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       otftotfm - create TeX font metrics from OpenType fonts


       otftotfm [-a] [options] fontfile [texname]


       Otftotfm  creates the font metric and encoding files required to use an OpenType font with
       TeX.  You supply an OpenType ".otf" or ".ttf" font file, a base ".enc" encoding, and a TeX
       name  "texname"  for  the resulting font, and say which OpenType features should be turned
       on.  Then otftotfm generates and  installs  the  corresponding  TeX-related  metric  files
       (".tfm"  TeX  font  metrics, ".vf" virtual fonts, and ".enc" encoding files).  It works on
       both PostScript-flavored and TrueType-flavored OpenType  fonts,  although  TrueType-flavor
       support will only work easily with pdftex.

       The  easiest way to use otftotfm is with the -a option; see Automatic Mode below.  Without
       -a, otftotfm writes all its output files to the current directory.

       After running "otftotfm fontfile texname" and installing the  results  (manually  or  with
       -a), you can use the OpenType font in plain TeX with a command like this:

           \font\myfont=texname at 10pt
           {\myfont This text uses the OpenType font.}

       LaTeX   users   will   generally   make   a   ".fd"  input  file  so  that  commands  like
       "\renewcommand{\rmdefault}{TeXName}" work correctly.  See the EXAMPLE  section  for  more;
       check the DIAGNOSTICS and FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS sections if you have trouble.

   OpenType Features
       OpenType  fonts support optional features that change their appearance.  Use the -f option
       to turn on selected features.  For example, "-fsmcp" replaces lower-case letters with  the
       corresponding small capitals, in fonts that support this.

       You'll  generally  provide at least the "-fkern" and "-fliga" options, which activate pair
       kerns and f-ligatures.  Other interesting features include "-fcpsp", for capital  spacing;
       "-fdlig",  for  optional ligatures; "-flnum", "-fonum", "-fpnum", and "-ftnum", to control
       digit glyphs; "-fsmcp", for small capitals; "-fswsh", for swash  variants;  and  "-fcswh",
       for  contextual  swash.  See the FEATURE DIRECTORY section below for more.  The otfinfo(1)
       program will report which features a font supports; run "otfinfo -f fontfile".

       Feature options can also apply a feature to a subset  of  characters  in  the  font.   For
       example,  "--lf  smcp"  only  replaces letters with small capitals, whereas "-fsmcp" might
       additionally replace digits and punctuation marks with small-capital versions.

   Automatic Mode
       Automatic mode, triggered by the -a/--automatic option, installs font metrics and encoding
       files  where  TeX  can  find them, and additionally installs a Type 1 font and mapping for
       dvips(1).  This requires a TeX installation  that  follows  the  TeX  Directory  Structure
       standard (, such as most Unix TeX installations.

       Automatic mode should run seamlessly out of the box.  Otftotfm will install metrics files,
       encodings, map files, and Type 1 fonts into $HOME/.texmf-var or any other  writable  TEXMF
       directory,  and  run  updmap(1)  to update the global lists of installed fonts.  (On older
       teTeX installations,  you  may  first  need  to  copy  the  system's  updmap.cfg  file  to
       $HOME/texmf/web2c  and  run  mktexlsr(1).  On newer TeXLive installations, you may need to
       set the TEXMFVAR environment variable.)  You can then run "otftotfm -a  fontfile  texname"
       and  immediately refer to the font in TeX using the texname you supplied.  Again, you will
       have to write ".fd" files and/or typescripts to make the font conveniently accessible from
       LaTeX  or  ConTeXt.   See  the  DIAGNOSTICS  section  if  you  have  problems  with  these

       In automatic mode, otftotfm  searches  your  $TEXMFVAR  or  $TEXMF  path  for  a  writable
       directory, then installs files under that directory tree as follows:

       File type   Directory                          Filename
       TFM         TEXMF/fonts/tfm/vendor/typeface/   texname[--base].tfm
       VF          TEXMF/fonts/vf/vendor/typeface/    texname.vf
       PL          TEXMF/fonts/pl/vendor/typeface/    texname[--base].pl
       VPL         TEXMF/fonts/vpl/vendor/typeface/   texname.vpl
       encoding    TEXMF/fonts/enc/dvips/vendor/      a_signature.enc
                   or TEXMF/dvips/vendor/
       font map    TEXMF/fonts/map/dvips/vendor/
                   or TEXMF/dvips/vendor/

       "TEXMF"  stands  for  the  writable TEXMF directory.  Texname is the font name supplied as
       otftotfm's second argument.  The vendor and typeface strings are  required  by  TDS;  they
       default  to "lcdftools" and the font's family name, respectively, but see the --vendor and
       --typeface options.  Signature is an opaque 6-character encoding signature.

       Otftotfm also installs a font file suitable for  printing.   PostScript-flavored  OpenType
       fonts are translated to Type 1 format and installed as PFB fonts.  TrueType-flavored fonts
       are normally installed as is, since pdftex and pdflatex can read TrueType directly; but if
       you provide the --type42 option, otftotfm will translate TrueType fonts to Type 42 format,
       which dvips understands.  Otftotfm does not overwrite existing font files.

       The installation paths are as follows, where PSname is the font's PostScript name.

       PFB        TEXMF/fonts/type1/vendor/typeface/      PSname.pfb
       TrueType   TEXMF/fonts/truetype/vendor/typeface/   fontfile
       Type 42    TEXMF/fonts/type42/vendor/typeface/     PSname.t42

       You can override these directories with environment  variables  and  options  as  follows.
       Options take precedence over environment variables.

       File type   Environment variable   Option
       TFM         TFMDESTDIR             --tfm-directory
       VF          VFDESTDIR              --vf-directory
       PL          PLDESTDIR              --pl-directory
       VPL         VPLDESTDIR             --vpl-directory
       encoding    ENCODINGDESTDIR        --encoding-directory
       PFB         T1DESTDIR              --type1-directory
       TrueType    TRUETYPEDESTDIR        --truetype-directory
       Type 42     T42DESTDIR             --type42-directory
       font map    -                      --map-file

       Otftotfm  will update the TEXMF/ls-R file when installing files under TEXMF.  It will also
       run the updmap(1) program after changing a map file, unless  the  --no-updmap  option  was
       supplied.   However,  if an executable file called TEXMF/dvips/updmap exists, this file is
       executed (from the TEXMF/dvips directory) rather than the global updmap.  This is  so  you
       can write a fast, customized version of updmap if desired.


       This section uses MinionPro to show one way to install OpenType fonts for LaTeX.  We begin
       with six  fonts:  "MinionPro-Regular.otf",  "MinionPro-It.otf",  "MinionPro-Semibold.otf",
       "MinionPro-SemiboldIt.otf", "MinionPro-Bold.otf", and "MinionPro-BoldIt.otf".

       Our first task is to decide how to encode the fonts.  The "encoding scheme" is used by TeX
       to decide how to typeset accents and symbols like "$".   The  "LY1"  encoding  scheme  has
       reasonable  accent  support and is a good choice for many OpenType fonts.  LY1 corresponds
       to the "texnansx.enc" encoding file, so we will supply otftotfm  with  the  "-e  texnansx"

              Expert  note:  Strictly  speaking,  LY1  corresponds to the "texnansi.enc" encoding
              file.  Since the "texnansx.enc" version omits duplicate  characters,  it  has  more
              room  for font-specific glyphs and is generally a better choice; but if you plan to
              type characters like "ae" directly into your editor, rather than using TeX commands
              like \ae, you should use "texnansi.enc".

       Next, we decide on a naming scheme for the font metric files.  Let's use the OpenType font
       names as a base.  (There's generally no need to  follow  the  six-character  "Karl  Berry"
       naming  scheme.)   Just  in  case  we come back later and add a different encoding scheme,
       we'll prepend "LY1--" to each name.

       We're now ready to run otftotfm for the first set of  fonts.   Note  the  "-fkern  -fliga"
       options, which access pair kerns and the default "f" ligatures.

           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-Regular.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga LY1--MinionPro-Regular
           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-It.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga LY1--MinionPro-It
           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-Semibold.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga LY1--MinionPro-Semibold
           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-SemiboldIt.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga LY1--MinionPro-SemiboldIt
           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-Bold.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga LY1--MinionPro-Bold
           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-BoldIt.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga LY1--MinionPro-BoldIt

       The  small-caps  fonts  are  generated  with  an  additional  "-fsmcp"  option.  We append
       "--fsmcp" to the font metric names as well, differentiating them from the  regular  fonts.
       Although  MinionPro's  italic  fonts  support  small-caps, the LaTeX font selection scheme
       can't access them easily, so we've left them off.

           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-Regular.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga -fsmcp LY1--MinionPro-Regular--fsmcp
           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-Semibold.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga -fsmcp LY1--MinionPro-Semibold--fsmcp
           otftotfm -a -e texnansx MinionPro-Bold.otf \
                   -fkern -fliga -fsmcp LY1--MinionPro-Bold--fsmcp

       To get old-style numerals, just add the "-fonum" option to  each  invocation  --  and,  to
       reduce confusion, append "--fonum" to the font metric names.

       At  this  point,  all our font metric files are installed, and it's finally time to create
       the ".fd" file.  (The ".fd" format is documented in The LaTeX Companion.)  Let's call  the
       LaTeX font family "MinionPro".  Then the ".fd" file is "LY1MinionPro.fd", and it contains:

                   { <-> LY1--MinionPro-Regular }{}
           \DeclareFontShape{LY1}{MinionPro}{m}{it}{ <-> LY1--MinionPro-It }{}
                   { <-> LY1--MinionPro-Regular--fsmcp }{}
                   { <-> LY1--MinionPro-Semibold }{}
                   { <-> LY1--MinionPro-SemiboldIt }{}
                   { <-> LY1--MinionPro-Semibold--fsmcp }{}
           \DeclareFontShape{LY1}{MinionPro}{b}{n}{ <-> LY1--MinionPro-Bold }{}
                   { <-> LY1--MinionPro-BoldIt }{}
                   { <-> LY1--MinionPro-Bold--fsmcp }{}
                   { <-> ssub * MinionPro/b/n }{}
                   { <-> ssub * MinionPro/b/it }{}
                   { <-> ssub * MinionPro/b/sc }{}

       We're now ready to use MinionPro in LaTeX, with lines like this in the document preamble:


       Of  course,  we're  free at any time to add more MinionPro variants with otftotfm; they'll
       become accessible to LaTeX as soon as we edit the "MinionPro.fd" file.


       With long options, you need type only as many characters as will make the option unique.

   Font Feature and Transformation Options
       -s script[.lang], --script=script[.lang]
            Apply features suitable to  the  script  system  script  and  language  system  lang.
            Scripts  and  language systems are two-to-four-letter names assigned by Microsoft and
            Adobe.  Examples include "latn" (Latin script), "grek" (Greek script),  and  "yi.YIC"
            (Yi script with classic characters).  If lang is not specified, otftotfm will use the
            default language system for that script.  You can give this  option  multiple  times.
            Run  "otfinfo  -s  font"  to  see  the list of scripts and languages a font supports.
            Defaults to "latn".

       -f feature, --feature=feature
            Activate the feature named feature.   Features  are  four-letter  names  assigned  by
            Microsoft  and Adobe; they are meant to correspond to font behaviors, such as kerning
            or   small-capitals.    Examples   include   "liga"   (default   ligatures),   "dlig"
            (discretionary  ligatures),  "kern"  (kerning),  and  "c2sc" (replacing capitals with
            small capitals).  Give this option multiple times to apply  multiple  features.   Run
            "otfinfo -f [--script option] font" to see the list of features a font supports for a
            specified script.  Defaults to any features required by the selected scripts.

       --lf feature, --letter-feature=feature
            Activate the feature named feature, but only for  letters.   For  instance,  the  "-f
            smcp"  option  will  apply  the small-caps feature to all characters in the encoding;
            this may result in changes to punctuation and numbers as well as letters.  The  "--lf
            smcp"  option  will  apply the small-caps feature only to letters, meaning characters
            with the "Letter" Unicode property.

       --subs-filter pattern
       --include-subs pattern
       --exclude-subs pattern
            Limit the characters that otftotfm will substitute.  Substitution is  allowed  on  an
            input character if it matches at least one of the --include patterns, and none of the
            --exclude patterns.  Each pattern applies to all following features, except that  the
            --clear  option  clears  any  accumulated patterns.  The --subs-filter pattern option
            acts like --clear-subs followed by --include-subs pattern.  For pattern  syntax,  see
            GLYPH PATTERNS, below.

            In  the  command  line below, the '<Number>' pattern will force the "onum" feature to
            substitute only numbers (and not, for example, punctuation).  The "salt" feature  can
            still substitute any character.
                otftotfm -fsalt --include-subs="<Number>" -fonum ...

       -E fac, --extend=fac
            Widen, or extend, the font by a factor of fac.  Like afm2tfm(1)'s -e option.

       -S amt, --slant=amt
            Oblique, or slant, the font by amt.  Like afm2tfm(1)'s -s option.

       -L amt, --letterspacing=amt
            Letterspace  each  character by amt units, where 1000 units equals one em.  The width
            of each character  increases  by  amt,  with  half  the  space  distributed  to  each
            sidebearing.  Boundary-character kerns are added to maintain alignment at the ends of

            Ignore the font's claimed character widths, deriving horizontal metrics from bounding
            boxes  instead.   This  results in similar spacing as the Computer Modern Math Italic
            font, with increased sidebearings for letters like f and j.

            If you provide skewchar, a number between 0 and  255  or  a  single  character,  then
            otftotfm  adds  heuristically-derived  kerns  to  the  font  that  may improve accent
            positions in math mode.  To get the benefits, you must tell TeX  about  the  skewchar
            with a command like "\skewchar\font=skewchar".

       -k N, --min-kern=N
            Only  output kerning pairs whose absolute value is N or larger.  Larger minimum kerns
            make kerning less precise, but shrink the output TFM file.  The default minimum  kern
            is 2.0, or 0.002 em.

            Scale the width of the inter-word space by a factor of fac.

            Set  the  output  font's  design  size to size, a value in TeX points.  This value is
            mostly just documentation, since LaTeX essentially ignores fonts' design  sizes,  but
            plain  TeX may occasionally use the design size to decide how large a font should be.
            (Loading a font in TeX "at" a particular size effectively ignores  the  design  size;
            loading  a  font  plain  or  "scaled"  by  a given factor uses the design size.)  The
            default is taken from the input font's optical size feature, or 10pt  if  it  has  no
            such feature.

            Set  the  font  to  fixed-width (its space character will have no stretch or shrink).
            Normally you won't need this option; the font will tell otftotfm whether it is  fixed
            width.  The opposite of --fixed-width is --proportional-width.

            Set the output font's default italic angle to angle, a number of degrees.  This value
            is used by TeX to position accents.  Normally you won't need this  option;  the  font
            will tell otftotfm its italic angle.

            Set  the  output  font's  x-height  to  val.   This  value is used by TeX to position
            accents. Normally you won't need this option.  Val may be a number expressed in  font
            units;  ‘x’,  which  uses the height of the font's lowercase x; or ‘font’, which uses
            the font's declared x-height metric.

   Encoding Options
       -e encoding, --encoding=encoding
            Select the output  metrics's  base  dvips(1)  encoding.   Otftotfm  will  search  for
            encoding[.enc]  the  same  way  that  dvips would, so you may not need to give a full
            pathname.  Say -e - to start with the font's default encoding.  See ENCODINGS, below,
            for more information.

            Set  the font's boundary character to char, which should either be a single non-digit
            character, or a number between -1 and 255. The default is taken from the encoding.

            Set the font's alternate selector character to char, which should either be a  single
            non-digit  character,  or  a  number between -1 and 255.  Alternate selectors let TeX
            authors explicitly choose  between  versions  of  a  character.   For  instance,  the
            '--altselector-char="*"'  option  turns  the "*" character into a special switch that
            cycles between alternates.  For instance, the TeX input "A" would produce the  normal
            version  of  the "A" Unicode character, "A*" would produce the first alternate, "A**"
            would produce the second alternate, and so forth.  Furthermore, "s*t"  will  activate
            any discretionary "s_t" ligature in the font.

            The --altselector-char mechanism uses the features specified by --altselector-feature

            The  alternate-selector  character  may  also  be  specified  in  the  encoding;  see
            ENCODINGS,  below.  See Sivan Toledo's article cited in the SEE ALSO section for more

            Activate the feature named feature for the --altselector-char mechanism.   Give  this
            option  multiple times to activate multiple features.  This option activates features
            only for use with --altselector-char; use the --feature option to  activate  features
            globally.  Defaults to the salt and dlig features.

            Limit the alternate characters that otftotfm will select.  An alternate is used if it
            matches at least one of the --include patterns, and none of the  --exclude  patterns.
            Each pattern applies to all following features, except that the --clear option clears
            any  accumulated  patterns.   The  --alternates-filter  pattern  option   acts   like
            --clear-alternates followed by --include-alternates pattern.  For pattern syntax, see
            GLYPH PATTERNS, below.

            OpenType fonts  can  have  many  alternates  per  character,  most  of  which  aren't
            interesting.    For  example,  the  character  "a"  in  WarnockPro-Regular  has  five
            alternates,  "ordfeminine",  "Asmall",  "asuperior",  "a.end",  and  "orn.013".   The
            --altselector-char option lets you cycle through these alternates, but it's better to
            leave out the ones you don't want, to avoid overfull encodings.  Thus,  if  you  were
            only     interested     in     ".end"     variants,     you     might    supply    an
            '--include-alternates="*.end"' option.

            In the command line below, the '*.end' pattern will apply to "aalt"  alternates,  but
            not to "salt" alternates.
                otftotfm -fsalt --include-alternates="*.end" -faalt ...

            Add a LIGKERN command to the encoding.  For example, '--ligkern "T {L} h"' suppresses
            any T_h ligature in the font.   You  can  supply  multiple  --ligkern  options.   See
            ENCODINGS, below.

            Add  a  POSITION command to the encoding.  For example, '--position "T 10 0 20"' adds
            ten units of space to either side of the "T"  character.   You  can  supply  multiple
            --position options.  See ENCODINGS, below.

            Add a UNICODING command to the encoding.  For example, '--unicoding "pi1 =: uni03D6"'
            tells otftotfm to encode "/pi1" as U+03D6 GREEK PI SYMBOL.  You can  supply  multiple
            --unicoding options.  See ENCODINGS, below.

            Ignore any LIGKERN and/or UNICODING commands in the encoding file.

            Don't include otftotfm's default LIGKERN commands.

            Add a CODINGSCHEME to the encoding.  See ENCODINGS, below.

            Warn about encoded characters not supported by the font.  See the WARNMISSING command
            in ENCODINGS, below.

            Select the dvips(1) encoding used for the  font.   No  glyph  substitutions  will  be
            permitted,  so  the  output encoding will equal the input encoding (and otftotfm will
            not generate an output encoding).

            Experts only.  Allow the output font to refer to existing  "base"  fonts.   This  can
            greatly reduce the number of base fonts generated by otftotfm.  Each line in the file
            argument contains a TeX font  name  (as  for  --name)  and  a  corresponding  literal
            encoding file (as for --literal-encoding); for example:
                WarnoProReg--eka eka
                WarnoProReg--exp1 exp1
            The  named  fonts  must have been created by prior runs of otftotfm on the same input
            OpenType font, with the same --extend and --slant options as the  current  run.   The
            current output font will refer to glyphs from the named base fonts when possible.  If
            the base fonts cover all glyphs required by the output font, otftotfm won't  generate
            any  new  base  fonts  at  all.  The file can also refer to dotless-J fonts using the
            following syntax:
                WarnoProReg--lcdfj - dotlessj

   Automatic Mode Options
       -a, --automatic
            Select automatic mode.

       -v vendor, --vendor=vendor
            Set the font vendor name, which is used to locate files within the TDS.  Defaults  to

            In  automatic  mode,  TeX  and  friends  will  generally  find  required  font  files
            independently of the vendor you select.

            Set the font typeface name, which is used to locate files within the  TDS.   Defaults
            to the current font's family name with unsuiable characters removed.

            Do  not  use  cfftot1(1)  to  create Type 1 fonts corresponding to the OpenType input

            Do not use t1dotlessj(1) to create a special  dotless-j  font  when  the  input  font
            doesn't have dotless-j.

            Do not install TrueType-flavored fonts.

            Install TrueType-flavored fonts in translated Type 42 format.

            Do  not run an updmap(1) program.  This can be useful if you're installing a bunch of
            fonts; it is much faster to run updmap once, at the end, than  to  run  it  once  per

   Output Options
       -n texname, --name=texname
            Set  the  TeX  name  of  the  output  font,  which  is used in font map files and, in
            automatic mode, to generate the output filename.  The default  is  derived  from  the
            OpenType font's name and the features you selected.

       -p, --pl
            Output  human-readable  PL  and  VPL  metrics,  not binary TFM and VF metrics.  Note:
            Otftotfm's PL and VPL output files are legal, but the fontinst program may not accept
            them (it has a picky parser).  Make sure to supply a --coding-scheme; if that doesn't
            help, run the TFM output through tftopl(1).

            Do not generate virtual fonts (VFs and VPLs).  Otftotfm will  warn  if  the  selected
            font features cannot be implemented without virtual fonts.

            Do not generate an encoding file.

            Only  generate an encoding file; do not generate any other output.  The encoding file
            is written to file, or to standard output if no file argument is supplied.

            Do not generate a font map line for the font.

   File Location Options
            Set the directory used for various output types.  Each directory may  be  set  by  an
            environment  variable,  and  defaults to a TDS directory in automatic mode, or to "."
            otherwise.  Environment variable names and default TDS locations are described in the
            Automatic Mode section above.

            Set  file  in which otftotfm will write a font map line for the font.  The default is
            the standard output in manual mode, and "TEXMF/fonts/map/dvips/vendor/" (or
            "TEXMF/dvips/vendor/" on older installations) in automatic mode.

   Miscellaneous Options
            Use  file  as  a  Adobe glyph list, which helps translate glyph names to Unicode code
            points.  Give multiple options to include multiple files.  See ENCODINGS, below,  for
            more information.

       -V, --verbose
            Write progress messages to standard error.

            Do  not  create  or  modify  any  files.  Instead, write messages about the program's
            hypothetical progress to standard error.

            Generate all files, even if it looks like versions are already installed.

       -q, --quiet
            Do not generate any error messages.

            Set path searching debugging flags.  See the Kpathsea manual for details.

       -h, --help
            Print usage information and exit.

            Print the version number and some short non-warranty information and exit.


       Otftotfm interprets encoding files as Unicode.  For example, say  an  input  encoding  has
       "/dotlessi"  at  position  10.   Otftotfm  detects that position 10 should contain Unicode
       character U+0131 LATIN SMALL LETTER  DOTLESS  I,  and  uses  the  font's  glyph  for  that
       character  (possibly  modified  by  any active features).  The selected glyph might not be
       named "dotlessi"; only the Unicode value matters.

       Otftotfm assigns Unicode values to glyph names using a table published by Adobe (SEE  ALSO
       has  a  reference), with extensions for TeX.  For more fine-grained control, add UNICODING
       commands to the input encoding file.  These commands have the following format:
           % UNICODING glyph =: choice1 [choice2 ...] ;
       This tells otftotfm that the glyph named glyph translates into the first Unicode value  in
       the  choice  list  that has a character in the font.  Glyph and the choices are PostScript
       glyph names; the initial "%" sign  is  required;  and  each  UNICODING  line  can  contain
       multiple commands, separated by spaced semicolons.  For example,
           % UNICODING pi1 =: uni03D6 ;
       encodes the character "/pi1" as U+03D6 GREEK PI SYMBOL, and
           % UNICODING Delta =: uni0394 uni2206 ;
       makes  U+0394  GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA preferred to U+2206 INCREMENT as an encoding for
       "/Delta".  You can also supply glyph names:
           % UNICODING Delta =: Deltagreek Delta ;
       A mapping with no Unicode  values  removes  that  glyph  from  the  input  encoding.   For
       instance, this erases any f-ligature characters from the encoding:
           % UNICODING ff =: ; fi =: ; fl =: ; ffi =: ; ffl =: ;
       The slots are available for otftfm's own use, for example for other characters required by
       the font.  (If the f-ligatures themselves are required by the  font,  for  instance  by  a
       'liga' feature, then they will be stored into their old slots when possible.)  Map a glyph
       to 'emptyslot' if you don't want otftotfm to use the slot.  For example, this  will  leave
       the 'ff' slot unused if the font has no 'ff' glyph:
           % UNICODING ff =: ff emptyslot ;
       (Note that most OpenType fonts provide a visible representation for unused encoding slots,
       namely a box with an X inside.)

       LIGKERN comments in the encoding can add ligatures and inhibit kerns,  as  in  afm2tfm(1).
       To add a ligature, say:
           % LIGKERN glyph1 glyph2 =: result ;
       The "=:" operator indicates a normal ligature, where both the input glyphs are removed and
       replaced by result.  To preserve the left-hand glyph, for an effect like "glyph1 glyph2 =:
       glyph1 result", use "|=:" instead; to preserve the right-hand glyph, use "=:|".  To remove
       all kerns between two characters, say:
           % LIGKERN glyph1 {} glyph2 ;
       A "*" matches any character, so
           % LIGKERN a {} * ;
       removes all kerns with "a" as the left-hand character, and
           % LIGKERN * {} * ;
       removes all kerns.

       Otftotfm also supports extended syntax for setting kern values and  inhibiting  ligatures.
       To add an n-unit kern between two glyphs, say:
           % LIGKERNX glyph1 {n} glyph2 ;
       where n is an integer.  This:
           % LIGKERNX glyph1 {L} glyph2 ;
       inhibits any ligature between glyph1 and glyph2.  "{LK}" and "{KL}" inhibit both ligatures
       and kerns.

       You can set the --boundary-char and --altselector-char from an encoding file with commands
       like this:
           % LIGKERN || = boundarychar ;
           % LIGKERNX ^^ = altselectorchar ;
       As  with UNICODING, each LIGKERN or LIGKERNX line can contain multiple commands, separated
       by spaced semicolons.

       Otftotfm has a default set of eight ligatures, namely:
           space l =: lslash ; space L =: Lslash ;
           question quoteleft =: questiondown ; exclam quoteleft =: exclamdown ;
           hyphen hyphen =: endash ; endash hyphen =: emdash ;
           quoteleft quoteleft =: quotedblleft ;
           quoteright quoteright =: quotedblright
       LIGKERN commands in the encoding file and --ligkern options can override  these  defaults,
       or supply the --no-default-ligkern option to turn them off.

       The POSITION command shifts a glyph within its bounding box.  The syntax is
           % POSITION glyph pdx pdy adx ;
       This  will  add pdx units of space to glyph's left edge; raise it up by pdy units; and add
       adx units to its width.  For example, to add 10 units of space to either side of  the  "T"
       glyph, supply
           % POSITION T 10 0 20
       To move the "degree" symbol up by 20 units, supply
           % POSITION degree 0 20 0

       The  CODINGSCHEME command specifies the coding scheme for fonts using this encoding.  This
       is a string, less than 40 characters long and containing no parentheses,  that  classifies
       the  encoding  for  TeX's  purposes.   Sample coding schemes include "TEX TEXT", "TEX MATH
       ITALIC", and "EXTENDED TEX FONT ENCODING - LATIN".  For example:
       Most tools ignore the  coding  scheme;  fontinst  is  an  exception.   Otftotfm  uses  the
       encoding's PostScript name for the default coding scheme.

       Finally,  the  WARNMISSING command makes any glyphs not supported by the input font appear
       as black boxes.  The dvips(1) processor will also print a warning when encountering  these
       glyphs.  For example:
           % WARNMISSING yes

       The  --unicoding,  --ligkern,  --position, --coding-scheme, and --warn-missing options add
       encoding,  and  can  override commands in the encoding itself.  Some common encoding files
       have commands that are inappropriate for OpenType fonts; for example, "t1.enc"  hard-codes
       f-ligatures,    which   can   cause   problems   with   small-cap   fonts.    Supply   the
       --no-encoding-commands option to ignore all commands from  the  encoding  file.   Commands
       from options like --ligkern are processed in any case.

   New Glyphs
       New  glyphs,  such as ligatures and contextual substitutions, are added to the encoding in
       any empty spaces, using their original locations when possible.  If the  encoding  doesn't
       have enough space for all new glyphs, shorter ligatures composed of unaccented letters get

   Synthetic Glyphs
       Otftotfm can synthesize some glyphs using virtual font manipulations, if a required  glyph
       is not available in the input font. Specifically, it will synthesize:

       cwm                   TeX's  compound  word  mark  (a  zero-width "strut" rule with height
                             equal to the font's x-height)
       ascendercompwordmark  "cwm" with height equal to the font's ascenders
       capitalcompwordmark   "cwm" with height equal to the font's capitals
       visualspace           A square cup used to represent spaces
       dotlessj              A dotless "j", synthesized with t1dotlessj(1)
       dblbracketleft        Kerned version of "[["
       dblbracketright       Kerned version of "]]"
       bardbl                The parallel symbol "||"
       asteriskmath          Vertically-centered "*"
       ringfitted            Ring accent centered on the width of "A"
       twelveudash           2/3-em-wide dash
       threequartersemdash   3/4-em-wide dash
       centigrade            "(degrees)C"
       interrobang           Combined "?!" symbol
       interrobangdown       Inverted interrobang
       pertenthousand        Per-ten-thousand sign (% with two extra 0s)
       IJ                    "IJ" ligature
       ij                    "ij" ligature
       Germandbls            "SS" (a capital sharp-s)
       SSsmall               Small-capital version of "SS"
       FFsmall               Small-capital version of "FF"
       FIsmall               Small-capital version of "FI"
       FLsmall               Small-capital version of "FL"
       FFIsmall              Small-capital version of "FFI"
       FFLsmall              Small-capital version of "FFL"


       The --include-subs and --include-alternates options, and their  --exclude  and  --*-filter
       variants, accept the following types of pattern.

       ·  Glyph  names.   Example:  "Aacute".  For PostScript-flavored fonts, use otfinfo(1)'s -g
          option to see a font's glyph names, and "cfftot1 font.otf | t1testpage" to  generate  a
          PostScript file showing each glyph.

       ·  Glyph  name  patterns using the shell-style glob-matching rules: "*" matches any number
          of characters, "?" matches any single character, and "[...]"  matches any character  in
          a set.  Example: "*.end".

       ·  Unicode    category    properties    in    angle   brackets.    Examples:   "<Letter>",
          "<UppercaseLetter>", "<Lu>".  The complete list of both short and long names: Letter/L,
          UppercaseLetter/Lu,    LowercaseLetter/Ll,    TitlecaseLetter/Lt,    ModifierLetter/Lm,
          OtherLetter/Lo;   Number/N,    DecimalNumber/Nd,    LetterNumber/Nl,    OtherNumber/No;
          Punctuation/P,    ConnectorPunctuation/Pc,    DashPunctuation/Pd,   OpenPunctuation/Ps,
          ClosePunctuation/Pe, InitialPunctuation/Pi,  FinalPunctuation/Pf,  OtherPunctuation/Po;
          Symbol/S,  MathSymbol/Sm, CurrencySymbol/Sc, ModifierSymbol/Sk, OtherSymbol/So; Mark/M,
          SpacingMark/Mc, EnclosingMark/Me,  NonspacingMark/Mn;  Separator/Z,  SpaceSeparator/Zs,
          LineSeparator/Zl,  ParagraphSeparator/Zp; Other/C, Surrogate/Cs, Format/Cf, Control/Cc,
          PrivateUse/Co, Unassigned/Cn.  Category values current as of Unicode 4.0.

       ·  Unicode ranges.  Example: "U+007f-U+008C".

       The "!" prefix negates a pattern, and you can separate multiple patterns by spaces.


       This section lists features common to Western OpenType fonts and  describes  how  otftotfm
       handles  them for common fonts.  Please send the author mail if otftotfm does not handle a
       feature you need, or you believe it handles some feature incorrectly.

       aalt, Access All Alternates
            Lets the user choose between all available alternate forms  for  a  character.   This
            includes things like superscript and subscript variants, different styles (swash, for
            example), and even ornaments.  The  --altselector-feature=aalt  option  can  help  an
            --altselector-char  provide  useful  access to alternates, but the aalt feature isn't
            usually useful on its own.  Try the salt and calt features instead.
       c2sc, Small Capitals From Capitals
            Replaces capital letters with  small  capitals:  a  sort  of  converse  of  the  more
            conventional  smcp  feature,  which  replaces lower-case letters with small capitals.
       calt, Contextual Alternates
            Lets the user choose between context-appropriate swash forms for each character.  For
            example, given the word "DREW" in a cursive typeface, the "R E W" might be translated
            to calmer forms than the initial "D".  There may be more than one choice for a  given
            letter,  in  which  case  the  user  should  be able to select among them.  TeX can't
            support complex contextual alternates, or alternate selection, but otftotfm  supports
            some  fonts  quite  well.   The  input  encoding  should have lots of empty space for
            variants, and it should specify a boundary character.  See also cswh.
       case, Case-Sensitive Forms
            Shifts punctuation marks up to a position that  works  well  with  all-capital-letter
            sequences.   For example, the hyphen character, which generally centers vertically on
            the x-height, is raised up to center vertically on a capital letter.   Also  replaces
            text  figures  with  lining figures, and accent marks with forms more appropriate for
            capitals.  Supported.
       cpsp, Capital Spacing
            Adds a bit of space on either side of each capital letter.  Supported.  (However, the
            OpenType  tag  registry suggests that cpsp be on by default, but applying to all-caps
            text only; TeX cannot easily implement that contextual intelligence.)
       cswh, Contextual Swash
            Lets the user choose between context-appropriate swash forms for each character.  For
            example,  in  the  words  "Ab AC", the first "A" might be translated to a swash form,
            while the second might not.  There may be more than one choice for a given letter, in
            which  case  the  user  should  be able to select among them.  Otftotfm supports some
            fonts quite well.  The input encoding should have  lots  of  empty  space  for  swash
            variants, and it should specify a boundary character.  See also calt and swsh.
       dlig, Discretionary Ligatures
            Activates uncommon ligatures, such as "c_t", "s_p", and "s_t".  Supported.
       dnom, Denominators
            Replaces  digits  and  some  punctuation  marks  with  smaller  forms  sitting on the
            baseline, intended for fraction denominators.  Supported.
       fina, Terminal Forms
            Substitutes appropriate forms for letters occurring  at  the  ends  of  words.   This
            feature  doesn't  select  swash  variants;  it's  intended  for  normal  use, and the
            specification recommends that it be on by default.   Partially  supported:  TeX  will
            only treat spaces as the ends of words, where a correct implementation would probably
            include punctuation too.  See cswh for selecting swash variants active at the ends of
       frac, Fractions
            Replaces  simple  sequences  like  "1/2" with nice-looking fractions.  Supported, but
            beware: many fonts will translate "11/32" into "1" + "1/3" + "2".
       hist, Historical Forms
            Replaces  characters  with  historical  variants.   Usually,  this  means  at   least
            translating regular "s" to long "s".  Supported.
       kern, Kerning
            Adjusts  the  space  between characters (pair kerning).  Generally supported, and you
            should probably turn it on.  As a  special  case,  "-fkern"  can  also  read  kerning
            information from the "kern" table in conventional TrueType fonts.
       liga, Standard Ligatures
            Activates  common ligatures, such as "f_f", "f_i", "f_f_j", and (in some Adobe fonts)
            "T_h".  Generally supported, and you should probably turn it on.
       lnum, Lining Figures
            Uses lining figures, the set of digits that are all about as high as capital letters.
            Supported.  Compare onum; see also pnum and tnum.
       numr, Numerators
            Replaces  digits  and  some punctuation marks with smaller, raised forms intended for
            fraction numerators.  Supported, but not usually useful.
       onum, Oldstyle Figures
            Uses old-style figures, also known as text figures.  This is the set of  digits  that
            have ascenders and descenders like lower-case letters.  Supported.  Compare lnum; see
            also pnum and tnum.
       ordn, Ordinals
            Designed for Spanish and French.  Replaces ordinal numbers, such as "2.o", with forms
            where  the  "o"  is  raised, and replaces the sequence "No" with an integrated glyph.
       ornm, Ornaments
            Replaces some alphabetic characters in the font with ornaments, and links the  bullet
            character  to  a  set  of  all bullet-like ornaments, from which the user can choose.
            Partially supported: TeX can handle alphabetic substitutions, but not bullet choice.
       pnum, Proportional Figures
            Digits will have different widths.  Supported.  Compare tnum; see also lnum and onum.
       salt, Stylistic Alternates
            Lets the user  choose  between  stylistic  alternate  forms  for  a  character.   The
            --altselector-char  mechanism provides useful access to this feature.  If you turn on
            salt globally, otftotfm takes the first alternate form whenever there's more than one
            choice.   See  also  aalt  and ss01; salt is generally more useful than aalt for TeX,
            since it refers exclusively to stylistic alternates.
       sinf, Scientific Inferiors
            Replaces digits and some punctuation marks with smaller, lowered forms  intended  for
            subscripts.  Supported.  Compare subs.
       size, Optical Size
            This  feature  stores information about the range of optical sizes for which the font
            was intended.  There is no point in selecting it with otftotfm, since it  should  not
            change the font's appearance in any way.
       smcp, Small Capitals
            Replaces lower-case letters with small capitals.  Supported.  Compare c2sc.
       ss01-ss20, Stylistic Sets 1-20
            Replaces  characters  with  a  uniform  set  of  stylistic  alternates.  Differs from
            features like salt in that a Stylistic Set is uniform: an ssXX feature  should  never
            involve selection from a set of possible alternate characters.  Supported.
       subs, Subscript
            Replaces  characters with smaller, lowered forms intended for subscripts.  Supported.
            Compare sinf; some fonts support sinf but not subs.
       sups, Superscript
            Replaces digits, some punctuation marks, and some lower-case  letters  with  smaller,
            raised forms intended for superscripts.  Supported.
       swsh, Swash
            Activates  all swash forms for each character. There may be more than one swash form,
            in which case otftotfm will pick the first one listed.  Supported, except that  swash
            variants  other  than  the  first  are inaccessible.  Note that some fonts with swash
            variants support the cswh feature exclusively.
       tnum, Tabular Figures
            All digits will have the same width, so that tables and the like will align visually.
            Supported.  Compare pnum; see also lnum and onum.
       zero, Slashed Zero
            Replaces the zero character with a slashed zero.  Supported.


       no writable directory found in $TEXMF
            Otftotfm  could  not find a writable directory in your $TEXMFVAR or $TEXMF path.  Did
            you create a $HOME/.texmf-var or $HOME/texmf  directory?   If  so,  run  the  command
            "kpsewhich  --expand-path='$TEXMF'" to verify that directory is not being found.  You
            may     need     to     set     your     TEXMF     environment      variable,      to
            '{!!'"$HOME"'/texmf,!!$TEXMFMAIN}', for instance (note the different kinds of quotes;
            on my machine, this expands to '{!!/home/kohler/texmf,!!$TEXMFMAIN}').

       'char' has no encoding, ignoring kern removal
       (or ligature removal, lig/kern removal, or ligature)
            These messages indicate a slight problem with your encoding file: one of the  LIGKERN
            commands referred to a character not present in the encoding.  This might be due to a
            misspelling in the LIGKERN command or the encoding file, or it might be an oversight.
            Either fix the encoding file or ignore the warning.

       can't map 'char' to Unicode
            Another encoding file problem: One of the glyph names in an UNICODING block could not
            be converted to Unicode.  This  is  problematic  since  UNICODING  exists  wholly  to
            translate glyph names into Unicode.  Fix the encoding file or ignore the warning.

       not enough room in encoding, ignoring N glyph(s) ...
            There wasn't space in the encoding for all the glyphs referred to by the features you
            selected.  For example, maybe the font had more ligatures than there were empty slots
            in  the  encoding.   Fix  this  warning  by  selecting fewer features, or by using an
            encoding with more  empty  slots,  such  as  the  7t.enc  encoding  distributed  with

       The '-a' option did not install my font correctly.
            Try again with the '--verbose' option, which causes otftotfm to explain its behavior.
            Note that by default, otftotfm will not re-install  files  already  present  in  your
            system's TeX search paths (in the current directory, for instance).  Use '--force' to
            override this behavior.


       How can I get a small-caps "SS" in place of the German sharp-S?
            Supply the option '--unicoding "germandbls =: SSsmall"'.

       How can I prevent f-ligatures from forming in a small-caps font?
            This should happen automatically, but some overzealous encoding files add f-ligatures
            even  when the font doesn't request them.  Try the "--no-encoding-commands" option if
            this is a problem for you.

       Otftotfm seems to take a long time.
            Use the -V option to see what  it's  doing.   Often  the  culprit  is  the  updmap(1)
            program;  if  you're planning to run otftotfm multiple times, give it the --no-updmap
            option and run updmap manually when you're done.

       How can I refer to the different forms of phi?
            Otftotfm follows TeX practice and widely-distributed TeX encoding vectors, so  "/phi"
            in  an input encoding vector should map to a "straight" phi and "/phi1" should map to
            a "loopy" phi.  Note that TeX practice differs from the  PostScript  standard  naming
            conventions,  in  which  "/phi" is "loopy" and "/phi1" is "straight"; this means that
            otftotfm may map "/phi" in an input encoding vector to a font's  "/phi1"  glyph,  and
            vice  versa.   Perhaps  most unambiguously, you can use "/uni03D5" for the "straight"
            form and "/uni03C6" for the "loopy" form.

       How can I get lining  figures  (that  is,  normal  line-height  digits)  with  small  caps
            Many fonts use old-style figures by default with small caps. Since the default is not
            specified, it's wise to explicitly supply '-flnum' or '-fonum'.


       See the documentation for --pl above  if  you  have  problems  running  otftotfm's  output
       through fontinst.


       pltotf(1),   tftopl(1),   vptovf(1),   afm2tfm(1),   dvips(1),   cfftot1(1),   otfinfo(1),
       t1dotlessj(1), t1testpage(1), ttftotype42(1), kpsewhich(1), updmap(1)

       Adobe Type 1 Font Format

       Adobe Technical Notes #5176, The Compact Font Format Specification, and #5177, The Type  2
       Charstring Format

       OpenType Specification, Version 1.4

       A Directory Structure for TeX Files,

       Kpathsea: A library for path searching,

       Sivan      Toledo,      Exploiting      Rich      Fonts,      TUGboat     21(2),     2000,

       Michel Goossens, Frank  Mittelbach,  and  Alexander  Samarin,  The  LaTeX  Companion  (for
       information on the .fd file format)

       Adobe  Systems,  "Unicode  and  Glyph  Names".   Refers  to the glyphlist.txt file used to
       translate        glyph        names        to         Unicode         code         points.


       Eddie Kohler (

       Thanks  to  Karl  Berry, Marco Kuhlmann, Adam Lindsay, Bruce D'Arcus, Thomas Esser, Claire
       Connelly, Nelson H.F. Beebe, and Ryuji Suzuki for  suggestions,  bug  reports,  and  help.
       Particular thanks to Achim Blumensath and Michael Zedler for suggestions and patches, some
       of them extensive.