           Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
           part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
           to determine which logs can be purged.
           mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
           | Log_name      | File_size |
           | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
           | binlog.000016 |    733481 |

       The search string can contain the wildcard characters % and _. These have the same meaning
       as for pattern-matching operations performed with the LIKE operator. For example, HELP
       rep% returns a list of topics that begin with rep:

           mysql> HELP rep%
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following
              REPAIR TABLE
              REPEAT FUNCTION
              REPEAT LOOP
              REPLACE FUNCTION


       The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

           shell> mysql db_name

       However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and then tell mysql to
       read its input from that file. To do so, create a text file text_file that contains the
       statements you wish to execute. Then invoke mysql as shown here:

           shell> mysql db_name < text_file

       If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the file, it is unnecessary
       to specify the database name on the command line:

           shell> mysql < text_file

       If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file using the source
       command or \.  command:

           mysql> source file_name
           mysql> \. file_name

       Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to the user. For this
       you can insert statements like this:

           SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

       The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

       You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each statement to be
       displayed before the result that it produces.

       mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at the beginning of input files.
       Previously, it read them and sent them to the server, resulting in a syntax error.
       Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to change its default character set. To do that,
       invoke mysql with an option such as --default-character-set=utf8.

       For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5, “Using mysql in Batch Mode”.


       This section describes some techniques that can help you use mysql more effectively.

   Input-Line Editing
       mysql supports input-line editing, which enables you to modify the current input line in
       place or recall previous input lines. For example, the left-arrow and right-arrow keys
       move horizontally within the current input line, and the up-arrow and down-arrow keys move
       up and down through the set of previously entered lines.  Backspace deletes the character
       before the cursor and typing new characters enters them at the cursor position. To enter
       the line, press Enter.

       On Windows, the editing key sequences are the same as supported for command editing in
       console windows. On Unix, the key sequences depend on the input library used to build
       mysql (for example, the libedit or readline library).

       Documentation for the libedit and readline libraries is available online. To change the
       set of key sequences permitted by a given input library, define key bindings in the
       library startup file. This is a file in your home directory: .editrc for libedit and
       .inputrc for readline.

       For example, in libedit, Control+W deletes everything before the current cursor position
       and Control+U deletes the entire line. In readline, Control+W deletes the word before the
       cursor and Control+U deletes everything before the current cursor position. If mysql was
       built using libedit, a user who prefers the readline behavior for these two keys can put
       the following lines in the .editrc file (creating the file if necessary):

           bind "^W" ed-delete-prev-word
           bind "^U" vi-kill-line-prev

       To see the current set of key bindings, temporarily put a line that says only bind at the
       end of .editrc.  mysql will show the bindings when it starts.

   Unicode Support on Windows
       Windows provides APIs based on UTF-16LE for reading from and writing to the console; the
       mysql client for Windows is able to use these APIs. The Windows installer creates an item
       in the MySQL menu named MySQL command line client - Unicode. This item invokes the mysql
       client with properties set to communicate through the console to the MySQL server using

       To take advantage of this support manually, run mysql within a console that uses a
       compatible Unicode font and set the default character set to a Unicode character set that
       is supported for communication with the server:

        1. Open a console window.

        2. Go to the console window properties, select the font tab, and choose Lucida Console or
           some other compatible Unicode font. This is necessary because console windows start by
           default using a DOS raster font that is inadequate for Unicode.

        3. Execute mysql.exe with the --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option. This
           option is necessary because utf16le is not supported as a connection character set.

       With those changes, mysql will use the Windows APIs to communicate with the console using
       UTF-16LE, and communicate with the server using UTF-8. (The menu item mentioned previously
       sets the font and character set as just described.)

       To avoid those steps each time you run mysql, you can create a shortcut that invokes
       mysql.exe. The shortcut should set the console font to Lucida Console or some other
       compatible Unicode font, and pass the --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option to

       Alternatively, create a shortcut that only sets the console font, and set the character
       set in the [mysql] group of your my.ini file:


   Displaying Query Results Vertically
       Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically, instead of in the
       usual horizontal table format. Queries can be displayed vertically by terminating the
       query with \G instead of a semicolon. For example, longer text values that include
       newlines often are much easier to read with vertical output:

           mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
           *************************** 1. row ***************************
             msg_nro: 3068
                date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
           time_zone: +0200
           mail_from: Monty
             mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <>
                 sbj: UTF-8
                 txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:
           Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
           Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
           Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.
           Yes, please do that.
                file: inbox-jani-1
                hash: 190402944
           1 row in set (0.09 sec)

   Using the --safe-updates Option
       For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or --i-am-a-dummy, which has the
       same effect). It is helpful for cases when you might have issued a DELETE FROM tbl_name
       statement but forgotten the WHERE clause. Normally, such a statement deletes all rows from
       the table. With --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by specifying the key values that
       identify them. This helps prevent accidents.

       When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following statement when it
       connects to the MySQL server:

           SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, max_join_size=1000000;

       See Section 5.1.7, “Server System Variables”.

       The SET statement has the following effects:

       ·   You are not permitted to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement unless you specify a
           key constraint in the WHERE clause or provide a LIMIT clause (or both). For example:

               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

       ·   The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless the statement includes
           a LIMIT clause.

       ·   The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably need to examine more
           than 1,000,000 row combinations.

       To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override the defaults by
       using the --select_limit and --max_join_size options:

           shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000

   Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
       If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a statement, it
       immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to the server and send the statement
       again. However, even if mysql succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended
       and all your previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the
       autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any current transaction
       rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you, as in the following example where the
       server was shut down and restarted between the first and second statements without you
       knowing it:

           mysql> SET @a=1;
           Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
           mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
           ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
           No connection. Trying to reconnect...
           Connection id:    1
           Current database: test
           Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
           mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
           | a    |
           | NULL |
           1 row in set (0.05 sec)

       The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the reconnection it is
       undefined. If it is important to have mysql terminate with an error if the connection has
       been lost, you can start the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

       For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state information when a
       reconnection occurs, see Section 27.8.20, “C API Automatic Reconnection Control”.


       Copyright © 1997, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it only under
       the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;
       version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
       WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with the program;
       if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
       Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see


       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which may already be
       installed locally and which is also available online at


       Oracle Corporation (