Provided by: qemu-system-data_2.12+dfsg-3ubuntu8_all bug

NAME

       qemu-doc - QEMU version 2.12.0 User Documentation

SYNOPSIS

       qemu-system-i386 [options] [disk_image]

DESCRIPTION

       The QEMU PC System emulator simulates the following peripherals:

       -   i440FX host PCI bridge and PIIX3 PCI to ISA bridge

       -   Cirrus CLGD 5446 PCI VGA card or dummy VGA card with Bochs VESA extensions (hardware
           level, including all non standard modes).

       -   PS/2 mouse and keyboard

       -   2 PCI IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support

       -   Floppy disk

       -   PCI and ISA network adapters

       -   Serial ports

       -   IPMI BMC, either and internal or external one

       -   Creative SoundBlaster 16 sound card

       -   ENSONIQ AudioPCI ES1370 sound card

       -   Intel 82801AA AC97 Audio compatible sound card

       -   Intel HD Audio Controller and HDA codec

       -   Adlib (OPL2) - Yamaha YM3812 compatible chip

       -   Gravis Ultrasound GF1 sound card

       -   CS4231A compatible sound card

       -   PCI UHCI, OHCI, EHCI or XHCI USB controller and a virtual USB-1.1 hub.

       SMP is supported with up to 255 CPUs.

       QEMU uses the PC BIOS from the Seabios project and the Plex86/Bochs LGPL VGA BIOS.

       QEMU uses YM3812 emulation by Tatsuyuki Satoh.

       QEMU uses GUS emulation (GUSEMU32 <http://www.deinmeister.de/gusemu/>) by Tibor "TS"
       Schütz.

       Note that, by default, GUS shares IRQ(7) with parallel ports and so QEMU must be told to
       not have parallel ports to have working GUS.

               qemu-system-i386 dos.img -soundhw gus -parallel none

       Alternatively:

               qemu-system-i386 dos.img -device gus,irq=5

       Or some other unclaimed IRQ.

       CS4231A is the chip used in Windows Sound System and GUSMAX products

OPTIONS

       disk_image is a raw hard disk image for IDE hard disk 0. Some targets do not need a disk
       image.

       Standard options

       -h  Display help and exit

       -version
           Display version information and exit

       -machine [type=]name[,prop=value[,...]]
           Select the emulated machine by name. Use "-machine help" to list available machines.

           For architectures which aim to support live migration compatibility across releases,
           each release will introduce a new versioned machine type. For example, the 2.8.0
           release introduced machine types "pc-i440fx-2.8" and "pc-q35-2.8" for the x86_64/i686
           architectures.

           To allow live migration of guests from QEMU version 2.8.0, to QEMU version 2.9.0, the
           2.9.0 version must support the "pc-i440fx-2.8" and "pc-q35-2.8" machines too. To allow
           users live migrating VMs to skip multiple intermediate releases when upgrading, new
           releases of QEMU will support machine types from many previous versions.

           Supported machine properties are:

           accel=accels1[:accels2[:...]]
               This is used to enable an accelerator. Depending on the target architecture, kvm,
               xen, hax, hvf, whpx or tcg can be available. By default, tcg is used. If there is
               more than one accelerator specified, the next one is used if the previous one
               fails to initialize.

           kernel_irqchip=on|off
               Controls in-kernel irqchip support for the chosen accelerator when available.

           gfx_passthru=on|off
               Enables IGD GFX passthrough support for the chosen machine when available.

           vmport=on|off|auto
               Enables emulation of VMWare IO port, for vmmouse etc. auto says to select the
               value based on accel. For accel=xen the default is off otherwise the default is
               on.

           kvm_shadow_mem=size
               Defines the size of the KVM shadow MMU.

           dump-guest-core=on|off
               Include guest memory in a core dump. The default is on.

           mem-merge=on|off
               Enables or disables memory merge support. This feature, when supported by the
               host, de-duplicates identical memory pages among VMs instances (enabled by
               default).

           aes-key-wrap=on|off
               Enables or disables AES key wrapping support on s390-ccw hosts. This feature
               controls whether AES wrapping keys will be created to allow execution of AES
               cryptographic functions.  The default is on.

           dea-key-wrap=on|off
               Enables or disables DEA key wrapping support on s390-ccw hosts. This feature
               controls whether DEA wrapping keys will be created to allow execution of DEA
               cryptographic functions.  The default is on.

           nvdimm=on|off
               Enables or disables NVDIMM support. The default is off.

           s390-squash-mcss=on|off
               Enables or disables squashing subchannels into the default css.  The default is
               off.  NOTE: This property is deprecated and will be removed in future releases.
               The "s390-squash-mcss=on" property has been obsoleted by allowing the cssid to be
               chosen freely. Instead of squashing subchannels into the default channel subsystem
               image for guests that do not support multiple channel subsystems, all devices can
               be put into the default channel subsystem image.

           enforce-config-section=on|off
               If enforce-config-section is set to on, force migration code to send configuration
               section even if the machine-type sets the migration.send-configuration property to
               off.  NOTE: this parameter is deprecated. Please use -global
               migration.send-configuration=on|off instead.

           memory-encryption=
               Memory encryption object to use. The default is none.

       -cpu model
           Select CPU model ("-cpu help" for list and additional feature selection)

       -accel name[,prop=value[,...]]
           This is used to enable an accelerator. Depending on the target architecture, kvm, xen,
           hax, hvf, whpx or tcg can be available. By default, tcg is used. If there is more than
           one accelerator specified, the next one is used if the previous one fails to
           initialize.

           thread=single|multi
               Controls number of TCG threads. When the TCG is multi-threaded there will be one
               thread per vCPU therefor taking advantage of additional host cores. The default is
               to enable multi-threading where both the back-end and front-ends support it and no
               incompatible TCG features have been enabled (e.g. icount/replay).

       -smp [cpus=]n[,cores=cores][,threads=threads][,sockets=sockets][,maxcpus=maxcpus]
           Simulate an SMP system with n CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255 CPUs are supported. On
           Sparc32 target, Linux limits the number of usable CPUs to 4.  For the PC target, the
           number of cores per socket, the number of threads per cores and the total number of
           sockets can be specified. Missing values will be computed. If any on the three values
           is given, the total number of CPUs n can be omitted. maxcpus specifies the maximum
           number of hotpluggable CPUs.

       -numa node[,mem=size][,cpus=firstcpu[-lastcpu]][,nodeid=node]
       -numa node[,memdev=id][,cpus=firstcpu[-lastcpu]][,nodeid=node]
       -numa dist,src=source,dst=destination,val=distance
       -numa cpu,node-id=node[,socket-id=x][,core-id=y][,thread-id=z]
           Define a NUMA node and assign RAM and VCPUs to it.  Set the NUMA distance from a
           source node to a destination node.

           Legacy VCPU assignment uses cpus option where firstcpu and lastcpu are CPU indexes.
           Each cpus option represent a contiguous range of CPU indexes (or a single VCPU if
           lastcpu is omitted). A non-contiguous set of VCPUs can be represented by providing
           multiple cpus options. If cpus is omitted on all nodes, VCPUs are automatically split
           between them.

           For example, the following option assigns VCPUs 0, 1, 2 and 5 to a NUMA node:

                   -numa node,cpus=0-2,cpus=5

           cpu option is a new alternative to cpus option which uses socket-id|core-id|thread-id
           properties to assign CPU objects to a node using topology layout properties of CPU.
           The set of properties is machine specific, and depends on used machine type/smp
           options. It could be queried with hotpluggable-cpus monitor command.  node-id property
           specifies node to which CPU object will be assigned, it's required for node to be
           declared with node option before it's used with cpu option.

           For example:

                   -M pc \
                   -smp 1,sockets=2,maxcpus=2 \
                   -numa node,nodeid=0 -numa node,nodeid=1 \
                   -numa cpu,node-id=0,socket-id=0 -numa cpu,node-id=1,socket-id=1

           mem assigns a given RAM amount to a node. memdev assigns RAM from a given memory
           backend device to a node. If mem and memdev are omitted in all nodes, RAM is split
           equally between them.

           mem and memdev are mutually exclusive. Furthermore, if one node uses memdev, all of
           them have to use it.

           source and destination are NUMA node IDs.  distance is the NUMA distance from source
           to destination.  The distance from a node to itself is always 10. If any pair of nodes
           is given a distance, then all pairs must be given distances. Although, when distances
           are only given in one direction for each pair of nodes, then the distances in the
           opposite directions are assumed to be the same. If, however, an asymmetrical pair of
           distances is given for even one node pair, then all node pairs must be provided
           distance values for both directions, even when they are symmetrical. When a node is
           unreachable from another node, set the pair's distance to 255.

           Note that the -numa option doesn't allocate any of the specified resources, it just
           assigns existing resources to NUMA nodes. This means that one still has to use the -m,
           -smp options to allocate RAM and VCPUs respectively.

       -add-fd fd=fd,set=set[,opaque=opaque]
           Add a file descriptor to an fd set.  Valid options are:

           fd=fd
               This option defines the file descriptor of which a duplicate is added to fd set.
               The file descriptor cannot be stdin, stdout, or stderr.

           set=set
               This option defines the ID of the fd set to add the file descriptor to.

           opaque=opaque
               This option defines a free-form string that can be used to describe fd.

           You can open an image using pre-opened file descriptors from an fd set:

                   qemu-system-i386
                   -add-fd fd=3,set=2,opaque="rdwr:/path/to/file"
                   -add-fd fd=4,set=2,opaque="rdonly:/path/to/file"
                   -drive file=/dev/fdset/2,index=0,media=disk

       -set group.id.arg=value
           Set parameter arg for item id of type group

       -global driver.prop=value
       -global driver=driver,property=property,value=value
           Set default value of driver's property prop to value, e.g.:

                   qemu-system-i386 -global ide-hd.physical_block_size=4096 disk-image.img

           In particular, you can use this to set driver properties for devices which are created
           automatically by the machine model. To create a device which is not created
           automatically and set properties on it, use -device.

           -global driver.prop=value is shorthand for -global
           driver=driver,property=prop,value=value.  The longhand syntax works even when driver
           contains a dot.

       -boot
       [order=drives][,once=drives][,menu=on|off][,splash=sp_name][,splash-time=sp_time][,reboot-timeout=rb_timeout][,strict=on|off]
           Specify boot order drives as a string of drive letters. Valid drive letters depend on
           the target architecture. The x86 PC uses: a, b (floppy 1 and 2), c (first hard disk),
           d (first CD-ROM), n-p (Etherboot from network adapter 1-4), hard disk boot is the
           default. To apply a particular boot order only on the first startup, specify it via
           once. Note that the order or once parameter should not be used together with the
           bootindex property of devices, since the firmware implementations normally do not
           support both at the same time.

           Interactive boot menus/prompts can be enabled via menu=on as far as firmware/BIOS
           supports them. The default is non-interactive boot.

           A splash picture could be passed to bios, enabling user to show it as logo, when
           option splash=sp_name is given and menu=on, If firmware/BIOS supports them. Currently
           Seabios for X86 system support it.  limitation: The splash file could be a jpeg file
           or a BMP file in 24 BPP format(true color). The resolution should be supported by the
           SVGA mode, so the recommended is 320x240, 640x480, 800x640.

           A timeout could be passed to bios, guest will pause for rb_timeout ms when boot
           failed, then reboot. If rb_timeout is '-1', guest will not reboot, qemu passes '-1' to
           bios by default. Currently Seabios for X86 system support it.

           Do strict boot via strict=on as far as firmware/BIOS supports it. This only effects
           when boot priority is changed by bootindex options. The default is non-strict boot.

                   # try to boot from network first, then from hard disk
                   qemu-system-i386 -boot order=nc
                   # boot from CD-ROM first, switch back to default order after reboot
                   qemu-system-i386 -boot once=d
                   # boot with a splash picture for 5 seconds.
                   qemu-system-i386 -boot menu=on,splash=/root/boot.bmp,splash-time=5000

           Note: The legacy format '-boot drives' is still supported but its use is discouraged
           as it may be removed from future versions.

       -m [size=]megs[,slots=n,maxmem=size]
           Sets guest startup RAM size to megs megabytes. Default is 128 MiB.  Optionally, a
           suffix of "M" or "G" can be used to signify a value in megabytes or gigabytes
           respectively. Optional pair slots, maxmem could be used to set amount of hotpluggable
           memory slots and maximum amount of memory. Note that maxmem must be aligned to the
           page size.

           For example, the following command-line sets the guest startup RAM size to 1GB,
           creates 3 slots to hotplug additional memory and sets the maximum memory the guest can
           reach to 4GB:

                   qemu-system-x86_64 -m 1G,slots=3,maxmem=4G

           If slots and maxmem are not specified, memory hotplug won't be enabled and the guest
           startup RAM will never increase.

       -mem-path path
           Allocate guest RAM from a temporarily created file in path.

       -mem-prealloc
           Preallocate memory when using -mem-path.

       -k language
           Use keyboard layout language (for example "fr" for French). This option is only needed
           where it is not easy to get raw PC keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or
           with a VNC or curses display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or
           PC/Windows hosts.

           The available layouts are:

                   ar  de-ch  es  fo     fr-ca  hu  ja  mk     no  pt-br  sv
                   da  en-gb  et  fr     fr-ch  is  lt  nl     pl  ru     th
                   de  en-us  fi  fr-be  hr     it  lv  nl-be  pt  sl     tr

           The default is "en-us".

       -audio-help
           Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable parameters.

       -soundhw card1[,card2,...] or -soundhw all
           Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use 'help' to print all available sound
           hardware.

                   qemu-system-i386 -soundhw sb16,adlib disk.img
                   qemu-system-i386 -soundhw es1370 disk.img
                   qemu-system-i386 -soundhw ac97 disk.img
                   qemu-system-i386 -soundhw hda disk.img
                   qemu-system-i386 -soundhw all disk.img
                   qemu-system-i386 -soundhw help

           Note that Linux's i810_audio OSS kernel (for AC97) module might require manually
           specifying clocking.

                   modprobe i810_audio clocking=48000

       -balloon virtio[,addr=addr]
           Enable virtio balloon device, optionally with PCI address addr. This option is
           deprecated, use --device virtio-balloon instead.

       -device driver[,prop[=value][,...]]
           Add device driver.  prop=value sets driver properties.  Valid properties depend on the
           driver.  To get help on possible drivers and properties, use "-device help" and
           "-device driver,help".

           Some drivers are:

       -device
       ipmi-bmc-sim,id=id[,slave_addr=val][,sdrfile=file][,furareasize=val][,furdatafile=file]
           Add an IPMI BMC.  This is a simulation of a hardware management interface processor
           that normally sits on a system.  It provides a watchdog and the ability to reset and
           power control the system.  You need to connect this to an IPMI interface to make it
           useful

           The IPMI slave address to use for the BMC.  The default is 0x20.  This address is the
           BMC's address on the I2C network of management controllers.  If you don't know what
           this means, it is safe to ignore it.

           bmc=id
               The BMC to connect to, one of ipmi-bmc-sim or ipmi-bmc-extern above.

           slave_addr=val
               Define slave address to use for the BMC.  The default is 0x20.

           sdrfile=file
               file containing raw Sensor Data Records (SDR) data. The default is none.

           fruareasize=val
               size of a Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) area.  The default is 1024.

           frudatafile=file
               file containing raw Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) inventory data. The default is
               none.

       -device ipmi-bmc-extern,id=id,chardev=id[,slave_addr=val]
           Add a connection to an external IPMI BMC simulator.  Instead of locally emulating the
           BMC like the above item, instead connect to an external entity that provides the IPMI
           services.

           A connection is made to an external BMC simulator.  If you do this, it is strongly
           recommended that you use the "reconnect=" chardev option to reconnect to the simulator
           if the connection is lost.  Note that if this is not used carefully, it can be a
           security issue, as the interface has the ability to send resets, NMIs, and power off
           the VM.  It's best if QEMU makes a connection to an external simulator running on a
           secure port on localhost, so neither the simulator nor QEMU is exposed to any outside
           network.

           See the "lanserv/README.vm" file in the OpenIPMI library for more details on the
           external interface.

       -device isa-ipmi-kcs,bmc=id[,ioport=val][,irq=val]
           Add a KCS IPMI interafce on the ISA bus.  This also adds a corresponding ACPI and
           SMBIOS entries, if appropriate.

           bmc=id
               The BMC to connect to, one of ipmi-bmc-sim or ipmi-bmc-extern above.

           ioport=val
               Define the I/O address of the interface.  The default is 0xca0 for KCS.

           irq=val
               Define the interrupt to use.  The default is 5.  To disable interrupts, set this
               to 0.

       -device isa-ipmi-bt,bmc=id[,ioport=val][,irq=val]
           Like the KCS interface, but defines a BT interface.  The default port is 0xe4 and the
           default interrupt is 5.

       -name name
           Sets the name of the guest.  This name will be displayed in the SDL window caption.
           The name will also be used for the VNC server.  Also optionally set the top visible
           process name in Linux.  Naming of individual threads can also be enabled on Linux to
           aid debugging.

       -uuid uuid
           Set system UUID.

       Block device options

       -fda file
       -fdb file
           Use file as floppy disk 0/1 image.

       -hda file
       -hdb file
       -hdc file
       -hdd file
           Use file as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image.

       -cdrom file
           Use file as CD-ROM image (you cannot use -hdc and -cdrom at the same time). You can
           use the host CD-ROM by using /dev/cdrom as filename.

       -blockdev option[,option[,option[,...]]]
           Define a new block driver node. Some of the options apply to all block drivers, other
           options are only accepted for a specific block driver. See below for a list of generic
           options and options for the most common block drivers.

           Options that expect a reference to another node (e.g. "file") can be given in two
           ways. Either you specify the node name of an already existing node (file=node-name),
           or you define a new node inline, adding options for the referenced node after a dot
           (file.filename=path,file.aio=native).

           A block driver node created with -blockdev can be used for a guest device by
           specifying its node name for the "drive" property in a -device argument that defines a
           block device.

           Valid options for any block driver node:
               "driver"
                   Specifies the block driver to use for the given node.

               "node-name"
                   This defines the name of the block driver node by which it will be referenced
                   later. The name must be unique, i.e. it must not match the name of a different
                   block driver node, or (if you use -drive as well) the ID of a drive.

                   If no node name is specified, it is automatically generated. The generated
                   node name is not intended to be predictable and changes between QEMU
                   invocations.  For the top level, an explicit node name must be specified.

               "read-only"
                   Open the node read-only. Guest write attempts will fail.

               "cache.direct"
                   The host page cache can be avoided with cache.direct=on. This will attempt to
                   do disk IO directly to the guest's memory. QEMU may still perform an internal
                   copy of the data.

               "cache.no-flush"
                   In case you don't care about data integrity over host failures, you can use
                   cache.no-flush=on. This option tells QEMU that it never needs to write any
                   data to the disk but can instead keep things in cache. If anything goes wrong,
                   like your host losing power, the disk storage getting disconnected
                   accidentally, etc. your image will most probably be rendered unusable.

               "discard=discard"
                   discard is one of "ignore" (or "off") or "unmap" (or "on") and controls
                   whether "discard" (also known as "trim" or "unmap") requests are ignored or
                   passed to the filesystem. Some machine types may not support discard requests.

               "detect-zeroes=detect-zeroes"
                   detect-zeroes is "off", "on" or "unmap" and enables the automatic conversion
                   of plain zero writes by the OS to driver specific optimized zero write
                   commands. You may even choose "unmap" if discard is set to "unmap" to allow a
                   zero write to be converted to an "unmap" operation.

           Driver-specific options for "file"
               This is the protocol-level block driver for accessing regular files.

               "filename"
                   The path to the image file in the local filesystem

               "aio"
                   Specifies the AIO backend (threads/native, default: threads)

               "locking"
                   Specifies whether the image file is protected with Linux OFD / POSIX locks.
                   The default is to use the Linux Open File Descriptor API if available,
                   otherwise no lock is applied.  (auto/on/off, default: auto)

               Example:

                       -blockdev driver=file,node-name=disk,filename=disk.img

           Driver-specific options for "raw"
               This is the image format block driver for raw images. It is usually stacked on top
               of a protocol level block driver such as "file".

               "file"
                   Reference to or definition of the data source block driver node (e.g. a "file"
                   driver node)

               Example 1:

                       -blockdev driver=file,node-name=disk_file,filename=disk.img
                       -blockdev driver=raw,node-name=disk,file=disk_file

               Example 2:

                       -blockdev driver=raw,node-name=disk,file.driver=file,file.filename=disk.img

           Driver-specific options for "qcow2"
               This is the image format block driver for qcow2 images. It is usually stacked on
               top of a protocol level block driver such as "file".

               "file"
                   Reference to or definition of the data source block driver node (e.g. a "file"
                   driver node)

               "backing"
                   Reference to or definition of the backing file block device (default is taken
                   from the image file). It is allowed to pass "null" here in order to disable
                   the default backing file.

               "lazy-refcounts"
                   Whether to enable the lazy refcounts feature (on/off; default is taken from
                   the image file)

               "cache-size"
                   The maximum total size of the L2 table and refcount block caches in bytes
                   (default: 1048576 bytes or 8 clusters, whichever is larger)

               "l2-cache-size"
                   The maximum size of the L2 table cache in bytes (default: 4/5 of the total
                   cache size)

               "refcount-cache-size"
                   The maximum size of the refcount block cache in bytes (default: 1/5 of the
                   total cache size)

               "cache-clean-interval"
                   Clean unused entries in the L2 and refcount caches. The interval is in
                   seconds.  The default value is 0 and it disables this feature.

               "pass-discard-request"
                   Whether discard requests to the qcow2 device should be forwarded to the data
                   source (on/off; default: on if discard=unmap is specified, off otherwise)

               "pass-discard-snapshot"
                   Whether discard requests for the data source should be issued when a snapshot
                   operation (e.g. deleting a snapshot) frees clusters in the qcow2 file (on/off;
                   default: on)

               "pass-discard-other"
                   Whether discard requests for the data source should be issued on other
                   occasions where a cluster gets freed (on/off; default: off)

               "overlap-check"
                   Which overlap checks to perform for writes to the image
                   (none/constant/cached/all; default: cached). For details or finer granularity
                   control refer to the QAPI documentation of "blockdev-add".

               Example 1:

                       -blockdev driver=file,node-name=my_file,filename=/tmp/disk.qcow2
                       -blockdev driver=qcow2,node-name=hda,file=my_file,overlap-check=none,cache-size=16777216

               Example 2:

                       -blockdev driver=qcow2,node-name=disk,file.driver=http,file.filename=http://example.com/image.qcow2

           Driver-specific options for other drivers
               Please refer to the QAPI documentation of the "blockdev-add" QMP command.

       -drive option[,option[,option[,...]]]
           Define a new drive. This includes creating a block driver node (the backend) as well
           as a guest device, and is mostly a shortcut for defining the corresponding -blockdev
           and -device options.

           -drive accepts all options that are accepted by -blockdev. In addition, it knows the
           following options:

           file=file
               This option defines which disk image to use with this drive. If the filename
               contains comma, you must double it (for instance, "file=my,,file" to use file
               "my,file").

               Special files such as iSCSI devices can be specified using protocol specific URLs.
               See the section for "Device URL Syntax" for more information.

           if=interface
               This option defines on which type on interface the drive is connected.  Available
               types are: ide, scsi, sd, mtd, floppy, pflash, virtio, none.

           bus=bus,unit=unit
               These options define where is connected the drive by defining the bus number and
               the unit id.

           index=index
               This option defines where is connected the drive by using an index in the list of
               available connectors of a given interface type.

           media=media
               This option defines the type of the media: disk or cdrom.

           cyls=c,heads=h,secs=s[,trans=t]
               Force disk physical geometry and the optional BIOS translation (trans=none or
               lba). These parameters are deprecated, use the corresponding parameters of
               "-device" instead.

           snapshot=snapshot
               snapshot is "on" or "off" and controls snapshot mode for the given drive (see
               -snapshot).

           cache=cache
               cache is "none", "writeback", "unsafe", "directsync" or "writethrough" and
               controls how the host cache is used to access block data. This is a shortcut that
               sets the cache.direct and cache.no-flush options (as in -blockdev), and
               additionally cache.writeback, which provides a default for the write-cache option
               of block guest devices (as in -device). The modes correspond to the following
               settings:

                                    │ cache.writeback   cache.direct   cache.no-flush
                       ─────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────
                       writeback    │ on                off            off
                       none         │ on                on             off
                       writethrough │ off               off            off
                       directsync   │ off               on             off
                       unsafe       │ on                off            on

               The default mode is cache=writeback.

           aio=aio
               aio is "threads", or "native" and selects between pthread based disk I/O and
               native Linux AIO.

           format=format
               Specify which disk format will be used rather than detecting the format.  Can be
               used to specify format=raw to avoid interpreting an untrusted format header.

           serial=serial
               This option specifies the serial number to assign to the device. This parameter is
               deprecated, use the corresponding parameter of "-device" instead.

           addr=addr
               Specify the controller's PCI address (if=virtio only). This parameter is
               deprecated, use the corresponding parameter of "-device" instead.

           werror=action,rerror=action
               Specify which action to take on write and read errors. Valid actions are: "ignore"
               (ignore the error and try to continue), "stop" (pause QEMU), "report" (report the
               error to the guest), "enospc" (pause QEMU only if the host disk is full; report
               the error to the guest otherwise).  The default setting is werror=enospc and
               rerror=report.

           copy-on-read=copy-on-read
               copy-on-read is "on" or "off" and enables whether to copy read backing file
               sectors into the image file.

           bps=b,bps_rd=r,bps_wr=w
               Specify bandwidth throttling limits in bytes per second, either for all request
               types or for reads or writes only.  Small values can lead to timeouts or hangs
               inside the guest.  A safe minimum for disks is 2 MB/s.

           bps_max=bm,bps_rd_max=rm,bps_wr_max=wm
               Specify bursts in bytes per second, either for all request types or for reads or
               writes only.  Bursts allow the guest I/O to spike above the limit temporarily.

           iops=i,iops_rd=r,iops_wr=w
               Specify request rate limits in requests per second, either for all request types
               or for reads or writes only.

           iops_max=bm,iops_rd_max=rm,iops_wr_max=wm
               Specify bursts in requests per second, either for all request types or for reads
               or writes only.  Bursts allow the guest I/O to spike above the limit temporarily.

           iops_size=is
               Let every is bytes of a request count as a new request for iops throttling
               purposes.  Use this option to prevent guests from circumventing iops limits by
               sending fewer but larger requests.

           group=g
               Join a throttling quota group with given name g.  All drives that are members of
               the same group are accounted for together.  Use this option to prevent guests from
               circumventing throttling limits by using many small disks instead of a single
               larger disk.

           By default, the cache.writeback=on mode is used. It will report data writes as
           completed as soon as the data is present in the host page cache.  This is safe as long
           as your guest OS makes sure to correctly flush disk caches where needed. If your guest
           OS does not handle volatile disk write caches correctly and your host crashes or loses
           power, then the guest may experience data corruption.

           For such guests, you should consider using cache.writeback=off. This means that the
           host page cache will be used to read and write data, but write notification will be
           sent to the guest only after QEMU has made sure to flush each write to the disk. Be
           aware that this has a major impact on performance.

           When using the -snapshot option, unsafe caching is always used.

           Copy-on-read avoids accessing the same backing file sectors repeatedly and is useful
           when the backing file is over a slow network.  By default copy-on-read is off.

           Instead of -cdrom you can use:

                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=2,media=cdrom

           Instead of -hda, -hdb, -hdc, -hdd, you can use:

                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=0,media=disk
                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=1,media=disk
                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=2,media=disk
                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=3,media=disk

           You can open an image using pre-opened file descriptors from an fd set:

                   qemu-system-i386
                   -add-fd fd=3,set=2,opaque="rdwr:/path/to/file"
                   -add-fd fd=4,set=2,opaque="rdonly:/path/to/file"
                   -drive file=/dev/fdset/2,index=0,media=disk

           You can connect a CDROM to the slave of ide0:

                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom

           If you don't specify the "file=" argument, you define an empty drive:

                   qemu-system-i386 -drive if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom

           Instead of -fda, -fdb, you can use:

                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=0,if=floppy
                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=1,if=floppy

           By default, interface is "ide" and index is automatically incremented:

                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=a -drive file=b"

           is interpreted like:

                   qemu-system-i386 -hda a -hdb b

       -mtdblock file
           Use file as on-board Flash memory image.

       -sd file
           Use file as SecureDigital card image.

       -pflash file
           Use file as a parallel flash image.

       -snapshot
           Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case, the raw disk image
           you use is not written back. You can however force the write back by pressing C-a s.

       -fsdev
       fsdriver,id=id,path=path,[security_model=security_model][,writeout=writeout][,readonly][,socket=socket|sock_fd=sock_fd][,fmode=fmode][,dmode=dmode]
           Define a new file system device. Valid options are:

           fsdriver
               This option specifies the fs driver backend to use.  Currently "local", "handle"
               and "proxy" file system drivers are supported.

           id=id
               Specifies identifier for this device

           path=path
               Specifies the export path for the file system device. Files under this path will
               be available to the 9p client on the guest.

           security_model=security_model
               Specifies the security model to be used for this export path.  Supported security
               models are "passthrough", "mapped-xattr", "mapped-file" and "none".  In
               "passthrough" security model, files are stored using the same credentials as they
               are created on the guest. This requires QEMU to run as root. In "mapped-xattr"
               security model, some of the file attributes like uid, gid, mode bits and link
               target are stored as file attributes. For "mapped-file" these attributes are
               stored in the hidden .virtfs_metadata directory. Directories exported by this
               security model cannot interact with other unix tools. "none" security model is
               same as passthrough except the sever won't report failures if it fails to set file
               attributes like ownership. Security model is mandatory only for local fsdriver.
               Other fsdrivers (like handle, proxy) don't take security model as a parameter.

           writeout=writeout
               This is an optional argument. The only supported value is "immediate".  This means
               that host page cache will be used to read and write data but write notification
               will be sent to the guest only when the data has been reported as written by the
               storage subsystem.

           readonly
               Enables exporting 9p share as a readonly mount for guests. By default read-write
               access is given.

           socket=socket
               Enables proxy filesystem driver to use passed socket file for communicating with
               virtfs-proxy-helper

           sock_fd=sock_fd
               Enables proxy filesystem driver to use passed socket descriptor for communicating
               with virtfs-proxy-helper. Usually a helper like libvirt will create socketpair and
               pass one of the fds as sock_fd

           fmode=fmode
               Specifies the default mode for newly created files on the host. Works only with
               security models "mapped-xattr" and "mapped-file".

           dmode=dmode
               Specifies the default mode for newly created directories on the host. Works only
               with security models "mapped-xattr" and "mapped-file".

           -fsdev option is used along with -device driver "virtio-9p-pci".

       -device virtio-9p-pci,fsdev=id,mount_tag=mount_tag
           Options for virtio-9p-pci driver are:

           fsdev=id
               Specifies the id value specified along with -fsdev option

           mount_tag=mount_tag
               Specifies the tag name to be used by the guest to mount this export point

       -virtfs
       fsdriver[,path=path],mount_tag=mount_tag[,security_model=security_model][,writeout=writeout][,readonly][,socket=socket|sock_fd=sock_fd][,fmode=fmode][,dmode=dmode]
           The general form of a Virtual File system pass-through options are:

           fsdriver
               This option specifies the fs driver backend to use.  Currently "local", "handle"
               and "proxy" file system drivers are supported.

           id=id
               Specifies identifier for this device

           path=path
               Specifies the export path for the file system device. Files under this path will
               be available to the 9p client on the guest.

           security_model=security_model
               Specifies the security model to be used for this export path.  Supported security
               models are "passthrough", "mapped-xattr", "mapped-file" and "none".  In
               "passthrough" security model, files are stored using the same credentials as they
               are created on the guest. This requires QEMU to run as root. In "mapped-xattr"
               security model, some of the file attributes like uid, gid, mode bits and link
               target are stored as file attributes. For "mapped-file" these attributes are
               stored in the hidden .virtfs_metadata directory. Directories exported by this
               security model cannot interact with other unix tools. "none" security model is
               same as passthrough except the sever won't report failures if it fails to set file
               attributes like ownership. Security model is mandatory only for local fsdriver.
               Other fsdrivers (like handle, proxy) don't take security model as a parameter.

           writeout=writeout
               This is an optional argument. The only supported value is "immediate".  This means
               that host page cache will be used to read and write data but write notification
               will be sent to the guest only when the data has been reported as written by the
               storage subsystem.

           readonly
               Enables exporting 9p share as a readonly mount for guests. By default read-write
               access is given.

           socket=socket
               Enables proxy filesystem driver to use passed socket file for communicating with
               virtfs-proxy-helper. Usually a helper like libvirt will create socketpair and pass
               one of the fds as sock_fd

           sock_fd
               Enables proxy filesystem driver to use passed 'sock_fd' as the socket descriptor
               for interfacing with virtfs-proxy-helper

           fmode=fmode
               Specifies the default mode for newly created files on the host. Works only with
               security models "mapped-xattr" and "mapped-file".

           dmode=dmode
               Specifies the default mode for newly created directories on the host. Works only
               with security models "mapped-xattr" and "mapped-file".

       -virtfs_synth
           Create synthetic file system image

       -iscsi
           Configure iSCSI session parameters.

       USB options

       -usb
           Enable the USB driver (if it is not used by default yet).

       -usbdevice devname
           Add the USB device devname. Note that this option is deprecated, please use "-device
           usb-..." instead.

           mouse
               Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.

           tablet
               Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen). This means
               QEMU is able to report the mouse position without having to grab the mouse. Also
               overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.

           braille
               Braille device.  This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real or
               fake device.

       Display options

       -display type
           Select type of display to use. This option is a replacement for the old style
           -sdl/-curses/... options. Valid values for type are

           sdl Display video output via SDL (usually in a separate graphics window; see the SDL
               documentation for other possibilities).

           curses
               Display video output via curses. For graphics device models which support a text
               mode, QEMU can display this output using a curses/ncurses interface. Nothing is
               displayed when the graphics device is in graphical mode or if the graphics device
               does not support a text mode. Generally only the VGA device models support text
               mode.

           none
               Do not display video output. The guest will still see an emulated graphics card,
               but its output will not be displayed to the QEMU user. This option differs from
               the -nographic option in that it only affects what is done with video output;
               -nographic also changes the destination of the serial and parallel port data.

           gtk Display video output in a GTK window. This interface provides drop-down menus and
               other UI elements to configure and control the VM during runtime.

           vnc Start a VNC server on display <arg>

       -nographic
           Normally, if QEMU is compiled with graphical window support, it displays output such
           as guest graphics, guest console, and the QEMU monitor in a window. With this option,
           you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple command line
           application. The emulated serial port is redirected on the console and muxed with the
           monitor (unless redirected elsewhere explicitly). Therefore, you can still use QEMU to
           debug a Linux kernel with a serial console. Use C-a h for help on switching between
           the console and monitor.

       -curses
           Normally, if QEMU is compiled with graphical window support, it displays output such
           as guest graphics, guest console, and the QEMU monitor in a window. With this option,
           QEMU can display the VGA output when in text mode using a curses/ncurses interface.
           Nothing is displayed in graphical mode.

       -no-frame
           Do not use decorations for SDL windows and start them using the whole available screen
           space. This makes the using QEMU in a dedicated desktop workspace more convenient.

       -alt-grab
           Use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt). Note that this also affects
           the special keys (for fullscreen, monitor-mode switching, etc).

       -ctrl-grab
           Use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt). Note that this also affects the
           special keys (for fullscreen, monitor-mode switching, etc).

       -no-quit
           Disable SDL window close capability.

       -sdl
           Enable SDL.

       -spice option[,option[,...]]
           Enable the spice remote desktop protocol. Valid options are

           port=<nr>
               Set the TCP port spice is listening on for plaintext channels.

           addr=<addr>
               Set the IP address spice is listening on.  Default is any address.

           ipv4
           ipv6
           unix
               Force using the specified IP version.

           password=<secret>
               Set the password you need to authenticate.

           sasl
               Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the spice.  The exact choice
               of authentication method used is controlled from the system / user's SASL
               configuration file for the 'qemu' service. This is typically found in
               /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an unprivileged user, an environment
               variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used to make it search alternate locations for the
               service config.  While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg
               GSSAPI), it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the 'tls' and 'x509'
               settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This ensures a data
               encryption preventing compromise of authentication credentials.

           disable-ticketing
               Allow client connects without authentication.

           disable-copy-paste
               Disable copy paste between the client and the guest.

           disable-agent-file-xfer
               Disable spice-vdagent based file-xfer between the client and the guest.

           tls-port=<nr>
               Set the TCP port spice is listening on for encrypted channels.

           x509-dir=<dir>
               Set the x509 file directory. Expects same filenames as -vnc $display,x509=$dir

           x509-key-file=<file>
           x509-key-password=<file>
           x509-cert-file=<file>
           x509-cacert-file=<file>
           x509-dh-key-file=<file>
               The x509 file names can also be configured individually.

           tls-ciphers=<list>
               Specify which ciphers to use.

           tls-channel=[main|display|cursor|inputs|record|playback]
           plaintext-channel=[main|display|cursor|inputs|record|playback]
               Force specific channel to be used with or without TLS encryption.  The options can
               be specified multiple times to configure multiple channels.  The special name
               "default" can be used to set the default mode.  For channels which are not
               explicitly forced into one mode the spice client is allowed to pick tls/plaintext
               as he pleases.

           image-compression=[auto_glz|auto_lz|quic|glz|lz|off]
               Configure image compression (lossless).  Default is auto_glz.

           jpeg-wan-compression=[auto|never|always]
           zlib-glz-wan-compression=[auto|never|always]
               Configure wan image compression (lossy for slow links).  Default is auto.

           streaming-video=[off|all|filter]
               Configure video stream detection.  Default is off.

           agent-mouse=[on|off]
               Enable/disable passing mouse events via vdagent.  Default is on.

           playback-compression=[on|off]
               Enable/disable audio stream compression (using celt 0.5.1).  Default is on.

           seamless-migration=[on|off]
               Enable/disable spice seamless migration. Default is off.

           gl=[on|off]
               Enable/disable OpenGL context. Default is off.

           rendernode=<file>
               DRM render node for OpenGL rendering. If not specified, it will pick the first
               available. (Since 2.9)

       -portrait
           Rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD).

       -rotate deg
           Rotate graphical output some deg left (only PXA LCD).

       -vga type
           Select type of VGA card to emulate. Valid values for type are

           cirrus
               Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video card. All Windows versions starting from Windows 95
               should recognize and use this graphic card. For optimal performances, use 16 bit
               color depth in the guest and the host OS.  (This card was the default before QEMU
               2.2)

           std Standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions.  If your guest OS supports the VESA
               2.0 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want to use high resolution modes
               (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use this option. (This card is the default since
               QEMU 2.2)

           vmware
               VMWare SVGA-II compatible adapter. Use it if you have sufficiently recent
               XFree86/XOrg server or Windows guest with a driver for this card.

           qxl QXL paravirtual graphic card.  It is VGA compatible (including VESA 2.0 VBE
               support).  Works best with qxl guest drivers installed though.  Recommended choice
               when using the spice protocol.

           tcx (sun4m only) Sun TCX framebuffer. This is the default framebuffer for sun4m
               machines and offers both 8-bit and 24-bit colour depths at a fixed resolution of
               1024x768.

           cg3 (sun4m only) Sun cgthree framebuffer. This is a simple 8-bit framebuffer for sun4m
               machines available in both 1024x768 (OpenBIOS) and 1152x900 (OBP) resolutions
               aimed at people wishing to run older Solaris versions.

           virtio
               Virtio VGA card.

           none
               Disable VGA card.

       -full-screen
           Start in full screen.

       -g widthxheight[xdepth]
           Set the initial graphical resolution and depth (PPC, SPARC only).

       -vnc display[,option[,option[,...]]]
           Normally, if QEMU is compiled with graphical window support, it displays output such
           as guest graphics, guest console, and the QEMU monitor in a window. With this option,
           you can have QEMU listen on VNC display display and redirect the VGA display over the
           VNC session. It is very useful to enable the usb tablet device when using this option
           (option -device usb-tablet). When using the VNC display, you must use the -k parameter
           to set the keyboard layout if you are not using en-us. Valid syntax for the display is

           to=L
               With this option, QEMU will try next available VNC displays, until the number L,
               if the origianlly defined "-vnc display" is not available, e.g. port 5900+display
               is already used by another application. By default, to=0.

           host:d
               TCP connections will only be allowed from host on display d.  By convention the
               TCP port is 5900+d. Optionally, host can be omitted in which case the server will
               accept connections from any host.

           unix:path
               Connections will be allowed over UNIX domain sockets where path is the location of
               a unix socket to listen for connections on.

           none
               VNC is initialized but not started. The monitor "change" command can be used to
               later start the VNC server.

           Following the display value there may be one or more option flags separated by commas.
           Valid options are

           reverse
               Connect to a listening VNC client via a "reverse" connection. The client is
               specified by the display. For reverse network connections (host:d,"reverse"), the
               d argument is a TCP port number, not a display number.

           websocket
               Opens an additional TCP listening port dedicated to VNC Websocket connections.  If
               a bare websocket option is given, the Websocket port is 5700+display. An
               alternative port can be specified with the syntax "websocket"=port.

               If host is specified connections will only be allowed from this host.  It is
               possible to control the websocket listen address independently, using the syntax
               "websocket"=host:port.

               If no TLS credentials are provided, the websocket connection runs in unencrypted
               mode. If TLS credentials are provided, the websocket connection requires encrypted
               client connections.

           password
               Require that password based authentication is used for client connections.

               The password must be set separately using the "set_password" command in the
               pcsys_monitor. The syntax to change your password is: "set_password <protocol>
               <password>" where <protocol> could be either "vnc" or "spice".

               If you would like to change <protocol> password expiration, you should use
               "expire_password <protocol> <expiration-time>" where expiration time could be one
               of the following options: now, never, +seconds or UNIX time of expiration, e.g.
               +60 to make password expire in 60 seconds, or 1335196800 to make password expire
               on "Mon Apr 23 12:00:00 EDT 2012" (UNIX time for this date and time).

               You can also use keywords "now" or "never" for the expiration time to allow
               <protocol> password to expire immediately or never expire.

           tls-creds=ID
               Provides the ID of a set of TLS credentials to use to secure the VNC server. They
               will apply to both the normal VNC server socket and the websocket socket (if
               enabled). Setting TLS credentials will cause the VNC server socket to enable the
               VeNCrypt auth mechanism.  The credentials should have been previously created
               using the -object tls-creds argument.

               The tls-creds parameter obsoletes the tls, x509, and x509verify options, and as
               such it is not permitted to set both new and old type options at the same time.

           tls Require that client use TLS when communicating with the VNC server. This uses
               anonymous TLS credentials so is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack. It is
               recommended that this option be combined with either the x509 or x509verify
               options.

               This option is now deprecated in favor of using the tls-creds argument.

           x509=/path/to/certificate/dir
               Valid if tls is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used for negotiating
               the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate to the client. It is
               recommended that a password be set on the VNC server to provide authentication of
               the client when this is used. The path following this option specifies where the
               x509 certificates are to be loaded from.  See the vnc_security section for details
               on generating certificates.

               This option is now deprecated in favour of using the tls-creds argument.

           x509verify=/path/to/certificate/dir
               Valid if tls is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used for negotiating
               the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate to the client, and
               request that the client send its own x509 certificate.  The server will validate
               the client's certificate against the CA certificate, and reject clients when
               validation fails. If the certificate authority is trusted, this is a sufficient
               authentication mechanism. You may still wish to set a password on the VNC server
               as a second authentication layer. The path following this option specifies where
               the x509 certificates are to be loaded from. See the vnc_security section for
               details on generating certificates.

               This option is now deprecated in favour of using the tls-creds argument.

           sasl
               Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the VNC server.  The exact
               choice of authentication method used is controlled from the system / user's SASL
               configuration file for the 'qemu' service. This is typically found in
               /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an unprivileged user, an environment
               variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used to make it search alternate locations for the
               service config.  While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg
               GSSAPI), it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the 'tls' and 'x509'
               settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This ensures a data
               encryption preventing compromise of authentication credentials. See the
               vnc_security section for details on using SASL authentication.

           acl Turn on access control lists for checking of the x509 client certificate and SASL
               party. For x509 certs, the ACL check is made against the certificate's
               distinguished name. This is something that looks like
               "C=GB,O=ACME,L=Boston,CN=bob". For SASL party, the ACL check is made against the
               username, which depending on the SASL plugin, may include a realm component, eg
               "bob" or "bob@EXAMPLE.COM".  When the acl flag is set, the initial access list
               will be empty, with a "deny" policy. Thus no one will be allowed to use the VNC
               server until the ACLs have been loaded. This can be achieved using the "acl"
               monitor command.

           lossy
               Enable lossy compression methods (gradient, JPEG, ...). If this option is set, VNC
               client may receive lossy framebuffer updates depending on its encoding settings.
               Enabling this option can save a lot of bandwidth at the expense of quality.

           non-adaptive
               Disable adaptive encodings. Adaptive encodings are enabled by default.  An
               adaptive encoding will try to detect frequently updated screen regions, and send
               updates in these regions using a lossy encoding (like JPEG).  This can be really
               helpful to save bandwidth when playing videos. Disabling adaptive encodings
               restores the original static behavior of encodings like Tight.

           share=[allow-exclusive|force-shared|ignore]
               Set display sharing policy.  'allow-exclusive' allows clients to ask for exclusive
               access.  As suggested by the rfb spec this is implemented by dropping other
               connections.  Connecting multiple clients in parallel requires all clients asking
               for a shared session (vncviewer: -shared switch).  This is the default.
               'force-shared' disables exclusive client access.  Useful for shared desktop
               sessions, where you don't want someone forgetting specify -shared disconnect
               everybody else.  'ignore' completely ignores the shared flag and allows everybody
               connect unconditionally.  Doesn't conform to the rfb spec but is traditional QEMU
               behavior.

           key-delay-ms
               Set keyboard delay, for key down and key up events, in milliseconds.  Default is
               10.  Keyboards are low-bandwidth devices, so this slowdown can help the device and
               guest to keep up and not lose events in case events are arriving in bulk.
               Possible causes for the latter are flaky network connections, or scripts for
               automated testing.

       i386 target only

       -win2k-hack
           Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After Windows 2000 is
           installed, you no longer need this option (this option slows down the IDE transfers).

       -no-fd-bootchk
           Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in BIOS. May be needed to boot from
           old floppy disks.

       -no-acpi
           Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use it if your
           guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine only).

       -no-hpet
           Disable HPET support.

       -acpitable [sig=str][,rev=n][,oem_id=str][,oem_table_id=str][,oem_rev=n]
       [,asl_compiler_id=str][,asl_compiler_rev=n][,data=file1[:file2]...]
           Add ACPI table with specified header fields and context from specified files.  For
           file=, take whole ACPI table from the specified files, including all ACPI headers
           (possible overridden by other options).  For data=, only data portion of the table is
           used, all header information is specified in the command line.  If a SLIC table is
           supplied to QEMU, then the SLIC's oem_id and oem_table_id fields will override the
           same in the RSDT and the FADT (a.k.a. FACP), in order to ensure the field matches
           required by the Microsoft SLIC spec and the ACPI spec.

       -smbios file=binary
           Load SMBIOS entry from binary file.

       -smbios type=0[,vendor=str][,version=str][,date=str][,release=%d.%d][,uefi=on|off]
           Specify SMBIOS type 0 fields

       -smbios
       type=1[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str][,uuid=uuid][,sku=str][,family=str]
           Specify SMBIOS type 1 fields

       -smbios
       type=2[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str][,asset=str][,location=str][,family=str]
           Specify SMBIOS type 2 fields

       -smbios type=3[,manufacturer=str][,version=str][,serial=str][,asset=str][,sku=str]
           Specify SMBIOS type 3 fields

       -smbios
       type=4[,sock_pfx=str][,manufacturer=str][,version=str][,serial=str][,asset=str][,part=str]
           Specify SMBIOS type 4 fields

       -smbios
       type=17[,loc_pfx=str][,bank=str][,manufacturer=str][,serial=str][,asset=str][,part=str][,speed=%d]
           Specify SMBIOS type 17 fields

       Network options

       -nic [tap|bridge|user|l2tpv3|vde|netmap|vhost-user|socket][,...][,mac=macaddr][,model=mn]
           This option is a shortcut for configuring both the on-board (default) guest NIC
           hardware and the host network backend in one go. The host backend options are the same
           as with the corresponding -netdev options below.  The guest NIC model can be set with
           model=modelname.  Use model=help to list the available device types.  The hardware MAC
           address can be set with mac=macaddr.

           The following two example do exactly the same, to show how -nic can be used to shorten
           the command line length (note that the e1000 is the default on i386, so the
           model=e1000 parameter could even be omitted here, too):

                   qemu-system-i386 -netdev user,id=n1,ipv6=off -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:98:76:54:32
                   qemu-system-i386 -nic user,ipv6=off,model=e1000,mac=52:54:98:76:54:32

       -nic none
           Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to override the
           default configuration (default NIC with "user" host network backend) which is
           activated if no other networking options are provided.

       -netdev user,id=id[,option][,option][,...]
           Configure user mode host network backend which requires no administrator privilege to
           run. Valid options are:

           id=id
               Assign symbolic name for use in monitor commands.

           ipv4=on|off and ipv6=on|off
               Specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be enabled. If neither is specified both
               protocols are enabled.

           net=addr[/mask]
               Set IP network address the guest will see. Optionally specify the netmask, either
               in the form a.b.c.d or as number of valid top-most bits. Default is 10.0.2.0/24.

           host=addr
               Specify the guest-visible address of the host. Default is the 2nd IP in the guest
               network, i.e. x.x.x.2.

           ipv6-net=addr[/int]
               Set IPv6 network address the guest will see (default is fec0::/64). The network
               prefix is given in the usual hexadecimal IPv6 address notation. The prefix size is
               optional, and is given as the number of valid top-most bits (default is 64).

           ipv6-host=addr
               Specify the guest-visible IPv6 address of the host. Default is the 2nd IPv6 in the
               guest network, i.e. xxxx::2.

           restrict=on|off
               If this option is enabled, the guest will be isolated, i.e. it will not be able to
               contact the host and no guest IP packets will be routed over the host to the
               outside. This option does not affect any explicitly set forwarding rules.

           hostname=name
               Specifies the client hostname reported by the built-in DHCP server.

           dhcpstart=addr
               Specify the first of the 16 IPs the built-in DHCP server can assign. Default is
               the 15th to 31st IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.15 to x.x.x.31.

           dns=addr
               Specify the guest-visible address of the virtual nameserver. The address must be
               different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest network, i.e.
               x.x.x.3.

           ipv6-dns=addr
               Specify the guest-visible address of the IPv6 virtual nameserver. The address must
               be different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest network,
               i.e. xxxx::3.

           dnssearch=domain
               Provides an entry for the domain-search list sent by the built-in DHCP server.
               More than one domain suffix can be transmitted by specifying this option multiple
               times. If supported, this will cause the guest to automatically try to append the
               given domain suffix(es) in case a domain name can not be resolved.

               Example:

                       qemu-system-i386 -nic user,dnssearch=mgmt.example.org,dnssearch=example.org

           tftp=dir
               When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP server. The files
               in dir will be exposed as the root of a TFTP server.  The TFTP client on the guest
               must be configured in binary mode (use the command "bin" of the Unix TFTP client).

           bootfile=file
               When using the user mode network stack, broadcast file as the BOOTP filename. In
               conjunction with tftp, this can be used to network boot a guest from a local
               directory.

               Example (using pxelinux):

                       qemu-system-i386 -hda linux.img -boot n -device e1000,netdev=n1 \
                       -netdev user,id=n1,tftp=/path/to/tftp/files,bootfile=/pxelinux.0

           smb=dir[,smbserver=addr]
               When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB server so that
               Windows OSes can access to the host files in dir transparently. The IP address of
               the SMB server can be set to addr. By default the 4th IP in the guest network is
               used, i.e. x.x.x.4.

               In the guest Windows OS, the line:

                       10.0.2.4 smbserver

               must be added in the file C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS (for windows 9x/Me) or
               C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS (Windows NT/2000).

               Then dir can be accessed in \\smbserver\qemu.

               Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS.

           hostfwd=[tcp|udp]:[hostaddr]:hostport-[guestaddr]:guestport
               Redirect incoming TCP or UDP connections to the host port hostport to the guest IP
               address guestaddr on guest port guestport. If guestaddr is not specified, its
               value is x.x.x.15 (default first address given by the built-in DHCP server). By
               specifying hostaddr, the rule can be bound to a specific host interface. If no
               connection type is set, TCP is used. This option can be given multiple times.

               For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest screen 0, use
               the following:

                       # on the host
                       qemu-system-i386 -nic user,hostfwd=tcp:127.0.0.1:6001-:6000
                       # this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
                       xterm -display :1

               To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on the guest,
               use the following:

                       # on the host
                       qemu-system-i386 -nic user,hostfwd=tcp::5555-:23
                       telnet localhost 5555

               Then when you use on the host "telnet localhost 5555", you connect to the guest
               telnet server.

           guestfwd=[tcp]:server:port-dev
           guestfwd=[tcp]:server:port-cmd:command
               Forward guest TCP connections to the IP address server on port port to the
               character device dev or to a program executed by cmd:command which gets spawned
               for each connection. This option can be given multiple times.

               You can either use a chardev directly and have that one used throughout QEMU's
               lifetime, like in the following example:

                       # open 10.10.1.1:4321 on bootup, connect 10.0.2.100:1234 to it whenever
                       # the guest accesses it
                       qemu-system-i386 -nic user,guestfwd=tcp:10.0.2.100:1234-tcp:10.10.1.1:4321

               Or you can execute a command on every TCP connection established by the guest, so
               that QEMU behaves similar to an inetd process for that virtual server:

                       # call "netcat 10.10.1.1 4321" on every TCP connection to 10.0.2.100:1234
                       # and connect the TCP stream to its stdin/stdout
                       qemu-system-i386 -nic  'user,id=n1,guestfwd=tcp:10.0.2.100:1234-cmd:netcat 10.10.1.1 4321'

           Note: Legacy stand-alone options -tftp, -bootp, -smb and -redir are still processed
           and applied to -net user. Mixing them with the new configuration syntax gives
           undefined results. Their use for new applications is discouraged as they will be
           removed from future versions.

       -netdev
       tap,id=id[,fd=h][,ifname=name][,script=file][,downscript=dfile][,br=bridge][,helper=helper]
           Configure a host TAP network backend with ID id.

           Use the network script file to configure it and the network script dfile to
           deconfigure it. If name is not provided, the OS automatically provides one. The
           default network configure script is /etc/qemu-ifup and the default network deconfigure
           script is /etc/qemu-ifdown. Use script=no or downscript=no to disable script
           execution.

           If running QEMU as an unprivileged user, use the network helper helper to configure
           the TAP interface and attach it to the bridge.  The default network helper executable
           is /path/to/qemu-bridge-helper and the default bridge device is br0.

           fd=h can be used to specify the handle of an already opened host TAP interface.

           Examples:

                   #launch a QEMU instance with the default network script
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img -nic tap

                   #launch a QEMU instance with two NICs, each one connected
                   #to a TAP device
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
                   -netdev tap,id=nd0,ifname=tap0 -device e1000,netdev=nd0 \
                   -netdev tap,id=nd1,ifname=tap1 -device rtl8139,netdev=nd1

                   #launch a QEMU instance with the default network helper to
                   #connect a TAP device to bridge br0
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=n1 \
                   -netdev tap,id=n1,"helper=/path/to/qemu-bridge-helper"

       -netdev bridge,id=id[,br=bridge][,helper=helper]
           Connect a host TAP network interface to a host bridge device.

           Use the network helper helper to configure the TAP interface and attach it to the
           bridge. The default network helper executable is /path/to/qemu-bridge-helper and the
           default bridge device is br0.

           Examples:

                   #launch a QEMU instance with the default network helper to
                   #connect a TAP device to bridge br0
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img -netdev bridge,id=n1 -device virtio-net,netdev=n1

                   #launch a QEMU instance with the default network helper to
                   #connect a TAP device to bridge qemubr0
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img -netdev bridge,br=qemubr0,id=n1 -device virtio-net,netdev=n1

       -netdev socket,id=id[,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]
           This host network backend can be used to connect the guest's network to another QEMU
           virtual machine using a TCP socket connection. If listen is specified, QEMU waits for
           incoming connections on port (host is optional). connect is used to connect to another
           QEMU instance using the listen option. fd=h specifies an already opened TCP socket.

           Example:

                   # launch a first QEMU instance
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
                   -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                   -netdev socket,id=n1,listen=:1234
                   # connect the network of this instance to the network of the first instance
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
                   -device e1000,netdev=n2,mac=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
                   -netdev socket,id=n2,connect=127.0.0.1:1234

       -netdev socket,id=id[,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port[,localaddr=addr]]
           Configure a socket host network backend to share the guest's network traffic with
           another QEMU virtual machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively making a bus
           for every QEMU with same multicast address maddr and port.  NOTES:

           1.  Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
               correct multicast setup for these hosts).

           2.  mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument ethN=mcast), see
               <http://user-mode-linux.sf.net>.

           3.  Use fd=h to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.

           Example:

                   # launch one QEMU instance
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
                   -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                   -netdev socket,id=n1,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
                   # launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
                   -device e1000,netdev=n2,mac=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
                   -netdev socket,id=n2,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
                   # launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
                   -device e1000,netdev=n3,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
                   -netdev socket,id=n3,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234

           Example (User Mode Linux compat.):

                   # launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected is UML's default)
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
                   -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                   -netdev socket,id=n1,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102
                   # launch UML
                   /path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast

           Example (send packets from host's 1.2.3.4):

                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
                   -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
                   -netdev socket,id=n1,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102,localaddr=1.2.3.4

       -netdev
       l2tpv3,id=id,src=srcaddr,dst=dstaddr[,srcport=srcport][,dstport=dstport],txsession=txsession[,rxsession=rxsession][,ipv6][,udp][,cookie64][,counter][,pincounter][,txcookie=txcookie][,rxcookie=rxcookie][,offset=offset]
           Configure a L2TPv3 pseudowire host network backend. L2TPv3 (RFC3391) is a popular
           protocol to transport Ethernet (and other Layer 2) data frames between two systems. It
           is present in routers, firewalls and the Linux kernel (from version 3.3 onwards).

           This transport allows a VM to communicate to another VM, router or firewall directly.

           src=srcaddr
               source address (mandatory)

           dst=dstaddr
               destination address (mandatory)

           udp select udp encapsulation (default is ip).

           srcport=srcport
               source udp port.

           dstport=dstport
               destination udp port.

           ipv6
               force v6, otherwise defaults to v4.

           rxcookie=rxcookie
           txcookie=txcookie
               Cookies are a weak form of security in the l2tpv3 specification.  Their function
               is mostly to prevent misconfiguration. By default they are 32 bit.

           cookie64
               Set cookie size to 64 bit instead of the default 32

           counter=off
               Force a 'cut-down' L2TPv3 with no counter as in
               draft-mkonstan-l2tpext-keyed-ipv6-tunnel-00

           pincounter=on
               Work around broken counter handling in peer. This may also help on networks which
               have packet reorder.

           offset=offset
               Add an extra offset between header and data

           For example, to attach a VM running on host 4.3.2.1 via L2TPv3 to the bridge br-lan on
           the remote Linux host 1.2.3.4:

                   # Setup tunnel on linux host using raw ip as encapsulation
                   # on 1.2.3.4
                   ip l2tp add tunnel remote 4.3.2.1 local 1.2.3.4 tunnel_id 1 peer_tunnel_id 1 \
                   encap udp udp_sport 16384 udp_dport 16384
                   ip l2tp add session tunnel_id 1 name vmtunnel0 session_id \
                   0xFFFFFFFF peer_session_id 0xFFFFFFFF
                   ifconfig vmtunnel0 mtu 1500
                   ifconfig vmtunnel0 up
                   brctl addif br-lan vmtunnel0

                   # on 4.3.2.1
                   # launch QEMU instance - if your network has reorder or is very lossy add ,pincounter

                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img -device e1000,netdev=n1 \
                   -netdev l2tpv3,id=n1,src=4.2.3.1,dst=1.2.3.4,udp,srcport=16384,dstport=16384,rxsession=0xffffffff,txsession=0xffffffff,counter

       -netdev vde,id=id[,sock=socketpath][,port=n][,group=groupname][,mode=octalmode]
           Configure VDE backend to connect to PORT n of a vde switch running on host and
           listening for incoming connections on socketpath. Use GROUP groupname and MODE
           octalmode to change default ownership and permissions for communication port. This
           option is only available if QEMU has been compiled with vde support enabled.

           Example:

                   # launch vde switch
                   vde_switch -F -sock /tmp/myswitch
                   # launch QEMU instance
                   qemu-system-i386 linux.img -nic vde,sock=/tmp/myswitch

       -netdev vhost-user,chardev=id[,vhostforce=on|off][,queues=n]
           Establish a vhost-user netdev, backed by a chardev id. The chardev should be a unix
           domain socket backed one. The vhost-user uses a specifically defined protocol to pass
           vhost ioctl replacement messages to an application on the other end of the socket. On
           non-MSIX guests, the feature can be forced with vhostforce. Use 'queues=n' to specify
           the number of queues to be created for multiqueue vhost-user.

           Example:

                   qemu -m 512 -object memory-backend-file,id=mem,size=512M,mem-path=/hugetlbfs,share=on \
                   -numa node,memdev=mem \
                   -chardev socket,id=chr0,path=/path/to/socket \
                   -netdev type=vhost-user,id=net0,chardev=chr0 \
                   -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=net0

       -netdev hubport,id=id,hubid=hubid[,netdev=nd]
           Create a hub port on the emulated hub with ID hubid.

           The hubport netdev lets you connect a NIC to a QEMU emulated hub instead of a single
           netdev. "-net" and "-device" with the parameter vlan (deprecated), or "-nic hubport"
           can also be used to connect a network device or a NIC to a hub. Alternatively, you can
           also connect the hubport to another netdev with ID nd by using the netdev=nd option.

       -net nic[,vlan=n][,netdev=nd][,macaddr=mac][,model=type]
       [,name=name][,addr=addr][,vectors=v]
           Legacy option to configure or create an on-board (or machine default) Network
           Interface Card(NIC) and connect it either to the emulated hub port ("vlan") with
           number n (n = 0 is the default), or to the netdev nd.  The NIC is an e1000 by default
           on the PC target. Optionally, the MAC address can be changed to mac, the device
           address set to addr (PCI cards only), and a name can be assigned for use in monitor
           commands.  Optionally, for PCI cards, you can specify the number v of MSI-X vectors
           that the card should have; this option currently only affects virtio cards; set v = 0
           to disable MSI-X. If no -net option is specified, a single NIC is created.  QEMU can
           emulate several different models of network card.  Use "-net nic,model=help" for a
           list of available devices for your target.

       -net user|tap|bridge|socket|l2tpv3|vde[,...][,vlan=n][,name=name]
           Configure a host network backend (with the options corresponding to the same -netdev
           option) and connect it to the emulated hub ("vlan") with the number n (default is
           number 0). Use name to specify the name of the hub port.

       Character device options

       The general form of a character device option is:

       -chardev backend,id=id[,mux=on|off][,options]
           Backend is one of: null, socket, udp, msmouse, vc, ringbuf, file, pipe, console,
           serial, pty, stdio, braille, tty, parallel, parport, spicevmc, spiceport.  The
           specific backend will determine the applicable options.

           Use "-chardev help" to print all available chardev backend types.

           All devices must have an id, which can be any string up to 127 characters long.  It is
           used to uniquely identify this device in other command line directives.

           A character device may be used in multiplexing mode by multiple front-ends.  Specify
           mux=on to enable this mode.  A multiplexer is a "1:N" device, and here the "1" end is
           your specified chardev backend, and the "N" end is the various parts of QEMU that can
           talk to a chardev.  If you create a chardev with id=myid and mux=on, QEMU will create
           a multiplexer with your specified ID, and you can then configure multiple front ends
           to use that chardev ID for their input/output. Up to four different front ends can be
           connected to a single multiplexed chardev. (Without multiplexing enabled, a chardev
           can only be used by a single front end.)  For instance you could use this to allow a
           single stdio chardev to be used by two serial ports and the QEMU monitor:

                   -chardev stdio,mux=on,id=char0 \
                   -mon chardev=char0,mode=readline \
                   -serial chardev:char0 \
                   -serial chardev:char0

           You can have more than one multiplexer in a system configuration; for instance you
           could have a TCP port multiplexed between UART 0 and UART 1, and stdio multiplexed
           between the QEMU monitor and a parallel port:

                   -chardev stdio,mux=on,id=char0 \
                   -mon chardev=char0,mode=readline \
                   -parallel chardev:char0 \
                   -chardev tcp,...,mux=on,id=char1 \
                   -serial chardev:char1 \
                   -serial chardev:char1

           When you're using a multiplexed character device, some escape sequences are
           interpreted in the input.

           Note that some other command line options may implicitly create multiplexed character
           backends; for instance -serial mon:stdio creates a multiplexed stdio backend connected
           to the serial port and the QEMU monitor, and -nographic also multiplexes the console
           and the monitor to stdio.

           There is currently no support for multiplexing in the other direction (where a single
           QEMU front end takes input and output from multiple chardevs).

           Every backend supports the logfile option, which supplies the path to a file to record
           all data transmitted via the backend. The logappend option controls whether the log
           file will be truncated or appended to when opened.

       The available backends are:

       -chardev null,id=id
           A void device. This device will not emit any data, and will drop any data it receives.
           The null backend does not take any options.

       -chardev socket,id=id[,TCP options or unix
       options][,server][,nowait][,telnet][,reconnect=seconds][,tls-creds=id]
           Create a two-way stream socket, which can be either a TCP or a unix socket. A unix
           socket will be created if path is specified. Behaviour is undefined if TCP options are
           specified for a unix socket.

           server specifies that the socket shall be a listening socket.

           nowait specifies that QEMU should not block waiting for a client to connect to a
           listening socket.

           telnet specifies that traffic on the socket should interpret telnet escape sequences.

           reconnect sets the timeout for reconnecting on non-server sockets when the remote end
           goes away.  qemu will delay this many seconds and then attempt to reconnect.  Zero
           disables reconnecting, and is the default.

           tls-creds requests enablement of the TLS protocol for encryption, and specifies the id
           of the TLS credentials to use for the handshake. The credentials must be previously
           created with the -object tls-creds argument.

           TCP and unix socket options are given below:

           TCP options: port=port[,host=host][,to=to][,ipv4][,ipv6][,nodelay]
               host for a listening socket specifies the local address to be bound.  For a
               connecting socket species the remote host to connect to. host is optional for
               listening sockets. If not specified it defaults to 0.0.0.0.

               port for a listening socket specifies the local port to be bound. For a connecting
               socket specifies the port on the remote host to connect to.  port can be given as
               either a port number or a service name.  port is required.

               to is only relevant to listening sockets. If it is specified, and port cannot be
               bound, QEMU will attempt to bind to subsequent ports up to and including to until
               it succeeds. to must be specified as a port number.

               ipv4 and ipv6 specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.  If neither is
               specified the socket may use either protocol.

               nodelay disables the Nagle algorithm.

           unix options: path=path
               path specifies the local path of the unix socket. path is required.

       -chardev
       udp,id=id[,host=host],port=port[,localaddr=localaddr][,localport=localport][,ipv4][,ipv6]
           Sends all traffic from the guest to a remote host over UDP.

           host specifies the remote host to connect to. If not specified it defaults to
           "localhost".

           port specifies the port on the remote host to connect to. port is required.

           localaddr specifies the local address to bind to. If not specified it defaults to
           0.0.0.0.

           localport specifies the local port to bind to. If not specified any available local
           port will be used.

           ipv4 and ipv6 specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.  If neither is specified
           the device may use either protocol.

       -chardev msmouse,id=id
           Forward QEMU's emulated msmouse events to the guest. msmouse does not take any
           options.

       -chardev vc,id=id[[,width=width][,height=height]][[,cols=cols][,rows=rows]]
           Connect to a QEMU text console. vc may optionally be given a specific size.

           width and height specify the width and height respectively of the console, in pixels.

           cols and rows specify that the console be sized to fit a text console with the given
           dimensions.

       -chardev ringbuf,id=id[,size=size]
           Create a ring buffer with fixed size size.  size must be a power of two and defaults
           to "64K".

       -chardev file,id=id,path=path
           Log all traffic received from the guest to a file.

           path specifies the path of the file to be opened. This file will be created if it does
           not already exist, and overwritten if it does. path is required.

       -chardev pipe,id=id,path=path
           Create a two-way connection to the guest. The behaviour differs slightly between
           Windows hosts and other hosts:

           On Windows, a single duplex pipe will be created at \\.pipe\path.

           On other hosts, 2 pipes will be created called path.in and path.out. Data written to
           path.in will be received by the guest. Data written by the guest can be read from
           path.out. QEMU will not create these fifos, and requires them to be present.

           path forms part of the pipe path as described above. path is required.

       -chardev console,id=id
           Send traffic from the guest to QEMU's standard output. console does not take any
           options.

           console is only available on Windows hosts.

       -chardev serial,id=id,path=path
           Send traffic from the guest to a serial device on the host.

           On Unix hosts serial will actually accept any tty device, not only serial lines.

           path specifies the name of the serial device to open.

       -chardev pty,id=id
           Create a new pseudo-terminal on the host and connect to it. pty does not take any
           options.

           pty is not available on Windows hosts.

       -chardev stdio,id=id[,signal=on|off]
           Connect to standard input and standard output of the QEMU process.

           signal controls if signals are enabled on the terminal, that includes exiting QEMU
           with the key sequence Control-c. This option is enabled by default, use signal=off to
           disable it.

       -chardev braille,id=id
           Connect to a local BrlAPI server. braille does not take any options.

       -chardev tty,id=id,path=path
           tty is only available on Linux, Sun, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.
           It is an alias for serial.

           path specifies the path to the tty. path is required.

       -chardev parallel,id=id,path=path
       -chardev parport,id=id,path=path
           parallel is only available on Linux, FreeBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.

           Connect to a local parallel port.

           path specifies the path to the parallel port device. path is required.

       -chardev spicevmc,id=id,debug=debug,name=name
           spicevmc is only available when spice support is built in.

           debug debug level for spicevmc

           name name of spice channel to connect to

           Connect to a spice virtual machine channel, such as vdiport.

       -chardev spiceport,id=id,debug=debug,name=name
           spiceport is only available when spice support is built in.

           debug debug level for spicevmc

           name name of spice port to connect to

           Connect to a spice port, allowing a Spice client to handle the traffic identified by a
           name (preferably a fqdn).

       Bluetooth(R) options

       -bt hci[...]
           Defines the function of the corresponding Bluetooth HCI.  -bt options are matched with
           the HCIs present in the chosen machine type.  For example when emulating a machine
           with only one HCI built into it, only the first "-bt hci[...]" option is valid and
           defines the HCI's logic.  The Transport Layer is decided by the machine type.
           Currently the machines "n800" and "n810" have one HCI and all other machines have
           none.

           The following three types are recognized:

           -bt hci,null
               (default) The corresponding Bluetooth HCI assumes no internal logic and will not
               respond to any HCI commands or emit events.

           -bt hci,host[:id]
               ("bluez" only) The corresponding HCI passes commands / events to / from the
               physical HCI identified by the name id (default: "hci0") on the computer running
               QEMU.  Only available on "bluez" capable systems like Linux.

           -bt hci[,vlan=n]
               Add a virtual, standard HCI that will participate in the Bluetooth scatternet n
               (default 0).  Similarly to -net VLANs, devices inside a bluetooth network n can
               only communicate with other devices in the same network (scatternet).

       -bt vhci[,vlan=n]
           (Linux-host only) Create a HCI in scatternet n (default 0) attached to the host
           bluetooth stack instead of to the emulated target.  This allows the host and target
           machines to participate in a common scatternet and communicate.  Requires the Linux
           "vhci" driver installed.  Can be used as following:

                   qemu-system-i386 [...OPTIONS...] -bt hci,vlan=5 -bt vhci,vlan=5

       -bt device:dev[,vlan=n]
           Emulate a bluetooth device dev and place it in network n (default 0).  QEMU can only
           emulate one type of bluetooth devices currently:

           keyboard
               Virtual wireless keyboard implementing the HIDP bluetooth profile.

       TPM device options

       The general form of a TPM device option is:

       -tpmdev backend,id=id[,options]
           The specific backend type will determine the applicable options.  The "-tpmdev" option
           creates the TPM backend and requires a "-device" option that specifies the TPM
           frontend interface model.

           Use "-tpmdev help" to print all available TPM backend types.

       The available backends are:

       -tpmdev passthrough,id=id,path=path,cancel-path=cancel-path
           (Linux-host only) Enable access to the host's TPM using the passthrough driver.

           path specifies the path to the host's TPM device, i.e., on a Linux host this would be
           "/dev/tpm0".  path is optional and by default "/dev/tpm0" is used.

           cancel-path specifies the path to the host TPM device's sysfs entry allowing for
           cancellation of an ongoing TPM command.  cancel-path is optional and by default QEMU
           will search for the sysfs entry to use.

           Some notes about using the host's TPM with the passthrough driver:

           The TPM device accessed by the passthrough driver must not be used by any other
           application on the host.

           Since the host's firmware (BIOS/UEFI) has already initialized the TPM, the VM's
           firmware (BIOS/UEFI) will not be able to initialize the TPM again and may therefore
           not show a TPM-specific menu that would otherwise allow the user to configure the TPM,
           e.g., allow the user to enable/disable or activate/deactivate the TPM.  Further, if
           TPM ownership is released from within a VM then the host's TPM will get disabled and
           deactivated. To enable and activate the TPM again afterwards, the host has to be
           rebooted and the user is required to enter the firmware's menu to enable and activate
           the TPM.  If the TPM is left disabled and/or deactivated most TPM commands will fail.

           To create a passthrough TPM use the following two options:

                   -tpmdev passthrough,id=tpm0 -device tpm-tis,tpmdev=tpm0

           Note that the "-tpmdev" id is "tpm0" and is referenced by "tpmdev=tpm0" in the device
           option.

       -tpmdev emulator,id=id,chardev=dev
           (Linux-host only) Enable access to a TPM emulator using Unix domain socket based
           chardev backend.

           chardev specifies the unique ID of a character device backend that provides connection
           to the software TPM server.

           To create a TPM emulator backend device with chardev socket backend:

                   -chardev socket,id=chrtpm,path=/tmp/swtpm-sock -tpmdev emulator,id=tpm0,chardev=chrtpm -device tpm-tis,tpmdev=tpm0

       Linux/Multiboot boot specific

       When using these options, you can use a given Linux or Multiboot kernel without installing
       it in the disk image. It can be useful for easier testing of various kernels.

       -kernel bzImage
           Use bzImage as kernel image. The kernel can be either a Linux kernel or in multiboot
           format.

       -append cmdline
           Use cmdline as kernel command line

       -initrd file
           Use file as initial ram disk.

       -initrd "file1 arg=foo,file2"
           This syntax is only available with multiboot.

           Use file1 and file2 as modules and pass arg=foo as parameter to the first module.

       -dtb file
           Use file as a device tree binary (dtb) image and pass it to the kernel on boot.

       Debug/Expert options

       -fw_cfg [name=]name,file=file
           Add named fw_cfg entry with contents from file file.

       -fw_cfg [name=]name,string=str
           Add named fw_cfg entry with contents from string str.

           The terminating NUL character of the contents of str will not be included as part of
           the fw_cfg item data. To insert contents with embedded NUL characters, you have to use
           the file parameter.

           The fw_cfg entries are passed by QEMU through to the guest.

           Example:

                   -fw_cfg name=opt/com.mycompany/blob,file=./my_blob.bin

           creates an fw_cfg entry named opt/com.mycompany/blob with contents from ./my_blob.bin.

       -serial dev
           Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device dev. The default device is
           "vc" in graphical mode and "stdio" in non graphical mode.

           This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serial ports.

           Use "-serial none" to disable all serial ports.

           Available character devices are:

           vc[:WxH]
               Virtual console. Optionally, a width and height can be given in pixel with

                       vc:800x600

               It is also possible to specify width or height in characters:

                       vc:80Cx24C

           pty [Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)

           none
               No device is allocated.

           null
               void device

           chardev:id
               Use a named character device defined with the "-chardev" option.

           /dev/XXX
               [Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. /dev/ttyS0. The host serial port parameters are
               set according to the emulated ones.

           /dev/parportN
               [Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port N. Currently SPP and EPP
               parallel port features can be used.

           file:filename
               Write output to filename. No character can be read.

           stdio
               [Unix only] standard input/output

           pipe:filename
               name pipe filename

           COMn
               [Windows only] Use host serial port n

           udp:[remote_host]:remote_port[@[src_ip]:src_port]
               This implements UDP Net Console.  When remote_host or src_ip are not specified
               they default to 0.0.0.0.  When not using a specified src_port a random port is
               automatically chosen.

               If you just want a simple readonly console you can use "netcat" or "nc", by
               starting QEMU with: "-serial udp::4555" and nc as: "nc -u -l -p 4555". Any time
               QEMU writes something to that port it will appear in the netconsole session.

               If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop and start
               QEMU a lot of times, you should have QEMU use the same source port each time by
               using something like "-serial udp::4555@4556" to QEMU. Another approach is to use
               a patched version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
               characters via udp.  If you have a patched version of netcat which activates
               telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can use the following
               options to set up a netcat redirector to allow telnet on port 5555 to access the
               QEMU port.

               "QEMU Options:"
                   -serial udp::4555@4556

               "netcat options:"
                   -u -P 4555 -L 0.0.0.0:4556 -t -p 5555 -I -T

               "telnet options:"
                   localhost 5555

           tcp:[host]:port[,server][,nowait][,nodelay][,reconnect=seconds]
               The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation.  It can send the serial I/O to a
               location or wait for a connection from a location.  By default the TCP Net Console
               is sent to host at the port.  If you use the server option QEMU will wait for a
               client socket application to connect to the port before continuing, unless the
               "nowait" option was specified.  The "nodelay" option disables the Nagle buffering
               algorithm.  The "reconnect" option only applies if noserver is set, if the
               connection goes down it will attempt to reconnect at the given interval.  If host
               is omitted, 0.0.0.0 is assumed. Only one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You
               can use "telnet" to connect to the corresponding character device.

               "Example to send tcp console to 192.168.0.2 port 4444"
                   -serial tcp:192.168.0.2:4444

               "Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection"
                   -serial tcp::4444,server

               "Example to not wait and listen on ip 192.168.0.100 port 4444"
                   -serial tcp:192.168.0.100:4444,server,nowait

           telnet:host:port[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
               The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets.  The options work the same
               as if you had specified "-serial tcp".  The difference is that the port acts like
               a telnet server or client using telnet option negotiation.  This will also allow
               you to send the MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the
               break sequence.  Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then type
               "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.

           unix:path[,server][,nowait][,reconnect=seconds]
               A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket.  The option works the same
               as if you had specified "-serial tcp" except the unix domain socket path is used
               for connections.

           mon:dev_string
               This is a special option to allow the monitor to be multiplexed onto another
               serial port.  The monitor is accessed with key sequence of Control-a and then
               pressing c.  dev_string should be any one of the serial devices specified above.
               An example to multiplex the monitor onto a telnet server listening on port 4444
               would be:

               "-serial mon:telnet::4444,server,nowait"

               When the monitor is multiplexed to stdio in this way, Ctrl+C will not terminate
               QEMU any more but will be passed to the guest instead.

           braille
               Braille device.  This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real or
               fake device.

           msmouse
               Three button serial mouse. Configure the guest to use Microsoft protocol.

       -parallel dev
           Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device dev (same devices as the serial
           port). On Linux hosts, /dev/parportN can be used to use hardware devices connected on
           the corresponding host parallel port.

           This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel ports.

           Use "-parallel none" to disable all parallel ports.

       -monitor dev
           Redirect the monitor to host device dev (same devices as the serial port).  The
           default device is "vc" in graphical mode and "stdio" in non graphical mode.  Use
           "-monitor none" to disable the default monitor.

       -qmp dev
           Like -monitor but opens in 'control' mode.

       -qmp-pretty dev
           Like -qmp but uses pretty JSON formatting.

       -mon [chardev=]name[,mode=readline|control][,pretty[=on|off]]
           Setup monitor on chardev name. "pretty" turns on JSON pretty printing easing human
           reading and debugging.

       -debugcon dev
           Redirect the debug console to host device dev (same devices as the serial port).  The
           debug console is an I/O port which is typically port 0xe9; writing to that I/O port
           sends output to this device.  The default device is "vc" in graphical mode and "stdio"
           in non graphical mode.

       -pidfile file
           Store the QEMU process PID in file. It is useful if you launch QEMU from a script.

       -singlestep
           Run the emulation in single step mode.

       -S  Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).

       -realtime mlock=on|off
           Run qemu with realtime features.  mlocking qemu and guest memory can be enabled via
           mlock=on (enabled by default).

       -gdb dev
           Wait for gdb connection on device dev. Typical connections will likely be TCP-based,
           but also UDP, pseudo TTY, or even stdio are reasonable use case. The latter is
           allowing to start QEMU from within gdb and establish the connection via a pipe:

                   (gdb) target remote | exec qemu-system-i386 -gdb stdio ...

       -s  Shorthand for -gdb tcp::1234, i.e. open a gdbserver on TCP port 1234.

       -d item1[,...]
           Enable logging of specified items. Use '-d help' for a list of log items.

       -D logfile
           Output log in logfile instead of to stderr

       -dfilter range1[,...]
           Filter debug output to that relevant to a range of target addresses. The filter spec
           can be either start+size, start-size or start..end where start end and size are the
           addresses and sizes required. For example:

                   -dfilter 0x8000..0x8fff,0xffffffc000080000+0x200,0xffffffc000060000-0x1000

           Will dump output for any code in the 0x1000 sized block starting at 0x8000 and the
           0x200 sized block starting at 0xffffffc000080000 and another 0x1000 sized block
           starting at 0xffffffc00005f000.

       -L  path
           Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.

           To list all the data directories, use "-L help".

       -bios file
           Set the filename for the BIOS.

       -enable-kvm
           Enable KVM full virtualization support. This option is only available if KVM support
           is enabled when compiling.

       -enable-hax
           Enable HAX (Hardware-based Acceleration eXecution) support. This option is only
           available if HAX support is enabled when compiling. HAX is only applicable to MAC and
           Windows platform, and thus does not conflict with KVM.

       -xen-domid id
           Specify xen guest domain id (XEN only).

       -xen-create
           Create domain using xen hypercalls, bypassing xend.  Warning: should not be used when
           xend is in use (XEN only).

       -xen-attach
           Attach to existing xen domain.  xend will use this when starting QEMU (XEN only).
           Restrict set of available xen operations to specified domain id (XEN only).

       -no-reboot
           Exit instead of rebooting.

       -no-shutdown
           Don't exit QEMU on guest shutdown, but instead only stop the emulation.  This allows
           for instance switching to monitor to commit changes to the disk image.

       -loadvm file
           Start right away with a saved state ("loadvm" in monitor)

       -daemonize
           Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization.  QEMU will not detach from standard
           IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.  This option is a
           useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having to cope with
           initialization race conditions.

       -option-rom file
           Load the contents of file as an option ROM.  This option is useful to load things like
           EtherBoot.

       -rtc [base=utc|localtime|date][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]
           Specify base as "utc" or "localtime" to let the RTC start at the current UTC or local
           time, respectively. "localtime" is required for correct date in MS-DOS or Windows. To
           start at a specific point in time, provide date in the format "2006-06-17T16:01:21" or
           "2006-06-17". The default base is UTC.

           By default the RTC is driven by the host system time. This allows using of the RTC as
           accurate reference clock inside the guest, specifically if the host time is smoothly
           following an accurate external reference clock, e.g. via NTP.  If you want to isolate
           the guest time from the host, you can set clock to "rt" instead.  To even prevent it
           from progressing during suspension, you can set it to "vm".

           Enable driftfix (i386 targets only) if you experience time drift problems,
           specifically with Windows' ACPI HAL. This option will try to figure out how many timer
           interrupts were not processed by the Windows guest and will re-inject them.

       -icount [shift=N|auto][,rr=record|replay,rrfile=filename,rrsnapshot=snapshot]
           Enable virtual instruction counter.  The virtual cpu will execute one instruction
           every 2^N ns of virtual time.  If "auto" is specified then the virtual cpu speed will
           be automatically adjusted to keep virtual time within a few seconds of real time.

           When the virtual cpu is sleeping, the virtual time will advance at default speed
           unless sleep=on|off is specified.  With sleep=on|off, the virtual time will jump to
           the next timer deadline instantly whenever the virtual cpu goes to sleep mode and will
           not advance if no timer is enabled. This behavior give deterministic execution times
           from the guest point of view.

           Note that while this option can give deterministic behavior, it does not provide cycle
           accurate emulation.  Modern CPUs contain superscalar out of order cores with complex
           cache hierarchies.  The number of instructions executed often has little or no
           correlation with actual performance.

           align=on will activate the delay algorithm which will try to synchronise the host
           clock and the virtual clock. The goal is to have a guest running at the real frequency
           imposed by the shift option.  Whenever the guest clock is behind the host clock and if
           align=on is specified then we print a message to the user to inform about the delay.
           Currently this option does not work when shift is "auto".  Note: The sync algorithm
           will work for those shift values for which the guest clock runs ahead of the host
           clock. Typically this happens when the shift value is high (how high depends on the
           host machine).

           When rr option is specified deterministic record/replay is enabled.  Replay log is
           written into filename file in record mode and read from this file in replay mode.

           Option rrsnapshot is used to create new vm snapshot named snapshot at the start of
           execution recording. In replay mode this option is used to load the initial VM state.

       -watchdog model
           Create a virtual hardware watchdog device.  Once enabled (by a guest action), the
           watchdog must be periodically polled by an agent inside the guest or else the guest
           will be restarted. Choose a model for which your guest has drivers.

           The model is the model of hardware watchdog to emulate. Use "-watchdog help" to list
           available hardware models. Only one watchdog can be enabled for a guest.

           The following models may be available:

           ib700
               iBASE 700 is a very simple ISA watchdog with a single timer.

           i6300esb
               Intel 6300ESB I/O controller hub is a much more featureful PCI-based dual-timer
               watchdog.

           diag288
               A virtual watchdog for s390x backed by the diagnose 288 hypercall (currently KVM
               only).

       -watchdog-action action
           The action controls what QEMU will do when the watchdog timer expires.  The default is
           "reset" (forcefully reset the guest).  Other possible actions are: "shutdown" (attempt
           to gracefully shutdown the guest), "poweroff" (forcefully poweroff the guest),
           "inject-nmi" (inject a NMI into the guest), "pause" (pause the guest), "debug" (print
           a debug message and continue), or "none" (do nothing).

           Note that the "shutdown" action requires that the guest responds to ACPI signals,
           which it may not be able to do in the sort of situations where the watchdog would have
           expired, and thus "-watchdog-action shutdown" is not recommended for production use.

           Examples:

           "-watchdog i6300esb -watchdog-action pause"
           "-watchdog ib700"
       -echr numeric_ascii_value
           Change the escape character used for switching to the monitor when using monitor and
           serial sharing.  The default is 0x01 when using the "-nographic" option.  0x01 is
           equal to pressing "Control-a".  You can select a different character from the ascii
           control keys where 1 through 26 map to Control-a through Control-z.  For instance you
           could use the either of the following to change the escape character to Control-t.

           "-echr 0x14"
           "-echr 20"
       -virtioconsole c
           Set virtio console.

           This option is maintained for backward compatibility.

           Please use "-device virtconsole" for the new way of invocation.

       -show-cursor
           Show cursor.

       -tb-size n
           Set TB size.

       -incoming tcp:[host]:port[,to=maxport][,ipv4][,ipv6]
       -incoming rdma:host:port[,ipv4][,ipv6]
           Prepare for incoming migration, listen on a given tcp port.

       -incoming unix:socketpath
           Prepare for incoming migration, listen on a given unix socket.

       -incoming fd:fd
           Accept incoming migration from a given filedescriptor.

       -incoming exec:cmdline
           Accept incoming migration as an output from specified external command.

       -incoming defer
           Wait for the URI to be specified via migrate_incoming.  The monitor can be used to
           change settings (such as migration parameters) prior to issuing the migrate_incoming
           to allow the migration to begin.

       -only-migratable
           Only allow migratable devices. Devices will not be allowed to enter an unmigratable
           state.

       -nodefaults
           Don't create default devices. Normally, QEMU sets the default devices like serial
           port, parallel port, virtual console, monitor device, VGA adapter, floppy and CD-ROM
           drive and others. The "-nodefaults" option will disable all those default devices.

       -chroot dir
           Immediately before starting guest execution, chroot to the specified directory.
           Especially useful in combination with -runas.

       -runas user
           Immediately before starting guest execution, drop root privileges, switching to the
           specified user.

       -prom-env variable=value
           Set OpenBIOS nvram variable to given value (PPC, SPARC only).

       -semihosting
           Enable semihosting mode (ARM, M68K, Xtensa, MIPS only).

       -semihosting-config [enable=on|off][,target=native|gdb|auto][,arg=str[,...]]
           Enable and configure semihosting (ARM, M68K, Xtensa, MIPS only).

           target="native|gdb|auto"
               Defines where the semihosting calls will be addressed, to QEMU ("native") or to
               GDB ("gdb"). The default is "auto", which means "gdb" during debug sessions and
               "native" otherwise.

           arg=str1,arg=str2,...
               Allows the user to pass input arguments, and can be used multiple times to build
               up a list. The old-style "-kernel"/"-append" method of passing a command line is
               still supported for backward compatibility. If both the "--semihosting-config arg"
               and the "-kernel"/"-append" are specified, the former is passed to semihosting as
               it always takes precedence.

       -old-param
           Old param mode (ARM only).

       -sandbox
       arg[,obsolete=string][,elevateprivileges=string][,spawn=string][,resourcecontrol=string]
           Enable Seccomp mode 2 system call filter. 'on' will enable syscall filtering and 'off'
           will disable it.  The default is 'off'.

           obsolete=string
               Enable Obsolete system calls

           elevateprivileges=string
               Disable set*uid|gid system calls

           spawn=string
               Disable *fork and execve

           resourcecontrol=string
               Disable process affinity and schedular priority

       -readconfig file
           Read device configuration from file. This approach is useful when you want to spawn
           QEMU process with many command line options but you don't want to exceed the command
           line character limit.

       -writeconfig file
           Write device configuration to file. The file can be either filename to save command
           line and device configuration into file or dash "-") character to print the output to
           stdout. This can be later used as input file for "-readconfig" option.

       -no-user-config
           The "-no-user-config" option makes QEMU not load any of the user-provided config files
           on sysconfdir.

       -trace [[enable=]pattern][,events=file][,file=file]
           Specify tracing options.

           [enable=]pattern
               Immediately enable events matching pattern.  The file must contain one event name
               (as listed in the trace-events-all file) per line; globbing patterns are accepted
               too.  This option is only available if QEMU has been compiled with the simple, log
               or ftrace tracing backend.  To specify multiple events or patterns, specify the
               -trace option multiple times.

               Use "-trace help" to print a list of names of trace points.

           events=file
               Immediately enable events listed in file.  The file must contain one event name
               (as listed in the trace-events-all file) per line; globbing patterns are accepted
               too.  This option is only available if QEMU has been compiled with the simple, log
               or ftrace tracing backend.

           file=file
               Log output traces to file.  This option is only available if QEMU has been
               compiled with the simple tracing backend.

       -enable-fips
           Enable FIPS 140-2 compliance mode.

       -msg timestamp[=on|off]
           prepend a timestamp to each log message.(default:on)

       -dump-vmstate file
           Dump json-encoded vmstate information for current machine type to file in file

       Generic object creation

       -object typename[,prop1=value1,...]
           Create a new object of type typename setting properties in the order they are
           specified.  Note that the 'id' property must be set.  These objects are placed in the
           '/objects' path.

           -object
           memory-backend-file,id=id,size=size,mem-path=dir,share=on|off,discard-data=on|off,merge=on|off,dump=on|off,prealloc=on|off,host-nodes=host-
           nodes,policy=default|preferred|bind|interleave,align=align
               Creates a memory file backend object, which can be used to back the guest RAM with
               huge pages.

               The id parameter is a unique ID that will be used to reference this memory region
               when configuring the -numa argument.

               The size option provides the size of the memory region, and accepts common
               suffixes, eg 500M.

               The mem-path provides the path to either a shared memory or huge page filesystem
               mount.

               The share boolean option determines whether the memory region is marked as private
               to QEMU, or shared. The latter allows a co-operating external process to access
               the QEMU memory region.

               The share is also required for pvrdma devices due to limitations in the RDMA API
               provided by Linux.

               Setting share=on might affect the ability to configure NUMA bindings for the
               memory backend under some circumstances, see
               Documentation/vm/numa_memory_policy.txt on the Linux kernel source tree for
               additional details.

               Setting the discard-data boolean option to on indicates that file contents can be
               destroyed when QEMU exits, to avoid unnecessarily flushing data to the backing
               file.  Note that discard-data is only an optimization, and QEMU might not discard
               file contents if it aborts unexpectedly or is terminated using SIGKILL.

               The merge boolean option enables memory merge, also known as MADV_MERGEABLE, so
               that Kernel Samepage Merging will consider the pages for memory deduplication.

               Setting the dump boolean option to off excludes the memory from core dumps. This
               feature is also known as MADV_DONTDUMP.

               The prealloc boolean option enables memory preallocation.

               The host-nodes option binds the memory range to a list of NUMA host nodes.

               The policy option sets the NUMA policy to one of the following values:

               default
                   default host policy

               preferred
                   prefer the given host node list for allocation

               bind
                   restrict memory allocation to the given host node list

               interleave
                   interleave memory allocations across the given host node list

               The align option specifies the base address alignment when QEMU mmap(2) mem-path,
               and accepts common suffixes, eg 2M. Some backend store specified by mem-path
               requires an alignment different than the default one used by QEMU, eg the device
               DAX /dev/dax0.0 requires 2M alignment rather than 4K. In such cases, users can
               specify the required alignment via this option.

           -object
           memory-backend-ram,id=id,merge=on|off,dump=on|off,share=on|off,prealloc=on|off,size=size,host-nodes=host-
           nodes,policy=default|preferred|bind|interleave
               Creates a memory backend object, which can be used to back the guest RAM.  Memory
               backend objects offer more control than the -m option that is traditionally used
               to define guest RAM. Please refer to memory-backend-file for a description of the
               options.

           -object
           memory-backend-memfd,id=id,merge=on|off,dump=on|off,prealloc=on|off,size=size,host-nodes=host-
           nodes,policy=default|preferred|bind|interleave,seal=on|off,hugetlb=on|off,hugetlbsize=size
               Creates an anonymous memory file backend object, which allows QEMU to share the
               memory with an external process (e.g. when using vhost-user). The memory is
               allocated with memfd and optional sealing. (Linux only)

               The seal option creates a sealed-file, that will block further resizing the memory
               ('on' by default).

               The hugetlb option specify the file to be created resides in the hugetlbfs
               filesystem (since Linux 4.14).  Used in conjunction with the hugetlb option, the
               hugetlbsize option specify the hugetlb page size on systems that support multiple
               hugetlb page sizes (it must be a power of 2 value supported by the system).

               In some versions of Linux, the hugetlb option is incompatible with the seal option
               (requires at least Linux 4.16).

               Please refer to memory-backend-file for a description of the other options.

           -object rng-random,id=id,filename=/dev/random
               Creates a random number generator backend which obtains entropy from a device on
               the host. The id parameter is a unique ID that will be used to reference this
               entropy backend from the virtio-rng device. The filename parameter specifies which
               file to obtain entropy from and if omitted defaults to /dev/random.

           -object rng-egd,id=id,chardev=chardevid
               Creates a random number generator backend which obtains entropy from an external
               daemon running on the host. The id parameter is a unique ID that will be used to
               reference this entropy backend from the virtio-rng device. The chardev parameter
               is the unique ID of a character device backend that provides the connection to the
               RNG daemon.

           -object
           tls-creds-anon,id=id,endpoint=endpoint,dir=/path/to/cred/dir,verify-peer=on|off
               Creates a TLS anonymous credentials object, which can be used to provide TLS
               support on network backends. The id parameter is a unique ID which network
               backends will use to access the credentials. The endpoint is either server or
               client depending on whether the QEMU network backend that uses the credentials
               will be acting as a client or as a server. If verify-peer is enabled (the default)
               then once the handshake is completed, the peer credentials will be verified,
               though this is a no-op for anonymous credentials.

               The dir parameter tells QEMU where to find the credential files. For server
               endpoints, this directory may contain a file dh-params.pem providing diffie-
               hellman parameters to use for the TLS server. If the file is missing, QEMU will
               generate a set of DH parameters at startup. This is a computationally expensive
               operation that consumes random pool entropy, so it is recommended that a
               persistent set of parameters be generated upfront and saved.

           -object
           tls-creds-x509,id=id,endpoint=endpoint,dir=/path/to/cred/dir,priority=priority,verify-peer=on|off,passwordid=id
               Creates a TLS anonymous credentials object, which can be used to provide TLS
               support on network backends. The id parameter is a unique ID which network
               backends will use to access the credentials. The endpoint is either server or
               client depending on whether the QEMU network backend that uses the credentials
               will be acting as a client or as a server. If verify-peer is enabled (the default)
               then once the handshake is completed, the peer credentials will be verified. With
               x509 certificates, this implies that the clients must be provided with valid
               client certificates too.

               The dir parameter tells QEMU where to find the credential files. For server
               endpoints, this directory may contain a file dh-params.pem providing diffie-
               hellman parameters to use for the TLS server. If the file is missing, QEMU will
               generate a set of DH parameters at startup. This is a computationally expensive
               operation that consumes random pool entropy, so it is recommended that a
               persistent set of parameters be generated upfront and saved.

               For x509 certificate credentials the directory will contain further files
               providing the x509 certificates. The certificates must be stored in PEM format, in
               filenames ca-cert.pem, ca-crl.pem (optional), server-cert.pem (only servers),
               server-key.pem (only servers), client-cert.pem (only clients), and client-key.pem
               (only clients).

               For the server-key.pem and client-key.pem files which contain sensitive private
               keys, it is possible to use an encrypted version by providing the passwordid
               parameter. This provides the ID of a previously created "secret" object containing
               the password for decryption.

               The priority parameter allows to override the global default priority used by
               gnutls. This can be useful if the system administrator needs to use a weaker set
               of crypto priorities for QEMU without potentially forcing the weakness onto all
               applications. Or conversely if one wants wants a stronger default for QEMU than
               for all other applications, they can do this through this parameter. Its format is
               a gnutls priority string as described at
               <https://gnutls.org/manual/html_node/Priority-Strings.html>.

           -object
           filter-buffer,id=id,netdev=netdevid,interval=t[,queue=all|rx|tx][,status=on|off]
               Interval t can't be 0, this filter batches the packet delivery: all packets
               arriving in a given interval on netdev netdevid are delayed until the end of the
               interval. Interval is in microseconds.  status is optional that indicate whether
               the netfilter is on (enabled) or off (disabled), the default status for netfilter
               will be 'on'.

               queue all|rx|tx is an option that can be applied to any netfilter.

               all: the filter is attached both to the receive and the transmit queue of the
               netdev (default).

               rx: the filter is attached to the receive queue of the netdev, where it will
               receive packets sent to the netdev.

               tx: the filter is attached to the transmit queue of the netdev, where it will
               receive packets sent by the netdev.

           -object
           filter-mirror,id=id,netdev=netdevid,outdev=chardevid,queue=all|rx|tx[,vnet_hdr_support]
               filter-mirror on netdev netdevid,mirror net packet to chardevchardevid, if it has
               the vnet_hdr_support flag, filter-mirror will mirror packet with vnet_hdr_len.

           -object
           filter-redirector,id=id,netdev=netdevid,indev=chardevid,outdev=chardevid,queue=all|rx|tx[,vnet_hdr_support]
               filter-redirector on netdev netdevid,redirect filter's net packet to chardev
               chardevid,and redirect indev's packet to filter.if it has the vnet_hdr_support
               flag, filter-redirector will redirect packet with vnet_hdr_len.  Create a filter-
               redirector we need to differ outdev id from indev id, id can not be the same. we
               can just use indev or outdev, but at least one of indev or outdev need to be
               specified.

           -object filter-rewriter,id=id,netdev=netdevid,queue=all|rx|tx,[vnet_hdr_support]
               Filter-rewriter is a part of COLO project.It will rewrite tcp packet to secondary
               from primary to keep secondary tcp connection,and rewrite tcp packet to primary
               from secondary make tcp packet can be handled by client.if it has the
               vnet_hdr_support flag, we can parse packet with vnet header.

               usage: colo secondary: -object
               filter-redirector,id=f1,netdev=hn0,queue=tx,indev=red0 -object
               filter-redirector,id=f2,netdev=hn0,queue=rx,outdev=red1 -object
               filter-rewriter,id=rew0,netdev=hn0,queue=all

           -object filter-dump,id=id,netdev=dev[,file=filename][,maxlen=len]
               Dump the network traffic on netdev dev to the file specified by filename. At most
               len bytes (64k by default) per packet are stored.  The file format is libpcap, so
               it can be analyzed with tools such as tcpdump or Wireshark.

           -object
           colo-compare,id=id,primary_in=chardevid,secondary_in=chardevid,outdev=chardevid[,vnet_hdr_support]
               Colo-compare gets packet from primary_inchardevid and secondary_inchardevid, than
               compare primary packet with secondary packet. If the packets are same, we will
               output primary packet to outdevchardevid, else we will notify colo-frame do
               checkpoint and send primary packet to outdevchardevid.  if it has the
               vnet_hdr_support flag, colo compare will send/recv packet with vnet_hdr_len.

               we must use it with the help of filter-mirror and filter-redirector.

                       primary:
                       -netdev tap,id=hn0,vhost=off,script=/etc/qemu-ifup,downscript=/etc/qemu-ifdown
                       -device e1000,id=e0,netdev=hn0,mac=52:a4:00:12:78:66
                       -chardev socket,id=mirror0,host=3.3.3.3,port=9003,server,nowait
                       -chardev socket,id=compare1,host=3.3.3.3,port=9004,server,nowait
                       -chardev socket,id=compare0,host=3.3.3.3,port=9001,server,nowait
                       -chardev socket,id=compare0-0,host=3.3.3.3,port=9001
                       -chardev socket,id=compare_out,host=3.3.3.3,port=9005,server,nowait
                       -chardev socket,id=compare_out0,host=3.3.3.3,port=9005
                       -object filter-mirror,id=m0,netdev=hn0,queue=tx,outdev=mirror0
                       -object filter-redirector,netdev=hn0,id=redire0,queue=rx,indev=compare_out
                       -object filter-redirector,netdev=hn0,id=redire1,queue=rx,outdev=compare0
                       -object colo-compare,id=comp0,primary_in=compare0-0,secondary_in=compare1,outdev=compare_out0

                       secondary:
                       -netdev tap,id=hn0,vhost=off,script=/etc/qemu-ifup,down script=/etc/qemu-ifdown
                       -device e1000,netdev=hn0,mac=52:a4:00:12:78:66
                       -chardev socket,id=red0,host=3.3.3.3,port=9003
                       -chardev socket,id=red1,host=3.3.3.3,port=9004
                       -object filter-redirector,id=f1,netdev=hn0,queue=tx,indev=red0
                       -object filter-redirector,id=f2,netdev=hn0,queue=rx,outdev=red1

               If you want to know the detail of above command line, you can read the colo-
               compare git log.

           -object cryptodev-backend-builtin,id=id[,queues=queues]
               Creates a cryptodev backend which executes crypto opreation from the QEMU cipher
               APIS. The id parameter is a unique ID that will be used to reference this
               cryptodev backend from the virtio-crypto device. The queues parameter is optional,
               which specify the queue number of cryptodev backend, the default of queues is 1.

                       # qemu-system-x86_64 \
                       [...] \
                       -object cryptodev-backend-builtin,id=cryptodev0 \
                       -device virtio-crypto-pci,id=crypto0,cryptodev=cryptodev0 \
                       [...]

           -object cryptodev-vhost-user,id=id,chardev=chardevid[,queues=queues]
               Creates a vhost-user cryptodev backend, backed by a chardev chardevid.  The id
               parameter is a unique ID that will be used to reference this cryptodev backend
               from the virtio-crypto device.  The chardev should be a unix domain socket backed
               one. The vhost-user uses a specifically defined protocol to pass vhost ioctl
               replacement messages to an application on the other end of the socket.  The queues
               parameter is optional, which specify the queue number of cryptodev backend for
               multiqueue vhost-user, the default of queues is 1.

                       # qemu-system-x86_64 \
                       [...] \
                       -chardev socket,id=chardev0,path=/path/to/socket \
                       -object cryptodev-vhost-user,id=cryptodev0,chardev=chardev0 \
                       -device virtio-crypto-pci,id=crypto0,cryptodev=cryptodev0 \
                       [...]

           -object secret,id=id,data=string,format=raw|base64[,keyid=secretid,iv=string]
           -object secret,id=id,file=filename,format=raw|base64[,keyid=secretid,iv=string]
               Defines a secret to store a password, encryption key, or some other sensitive
               data. The sensitive data can either be passed directly via the data parameter, or
               indirectly via the file parameter. Using the data parameter is insecure unless the
               sensitive data is encrypted.

               The sensitive data can be provided in raw format (the default), or base64.  When
               encoded as JSON, the raw format only supports valid UTF-8 characters, so base64 is
               recommended for sending binary data. QEMU will convert from which ever format is
               provided to the format it needs internally. eg, an RBD password can be provided in
               raw format, even though it will be base64 encoded when passed onto the RBD sever.

               For added protection, it is possible to encrypt the data associated with a secret
               using the AES-256-CBC cipher. Use of encryption is indicated by providing the
               keyid and iv parameters. The keyid parameter provides the ID of a previously
               defined secret that contains the AES-256 decryption key. This key should be
               32-bytes long and be base64 encoded. The iv parameter provides the random
               initialization vector used for encryption of this particular secret and should be
               a base64 encrypted string of the 16-byte IV.

               The simplest (insecure) usage is to provide the secret inline

                       # $QEMU -object secret,id=sec0,data=letmein,format=raw

               The simplest secure usage is to provide the secret via a file

               # printf "letmein" > mypasswd.txt # $QEMU -object
               secret,id=sec0,file=mypasswd.txt,format=raw

               For greater security, AES-256-CBC should be used. To illustrate usage, consider
               the openssl command line tool which can encrypt the data. Note that when
               encrypting, the plaintext must be padded to the cipher block size (32 bytes) using
               the standard PKCS#5/6 compatible padding algorithm.

               First a master key needs to be created in base64 encoding:

                       # openssl rand -base64 32 > key.b64
                       # KEY=$(base64 -d key.b64 | hexdump  -v -e '/1 "%02X"')

               Each secret to be encrypted needs to have a random initialization vector
               generated. These do not need to be kept secret

                       # openssl rand -base64 16 > iv.b64
                       # IV=$(base64 -d iv.b64 | hexdump  -v -e '/1 "%02X"')

               The secret to be defined can now be encrypted, in this case we're telling openssl
               to base64 encode the result, but it could be left as raw bytes if desired.

                       # SECRET=$(printf "letmein" |
                       openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -a -K $KEY -iv $IV)

               When launching QEMU, create a master secret pointing to "key.b64" and specify that
               to be used to decrypt the user password. Pass the contents of "iv.b64" to the
               second secret

                       # $QEMU \
                       -object secret,id=secmaster0,format=base64,file=key.b64 \
                       -object secret,id=sec0,keyid=secmaster0,format=base64,\
                       data=$SECRET,iv=$(<iv.b64)

           -object
           sev-guest,id=id,cbitpos=cbitpos,reduced-phys-bits=val,[sev-device=string,policy=policy,handle=handle,dh-cert-file=file,session-file=file]
               Create a Secure Encrypted Virtualization (SEV) guest object, which can be used to
               provide the guest memory encryption support on AMD processors.

               When memory encryption is enabled, one of the physical address bit (aka the C-bit)
               is utilized to mark if a memory page is protected. The cbitpos is used to provide
               the C-bit position. The C-bit position is Host family dependent hence user must
               provide this value. On EPYC, the value should be 47.

               When memory encryption is enabled, we loose certain bits in physical address
               space.  The reduced-phys-bits is used to provide the number of bits we loose in
               physical address space. Similar to C-bit, the value is Host family dependent.  On
               EPYC, the value should be 5.

               The sev-device provides the device file to use for communicating with the SEV
               firmware running inside AMD Secure Processor. The default device is '/dev/sev'. If
               hardware supports memory encryption then /dev/sev devices are created by CCP
               driver.

               The policy provides the guest policy to be enforced by the SEV firmware and
               restrict what configuration and operational commands can be performed on this
               guest by the hypervisor. The policy should be provided by the guest owner and is
               bound to the guest and cannot be changed throughout the lifetime of the guest.
               The default is 0.

               If guest policy allows sharing the key with another SEV guest then handle can be
               use to provide handle of the guest from which to share the key.

               The dh-cert-file and session-file provides the guest owner's Public Diffie-Hillman
               key defined in SEV spec. The PDH and session parameters are used for establishing
               a cryptographic session with the guest owner to negotiate keys used for
               attestation. The file must be encoded in base64.

               e.g to launch a SEV guest

                       # $QEMU \
                       ......
                       -object sev-guest,id=sev0,cbitpos=47,reduced-phys-bits=5 \
                       -machine ...,memory-encryption=sev0
                       .....

       During the graphical emulation, you can use special key combinations to change modes. The
       default key mappings are shown below, but if you use "-alt-grab" then the modifier is
       Ctrl-Alt-Shift (instead of Ctrl-Alt) and if you use "-ctrl-grab" then the modifier is the
       right Ctrl key (instead of Ctrl-Alt):

       Ctrl-Alt-f
           Toggle full screen

       Ctrl-Alt-+
           Enlarge the screen

       Ctrl-Alt--
           Shrink the screen

       Ctrl-Alt-u
           Restore the screen's un-scaled dimensions

       Ctrl-Alt-n
           Switch to virtual console 'n'. Standard console mappings are:

           1   Target system display

           2   Monitor

           3   Serial port

       Ctrl-Alt
           Toggle mouse and keyboard grab.

       In the virtual consoles, you can use Ctrl-Up, Ctrl-Down, Ctrl-PageUp and Ctrl-PageDown to
       move in the back log.

       During emulation, if you are using a character backend multiplexer (which is the default
       if you are using -nographic) then several commands are available via an escape sequence.
       These key sequences all start with an escape character, which is Ctrl-a by default, but
       can be changed with -echr. The list below assumes you're using the default.

       Ctrl-a h
           Print this help

       Ctrl-a x
           Exit emulator

       Ctrl-a s
           Save disk data back to file (if -snapshot)

       Ctrl-a t
           Toggle console timestamps

       Ctrl-a b
           Send break (magic sysrq in Linux)

       Ctrl-a c
           Rotate between the frontends connected to the multiplexer (usually this switches
           between the monitor and the console)

       Ctrl-a Ctrl-a
           Send the escape character to the frontend

       The following options are specific to the PowerPC emulation:

       -g WxH[xDEPTH]
           Set the initial VGA graphic mode. The default is 800x600x32.

       -prom-env string
           Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

                   qemu-system-ppc -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false' \
                    -prom-env 'boot-device=hd:2,\yaboot' \
                    -prom-env 'boot-args=conf=hd:2,\yaboot.conf'

           These variables are not used by Open Hack'Ware.

       The following options are specific to the Sparc32 emulation:

       -g WxHx[xDEPTH]
           Set the initial graphics mode. For TCX, the default is 1024x768x8 with the option of
           1024x768x24. For cgthree, the default is 1024x768x8 with the option of 1152x900x8 for
           people who wish to use OBP.

       -prom-env string
           Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

                   qemu-system-sparc -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false' \
                    -prom-env 'boot-device=sd(0,2,0):d' -prom-env 'boot-args=linux single'

       -M [SS-4|SS-5|SS-10|SS-20|SS-600MP|LX|Voyager|SPARCClassic] [|SPARCbook]
           Set the emulated machine type. Default is SS-5.

       The following options are specific to the Sparc64 emulation:

       -prom-env string
           Set OpenBIOS variables in NVRAM, for example:

                   qemu-system-sparc64 -prom-env 'auto-boot?=false'

       -M [sun4u|sun4v|niagara]
           Set the emulated machine type. The default is sun4u.

       The following options are specific to the ARM emulation:

       -semihosting
           Enable semihosting syscall emulation.

           On ARM this implements the "Angel" interface.

           Note that this allows guest direct access to the host filesystem, so should only be
           used with trusted guest OS.

       The following options are specific to the ColdFire emulation:

       -semihosting
           Enable semihosting syscall emulation.

           On M68K this implements the "ColdFire GDB" interface used by libgloss.

           Note that this allows guest direct access to the host filesystem, so should only be
           used with trusted guest OS.

       The following options are specific to the Xtensa emulation:

       -semihosting
           Enable semihosting syscall emulation.

           Xtensa semihosting provides basic file IO calls, such as open/read/write/seek/select.
           Tensilica baremetal libc for ISS and linux platform "sim" use this interface.

           Note that this allows guest direct access to the host filesystem, so should only be
           used with trusted guest OS.

NOTES

       In addition to using normal file images for the emulated storage devices, QEMU can also
       use networked resources such as iSCSI devices. These are specified using a special URL
       syntax.

       iSCSI
           iSCSI support allows QEMU to access iSCSI resources directly and use as images for the
           guest storage. Both disk and cdrom images are supported.

           Syntax for specifying iSCSI LUNs is "iscsi://<target-ip>[:<port>]/<target-iqn>/<lun>"

           By default qemu will use the iSCSI initiator-name 'iqn.2008-11.org.linux-kvm[:<name>]'
           but this can also be set from the command line or a configuration file.

           Since version Qemu 2.4 it is possible to specify a iSCSI request timeout to detect
           stalled requests and force a reestablishment of the session. The timeout is specified
           in seconds. The default is 0 which means no timeout. Libiscsi 1.15.0 or greater is
           required for this feature.

           Example (without authentication):

                   qemu-system-i386 -iscsi initiator-name=iqn.2001-04.com.example:my-initiator \
                                    -cdrom iscsi://192.0.2.1/iqn.2001-04.com.example/2 \
                                    -drive file=iscsi://192.0.2.1/iqn.2001-04.com.example/1

           Example (CHAP username/password via URL):

                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=iscsi://user%password@192.0.2.1/iqn.2001-04.com.example/1

           Example (CHAP username/password via environment variables):

                   LIBISCSI_CHAP_USERNAME="user" \
                   LIBISCSI_CHAP_PASSWORD="password" \
                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=iscsi://192.0.2.1/iqn.2001-04.com.example/1

       NBD QEMU supports NBD (Network Block Devices) both using TCP protocol as well as Unix
           Domain Sockets.

           Syntax for specifying a NBD device using TCP
           "nbd:<server-ip>:<port>[:exportname=<export>]"

           Syntax for specifying a NBD device using Unix Domain Sockets
           "nbd:unix:<domain-socket>[:exportname=<export>]"

           Example for TCP

                   qemu-system-i386 --drive file=nbd:192.0.2.1:30000

           Example for Unix Domain Sockets

                   qemu-system-i386 --drive file=nbd:unix:/tmp/nbd-socket

       SSH QEMU supports SSH (Secure Shell) access to remote disks.

           Examples:

                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file=ssh://user@host/path/to/disk.img
                   qemu-system-i386 -drive file.driver=ssh,file.user=user,file.host=host,file.port=22,file.path=/path/to/disk.img

           Currently authentication must be done using ssh-agent.  Other authentication methods
           may be supported in future.

       Sheepdog
           Sheepdog is a distributed storage system for QEMU.  QEMU supports using either local
           sheepdog devices or remote networked devices.

           Syntax for specifying a sheepdog device

                   sheepdog[+tcp|+unix]://[host:port]/vdiname[?socket=path][#snapid|#tag]

           Example

                   qemu-system-i386 --drive file=sheepdog://192.0.2.1:30000/MyVirtualMachine

           See also <https://sheepdog.github.io/sheepdog/>.

       GlusterFS
           GlusterFS is a user space distributed file system.  QEMU supports the use of GlusterFS
           volumes for hosting VM disk images using TCP, Unix Domain Sockets and RDMA transport
           protocols.

           Syntax for specifying a VM disk image on GlusterFS volume is

                   URI:
                   gluster[+type]://[host[:port]]/volume/path[?socket=...][,debug=N][,logfile=...]

                   JSON:
                   'json:{"driver":"qcow2","file":{"driver":"gluster","volume":"testvol","path":"a.img","debug":N,"logfile":"...",
                                                    "server":[{"type":"tcp","host":"...","port":"..."},
                                                              {"type":"unix","socket":"..."}]}}'

           Example

                   URI:
                   qemu-system-x86_64 --drive file=gluster://192.0.2.1/testvol/a.img,
                                                  file.debug=9,file.logfile=/var/log/qemu-gluster.log

                   JSON:
                   qemu-system-x86_64 'json:{"driver":"qcow2",
                                             "file":{"driver":"gluster",
                                                      "volume":"testvol","path":"a.img",
                                                      "debug":9,"logfile":"/var/log/qemu-gluster.log",
                                                      "server":[{"type":"tcp","host":"1.2.3.4","port":24007},
                                                                {"type":"unix","socket":"/var/run/glusterd.socket"}]}}'
                   qemu-system-x86_64 -drive driver=qcow2,file.driver=gluster,file.volume=testvol,file.path=/path/a.img,
                                                         file.debug=9,file.logfile=/var/log/qemu-gluster.log,
                                                         file.server.0.type=tcp,file.server.0.host=1.2.3.4,file.server.0.port=24007,
                                                         file.server.1.type=unix,file.server.1.socket=/var/run/glusterd.socket

           See also <http://www.gluster.org>.

       HTTP/HTTPS/FTP/FTPS
           QEMU supports read-only access to files accessed over http(s) and ftp(s).

           Syntax using a single filename:

                   <protocol>://[<username>[:<password>]@]<host>/<path>

           where:

           protocol
               'http', 'https', 'ftp', or 'ftps'.

           username
               Optional username for authentication to the remote server.

           password
               Optional password for authentication to the remote server.

           host
               Address of the remote server.

           path
               Path on the remote server, including any query string.

           The following options are also supported:

           url The full URL when passing options to the driver explicitly.

           readahead
               The amount of data to read ahead with each range request to the remote server.
               This value may optionally have the suffix 'T', 'G', 'M', 'K', 'k' or 'b'. If it
               does not have a suffix, it will be assumed to be in bytes. The value must be a
               multiple of 512 bytes. It defaults to 256k.

           sslverify
               Whether to verify the remote server's certificate when connecting over SSL. It can
               have the value 'on' or 'off'. It defaults to 'on'.

           cookie
               Send this cookie (it can also be a list of cookies separated by ';') with each
               outgoing request.  Only supported when using protocols such as HTTP which support
               cookies, otherwise ignored.

           timeout
               Set the timeout in seconds of the CURL connection. This timeout is the time that
               CURL waits for a response from the remote server to get the size of the image to
               be downloaded. If not set, the default timeout of 5 seconds is used.

           Note that when passing options to qemu explicitly, driver is the value of <protocol>.

           Example: boot from a remote Fedora 20 live ISO image

                   qemu-system-x86_64 --drive media=cdrom,file=http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/20/Live/x86_64/Fedora-Live-Desktop-x86_64-20-1.iso,readonly

                   qemu-system-x86_64 --drive media=cdrom,file.driver=http,file.url=http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/20/Live/x86_64/Fedora-Live-Desktop-x86_64-20-1.iso,readonly

           Example: boot from a remote Fedora 20 cloud image using a local overlay for writes,
           copy-on-read, and a readahead of 64k

                   qemu-img create -f qcow2 -o backing_file='json:{"file.driver":"http",, "file.url":"https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/20/Images/x86_64/Fedora-x86_64-20-20131211.1-sda.qcow2",, "file.readahead":"64k"}' /tmp/Fedora-x86_64-20-20131211.1-sda.qcow2

                   qemu-system-x86_64 -drive file=/tmp/Fedora-x86_64-20-20131211.1-sda.qcow2,copy-on-read=on

           Example: boot from an image stored on a VMware vSphere server with a self-signed
           certificate using a local overlay for writes, a readahead of 64k and a timeout of 10
           seconds.

                   qemu-img create -f qcow2 -o backing_file='json:{"file.driver":"https",, "file.url":"https://user:password@vsphere.example.com/folder/test/test-flat.vmdk?dcPath=Datacenter&dsName=datastore1",, "file.sslverify":"off",, "file.readahead":"64k",, "file.timeout":10}' /tmp/test.qcow2

                   qemu-system-x86_64 -drive file=/tmp/test.qcow2

SEE ALSO

       The HTML documentation of QEMU for more precise information and Linux user mode emulator
       invocation.

AUTHOR

       Fabrice Bellard

                                            2018-10-17                                  QEMU.1(1)