Provided by: texlive-base_2018.20180824-1_all bug

NAME

       tlmgr - the native TeX Live Manager

SYNOPSIS

       tlmgr [option...] action [option...] [operand...]

DESCRIPTION

       tlmgr manages an existing TeX Live installation, both packages and configuration options.
       For information on initially downloading and installing TeX Live, see
       <http://tug.org/texlive/acquire.html>.

       The most up-to-date version of this documentation (updated nightly from the development
       sources) is available at <http://tug.org/texlive/tlmgr.html>, along with procedures for
       updating "tlmgr" itself and information about test versions.

       WARNING: tlmgr in Debian runs always in user mode

       TeX Live is organized into a few top-level schemes, each of which is specified as a
       different set of collections and packages, where a collection is a set of packages, and a
       package is what contains actual files.  Schemes typically contain a mix of collections and
       packages, but each package is included in exactly one collection, no more and no less.  A
       TeX Live installation can be customized and managed at any level.

       See <http://tug.org/texlive/doc> for all the TeX Live documentation available.

EXAMPLES

       After successfully installing TeX Live, here are a few common operations with "tlmgr":

       "tlmgr option repository ctan"
       "tlmgr option repository http://mirror.ctan.org/systems/texlive/tlnet"
           Tell "tlmgr" to use a nearby CTAN mirror for future updates; useful if you installed
           TeX Live from the DVD image and want to have continuing updates.  The two commands are
           equivalent; "ctan" is just an alias for the given url.  Caveat: "mirror.ctan.org"
           resolves to many different hosts, and they are not perfectly synchronized; we
           recommend updating only daily (at most), and not more often.

       "tlmgr update --list"
           Report what would be updated without actually updating anything.

       "tlmgr update --all"
           Make your local TeX installation correspond to what is in the package repository
           (typically useful when updating from CTAN).

       "tlmgr info" what
           Display detailed information about a package what, such as the installation status and
           description, of searches for what in all packages.

       For all the capabilities and details of "tlmgr", please read the following voluminous
       information.

OPTIONS

       The following options to "tlmgr" are global options, not specific to any action.  All
       options, whether global or action-specific, can be given anywhere on the command line, and
       in any order.  The first non-option argument will be the main action.  In all cases,
       "--"option and "-"option are equivalent, and an "=" is optional between an option name and
       its value.

       --repository url|path
           Specify the package repository from which packages should be installed or updated,
           either a local directory or network location, as below. This overridesthe default
           package repository found in the installation's TeX Live Package Database (a.k.a. the
           TLPDB, which is given entirely in the file "tlpkg/texlive.tlpdb").

           This "--repository" option changes the location only for the current run; to make a
           permanent change, use "option repository" (see the "option" action).

           As an example, you can choose a particular CTAN mirror with something like this:

             -repository http://ctan.example.org/its/ctan/dir/systems/texlive/tlnet

           Of course a real hostname and its particular top-level CTAN directory have to be
           specified.  The list of CTAN mirrors is available at <http://ctan.org/mirrors>.

           Here's an example of using a local directory:

             -repository /local/TL/repository

           For backward compatibility and convenience, "--location" and "--repo" are accepted as
           aliases for this option.

           Locations can be specified as any of the following:

           "/some/local/dir"
           "file:/some/local/dir"
               Equivalent ways of specifying a local directory.

           "ctan"
           "http://mirror.ctan.org/systems/texlive/tlnet"
               Pick a CTAN mirror automatically, trying for one that is both nearby and up-to-
               date. The chosen mirror is used for the entire download. The bare "ctan" is merely
               an alias for the full url. (See <http://ctan.org> for more about CTAN and its
               mirrors.)

           "http://server/path/to/tlnet"
               Standard HTTP. If the (default) LWP method is used, persistent connections are
               supported. TL can also use "curl" or "wget" to do the downloads, or an arbitrary
               user-specified program, as described in the "tlmgr" documentation
               (<http://tug.org/texlive/doc/tlmgr.html#ENVIRONMENT-VARIABLES>).

           "https://server/path/to/tlnet"
               Again, if the (default) LWP method is used, this supports persistent connections.
               Unfortunately, some versions of "wget" and "curl" do not support https, and even
               when "wget" supports https, certificates may be rejected even when the certificate
               is fine, due to a lack of local certificate roots. The simplest workaround for
               this problem is to use http or ftp.

           "ftp://server/path/to/tlnet"
               If the (default) LWP method is used, persistent connections are supported.

           "user@machine:/path/to/tlnet"
           "scp://user@machine/path/to/tlnet"
           "ssh://user@machine/path/to/tlnet"
               These forms are equivalent; they all use "scp" to transfer files. Using
               "ssh-agent" is recommended. (Info: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenSSH>,
               <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ssh-agent>.)

           If the repository is on the network, trailing "/" characters and/or trailing "/tlpkg"
           and/or "/archive" components are ignored.

       --gui [action]
           "tlmgr" has a graphical interface as well as the command line interface.  You can give
           this option, "--gui", together with an action to be brought directly into the
           respective screen of the GUI.  For example, running

             tlmgr --gui update

           starts you directly at the update screen.  If no action is given, the GUI will be
           started at the main screen.

       --gui-lang llcode
           By default, the GUI tries to deduce your language from the environment (on Windows via
           the registry, on Unix via "LC_MESSAGES"). If that fails you can select a different
           language by giving this option with a language code (based on ISO 639-1).  Currently
           supported (but not necessarily completely translated) are: English (en, default),
           Czech (cs), German (de), French (fr), Italian (it), Japanese (ja), Dutch (nl), Polish
           (pl), Brazilian Portuguese (pt_BR), Russian (ru), Slovak (sk), Slovenian (sl), Serbian
           (sr), Ukrainian (uk), Vietnamese (vi), simplified Chinese (zh_CN), and traditional
           Chinese (zh_TW).

       --debug-translation
           In GUI mode, this switch tells "tlmgr" to report any untranslated (or missing)
           messages to standard error.  This can help translators to see what remains to be done.

       --machine-readable
           Instead of the normal output intended for human consumption, write (to standard
           output) a fixed format more suitable for machine parsing.  See the "MACHINE-READABLE
           OUTPUT" section below.

       --no-execute-actions
           Suppress the execution of the execute actions as defined in the tlpsrc files.
           Documented only for completeness, as this is only useful in debugging.

       --package-logfile file
           "tlmgr" logs all package actions (install, remove, update, failed updates, failed
           restores) to a separate log file, by default "TEXMFSYSVAR/web2c/tlmgr.log".  This
           option allows you to specify a different file for the log.

       --pause
           This option makes "tlmgr" wait for user input before exiting.  Useful on Windows to
           avoid disappearing command windows.

       --persistent-downloads
       --no-persistent-downloads
           For network-based installations, this option (on by default) makes "tlmgr" try to set
           up a persistent connection (using the "LWP" Perl module).  The idea is to open and
           reuse only one connection per session between your computer and the server, instead of
           initiating a new download for each package.

           If this is not possible, "tlmgr" will fall back to using "wget".  To disable these
           persistent connections, use "--no-persistent-downloads".

       --pin-file
           Change the pinning file location from "TEXMFLOCAL/tlpkg/pinning.txt" (see "Pinning"
           below).  Documented only for completeness, as this is only useful in debugging.

       --usermode
           Activates user mode for this run of "tlmgr"; see "USER MODE" below.

       --usertree dir
           Uses dir for the tree in user mode; see "USER MODE" below.

       --verify-repo=[none|main|all]
           Defines the level of verification done: If "none" is specified, no verification
           whatsoever is done. If "main" is given and a working GnuPG ("gpg") binary is
           available, all repositories are checked, but only the main repository is required to
           be signed. If "all" is given, then all repositories need to be signed.  See
           "CRYPTOGRAPHIC VERIFICATION" below for details.

       The standard options for TeX Live programs are also accepted: "--help/-h/-?", "--version",
       "-q" (no informational messages), "-v" (debugging messages, can be repeated).  For the
       details about these, see the "TeXLive::TLUtils" documentation.

       The "--version" option shows version information about the TeX Live release and about the
       "tlmgr" script itself.  If "-v" is also given, revision number for the loaded TeX Live
       Perl modules are shown, too.

ACTIONS

   help
       Display this help information and exit (same as "--help", and on the web at
       <http://tug.org/texlive/doc/tlmgr.html>).  Sometimes the "perldoc" and/or "PAGER" programs
       on the system have problems, resulting in control characters being literally output.  This
       can't always be detected, but you can set the "NOPERLDOC" environment variable and
       "perldoc" will not be used.

   version
       Gives version information (same as "--version").

       If "-v" has been given the revisions of the used modules are reported, too.

   backup
       backup [option...] --all
       backup [option...] pkg...
           If the "--clean" option is not specified, this action makes a backup of the given
           packages, or all packages given "--all". These backups are saved to the value of the
           "--backupdir" option, if that is an existing and writable directory. If "--backupdir"
           is not given, the "backupdir" option setting in the TLPDB is used, if present.  If
           both are missing, no backups are made.

           If the "--clean" option is specified, backups are pruned (removed) instead of saved.
           The optional integer value N may be specified to set the number of backups that will
           be retained when cleaning. If "N" is not given, the value of the "autobackup" option
           is used. If both are missing, an error is issued. For more details of backup pruning,
           see the "option" action.

           Options:

           --backupdir directory
               Overrides the "backupdir" option setting in the TLPDB.  The directory argument is
               required and must specify an existing, writable directory where backups are to be
               placed.

           --all
               If "--clean" is not specified, make a backup of all packages in the TeX Live
               installation; this will take quite a lot of space and time.  If "--clean" is
               specified, all packages are pruned.

           --clean[=N]
               Instead of making backups, prune the backup directory of old backups, as explained
               above. The optional integer argument N overrides the "autobackup" option set in
               the TLPDB.  You must use "--all" or a list of packages together with this option,
               as desired.

           --dry-run
               Nothing is actually backed up or removed; instead, the actions to be performed are
               written to the terminal.

   candidates pkg
       Shows the available candidate repositories for package pkg.  See "MULTIPLE REPOSITORIES"
       below.

   check [option...] [files|depends|executes|runfiles|all]
       Executes one (or all) check(s) on the consistency of the installation.

       files
           Checks that all files listed in the local TLPDB ("texlive.tlpdb") are actually
           present, and lists those missing.

       depends
           Lists those packages which occur as dependencies in an installed collection, but are
           themselves not installed, and those packages which are not contained in any
           collection.

           If you call "tlmgr check collections" this test will be carried out instead since
           former versions for "tlmgr" called it that way.

       executes
           Check that the files referred to by "execute" directives in the TeX Live Database are
           present.

       runfiles
           List those filenames that are occurring more than one time in the runfiles sections.

       Options:

       --use-svn
           Use the output of "svn status" instead of listing the files; for checking the TL
           development repository.

   conf
       conf [texmf|tlmgr|updmap [--conffile file] [--delete] [key [value]]]
       conf auxtrees [--conffile file] [show|add|delete] [value]
           With only "conf", show general configuration information for TeX Live, including
           active configuration files, path settings, and more.  This is like running "texconfig
           conf", but works on all supported platforms.

           With one of "conf texmf", "conf tlmgr", or "conf updmap", shows all key/value pairs
           (i.e., all settings) as saved in "ROOT/texmf.cnf", the user-specific "tlmgr"
           configuration file (see below), or the first found (via "kpsewhich") "updmap.cfg"
           file, respectively.

           If key is given in addition, shows the value of only that key in the respective file.
           If option --delete is also given, the value in the given configuration file is
           entirely removed (not just commented out).

           If value is given in addition, key is set to value in the respective file.  No error
           checking is done!

           The "PATH" value shown by "conf" is as used by "tlmgr".  The directory in which the
           "tlmgr" executable is found is automatically prepended to the PATH value inherited
           from the environment.

           Here is a practical example of changing configuration values. If the execution of
           (some or all) system commands via "\write18" was left enabled during installation, you
           can disable it afterwards:

             tlmgr conf texmf shell_escape 0

           The subcommand "auxtrees" allows adding and removing arbitrary additional texmf trees,
           completely under user control.  "auxtrees show" shows the list of additional trees,
           "auxtrees add" tree adds a tree to the list, and "auxtrees remove" tree removes a tree
           from the list (if present). The trees should not contain an "ls-R" file (or files
           might not be found if the "ls-R" becomes stale). This works by manipulating the
           Kpathsea variable "TEXMFAUXTREES", in "ROOT/texmf.cnf".  Example:

             tlmgr conf auxtrees add /quick/test/tree
             tlmgr conf auxtrees remove /quick/test/tree

           In all cases the configuration file can be explicitly specified via the option
           "--conffile" file, if desired.

           Warning: The general facility for changing configuration values is here, but tinkering
           with settings in this way is strongly discouraged.  Again, no error checking on either
           keys or values is done, so any sort of breakage is possible.

   dump-tlpdb [option...] [--json]
       Dump complete local or remote TLPDB to standard output, as-is.  The output is analogous to
       the "--machine-readable" output; see "MACHINE-READABLE OUTPUT" section.

       Options:

       --local
           Dump the local TLPDB.

       --remote
           Dump the remote TLPDB.

       --json
           Instead of dumping the actual content, the database is dumped as JSON. For the format
           of JSON output see "tlpkg/doc/JSON-formats.txt", format definition "TLPDB".

       Exactly one of "--local" and "--remote" must be given.

       In either case, the first line of the output specifies the repository location, in this
       format:

         "location-url" "\t" location

       where "location-url" is the literal field name, followed by a tab, and location is the
       file or url to the repository.

       Line endings may be either LF or CRLF depending on the current platform.

   generate
       generate [option...] language
       generate [option...] language.dat
       generate [option...] language.def
       generate [option...] language.dat.lua

       The "generate" action overwrites any manual changes made in the respective files: it
       recreates them from scratch based on the information of the installed packages, plus local
       adaptions.  The TeX Live installer and "tlmgr" routinely call "generate" for all of these
       files.

       For managing your own fonts, please read the "updmap --help" information and/or
       <http://tug.org/fonts/fontinstall.html>.

       For managing your own formats, please read the "fmtutil --help" information.

       In more detail: "generate" remakes any of the configuration files "language.dat",
       "language.def", and "language.dat.lua" from the information present in the local TLPDB,
       plus locally-maintained files.

       The locally-maintained files are "language-local.dat", "language-local.def", or
       "language-local.dat.lua", searched for in "TEXMFLOCAL" in the respective directories.  If
       local additions are present, the final file is made by starting with the main file,
       omitting any entries that the local file specifies to be disabled, and finally appending
       the local file.

       (Historical note: The formerly supported "updmap-local.cfg" and "fmtutil-local.cnf" are no
       longer read, since "updmap" and "fmtutil" now reads and supports multiple configuration
       files.  Thus, local additions can and should be put into an "updmap.cfg" of "fmtutil.cnf"
       file in "TEXMFLOCAL".  The "generate updmap" and "generate fmtutil" actions no longer
       exist.)

       Local files specify entries to be disabled with a comment line, namely one of these:

         %!NAME
         --!NAME

       where "language.dat" and "language.def" use "%", and "language.dat.lua" use "--".  In all
       cases, the name is the respective format name or hyphenation pattern identifier.
       Examples:

         %!german
         --!usenglishmax

       (Of course, you're not likely to actually want to disable those particular items.  They're
       just examples.)

       After such a disabling line, the local file can include another entry for the same item,
       if a different definition is desired.  In general, except for the special disabling lines,
       the local files follow the same syntax as the master files.

       The form "generate language" recreates all three files "language.dat", "language.def", and
       "language.dat.lua", while the forms with an extension recreates only that given language
       file.

       Options:

       --dest output_file
           specifies the output file (defaults to the respective location in "TEXMFSYSVAR").  If
           "--dest" is given to "generate language", it serves as a basename onto which ".dat"
           will be appended for the name of the "language.dat" output file, ".def" will be
           appended to the value for the name of the "language.def" output file, and ".dat.lua"
           to the name of the "language.dat.lua" file.  (This is just to avoid overwriting; if
           you want a specific name for each output file, we recommend invoking "tlmgr" twice.)

       --localcfg local_conf_file
           specifies the (optional) local additions (defaults to the respective location in
           "TEXMFLOCAL").

       --rebuild-sys
           tells "tlmgr" to run necessary programs after config files have been regenerated.
           These are: "fmtutil-sys --all" after "generate fmtutil", "fmtutil-sys --byhyphen
           .../language.dat" after "generate language.dat", and "fmtutil-sys --byhyphen
           .../language.def" after "generate language.def".

           These subsequent calls cause the newly-generated files to actually take effect.  This
           is not done by default since those calls are lengthy processes and one might want to
           made several related changes in succession before invoking these programs.

       The respective locations are as follows:

         tex/generic/config/language.dat (and language-local.dat)
         tex/generic/config/language.def (and language-local.def)
         tex/generic/config/language.dat.lua (and language-local.dat.lua)

   gui
       Start the graphical user interface. See GUI below.

   info
       info [option...] pkg...
       info [option...] collections
       info [option...] schemes
           With no argument, lists all packages available at the package repository, prefixing
           those already installed with "i".

           With the single word "collections" or "schemes" as the argument, lists the request
           type instead of all packages.

           With any other arguments, display information about pkg: the name, category, short and
           long description, sizes, installation status, and TeX Live revision number.  If pkg is
           not locally installed, searches in the remote installation source.

           For normal packages (not collections or schemes), the sizes of the four groups of
           files (run/src/doc/bin files) are shown separately. For collections, the cumulative
           size is shown, including all directly-dependent packages (but not dependent
           collections). For schemes, the cumulative size is also shown, including all directly-
           dependent collections and packages.

           If pkg is not found locally or remotely, the search action is used and lists matching
           packages and files.

           It also displays information taken from the TeX Catalogue, namely the package version,
           date, and license.  Consider these, especially the package version, as approximations
           only, due to timing skew of the updates of the different pieces.  By contrast, the
           "revision" value comes directly from TL and is reliable.

           The former actions "show" and "list" are merged into this action, but are still
           supported for backward compatibility.

           Options:

           --list
               If the option "--list" is given with a package, the list of contained files is
               also shown, including those for platform-specific dependencies.  When given with
               schemes and collections, "--list" outputs their dependencies in a similar way.

           --only-installed
               If this option is given, the installation source will not be used; only locally
               installed packages, collections, or schemes are listed.

           --only-remote
               Only list packages from the remote repository. Useful when checking what is
               available in a remote repository using "tlmgr --repo ... --only-remote info". Note
               that "--only-installed" and "--only-remote" cannot both be specified.

           --data "item1,item2,..."
               If the option "--data" is given, its argument must be a comma separated list of
               field names from: "name", "category", "localrev", "remoterev", "shortdesc",
               "longdesc", "installed", "size", "relocatable", "depends", "cat-version",
               "cat-date", or "cat-license". In this case the requested packages' information is
               listed in CSV format one package per line, and the column information is given by
               the "itemN". The "depends" column contains the name of all dependencies separated
               by ":".

           --json
               In case "--json" is specified, the output is a JSON encoded array where each array
               element is the JSON representation of a single "TLPOBJ" but with additional
               information. For details see "tlpkg/doc/JSON-formats.txt", format definition:
               "TLPOBJINFO".  If both "--json" and "--data" are given, "--json" takes precedence.

   init-usertree
       Sets up a texmf tree for so-called user mode management, either the default user tree
       ("TEXMFHOME"), or one specified on the command line with "--usertree".  See "USER MODE"
       below.

   install [option...] pkg...
       Install each pkg given on the command line, if it is not already installed.  (It does not
       touch existing packages; see the "update" action for how to get the latest version of a
       package.)

       By default this also installs all packages on which the given pkgs are dependent.
       Options:

       --dry-run
           Nothing is actually installed; instead, the actions to be performed are written to the
           terminal.

       --file
           Instead of fetching a package from the installation repository, use the package files
           given on the command line.  These files must be standard TeX Live package files (with
           contained tlpobj file).

       --force
           If updates to "tlmgr" itself (or other parts of the basic infrastructure) are present,
           "tlmgr" will bail out and not perform the installation unless this option is given.
           Not recommended.

       --no-depends
           Do not install dependencies.  (By default, installing a package ensures that all
           dependencies of this package are fulfilled.)

       --no-depends-at-all
           Normally, when you install a package which ships binary files the respective binary
           package will also be installed.  That is, for a package "foo", the package
           "foo.i386-linux" will also be installed on an "i386-linux" system.  This option
           suppresses this behavior, and also implies "--no-depends".  Don't use it unless you
           are sure of what you are doing.

       --reinstall
           Reinstall a package (including dependencies for collections) even if it already seems
           to be installed (i.e, is present in the TLPDB).  This is useful to recover from
           accidental removal of files in the hierarchy.

           When re-installing, only dependencies on normal packages are followed (i.e., not those
           of category Scheme or Collection).

       --with-doc
       --with-src
           While not recommended, the "install-tl" program provides an option to omit
           installation of all documentation and/or source files.  (By default, everything is
           installed.)  After such an installation, you may find that you want the documentation
           or source files for a given package after all.  You can get them by using these
           options in conjunction with "--reinstall", as in (using the "fontspec" package as the
           example):

             tlmgr install --reinstall --with-doc --with-src fontspec

   key
       key list
       key add file
       key remove keyid
           The action "key" allows listing, adding and removing additional GPG keys to the set of
           trusted keys, that is, those that are used to verify the TeX Live databases.

           With the "list" argument, "key" lists all keys.

           The "add" argument requires another argument, either a filename or "-" for stdin, from
           which the key is added. The key is added to the local keyring
           "GNUPGHOME/repository-keys.gpg", which is normally "tlpkg/gpg/repository-keys.gpg".

           The "remove" argument requires a key id and removes the requested id from the local
           keyring.

   list
       Synonym for "info".

   option
       option [--json] [show]
       option [--json] showall
       option key [value]

       The first form, "show", shows the global TeX Live settings currently saved in the TLPDB
       with a short description and the "key" used for changing it in parentheses.

       The second form, "showall", is similar, but also shows options which can be defined but
       are not currently set to any value.

       Both "show..." forms take an option "--json", which dumps the option information in JSON
       format.  In this case, both forms dump the same data. For the format of the JSON output
       see "tlpkg/doc/JSON-formats.txt", format definition "TLOPTION".

       In the third form, with key, if value is not given, the setting for key is displayed.  If
       value is present, key is set to value.

       Possible values for key are (run "tlmgr option showall" for the definitive list):

        repository (default package repository),
        formats    (create formats at installation time),
        postcode   (run postinst code blobs)
        docfiles   (install documentation files),
        srcfiles   (install source files),
        backupdir  (default directory for backups),
        autobackup (number of backups to keep).
        sys_bin    (directory to which executables are linked by the path action)
        sys_man    (directory to which man pages are linked by the path action)
        sys_info   (directory to which Info files are linked by the path action)
        desktop_integration (Windows-only: create Start menu shortcuts)
        fileassocs (Windows-only: change file associations)
        multiuser  (Windows-only: install for all users)

       One common use of "option" is to permanently change the installation to get further
       updates from the Internet, after originally installing from DVD.  To do this, you can run

        tlmgr option repository http://mirror.ctan.org/systems/texlive/tlnet

       The "install-tl" documentation has more information about the possible values for
       "repository".  (For backward compatibility, "location" can be used as a synonym for
       "repository".)

       If "formats" is set (this is the default), then formats are regenerated when either the
       engine or the format files have changed.  Disable this only when you know how and want to
       regenerate formats yourself.

       The "postcode" option controls execution of per-package postinstallation action code.  It
       is set by default, and again disabling is not likely to be of interest except to
       developers doing debugging.

       The "docfiles" and "srcfiles" options control the installation of their respective file
       groups (documentation, sources; grouping is approximate) per package. By default both are
       enabled (1).  Either or both can be disabled (set to 0) if disk space is limited or for
       minimal testing installations, etc.  When disabled, the respective files are not
       downloaded at all.

       The options "autobackup" and "backupdir" determine the defaults for the actions "update",
       "backup" and "restore".  These three actions need a directory in which to read or write
       the backups.  If "--backupdir" is not specified on the command line, the "backupdir"
       option value is used (if set).

       The "autobackup" option (de)activates automatic generation of backups.  Its value is an
       integer.  If the "autobackup" value is "-1", no backups are removed.  If "autobackup" is 0
       or more, it specifies the number of backups to keep.  Thus, backups are disabled if the
       value is 0.  In the "--clean" mode of the "backup" action this option also specifies the
       number to be kept.  The default value is 1, so that backups are made, but only one backup
       is kept.

       To setup "autobackup" to "-1" on the command line, use:

         tlmgr option -- autobackup -1

       The "--" avoids having the "-1" treated as an option.  (The "--" stops parsing for options
       at the point where it appears; this is a general feature across most Unix programs.)

       The "sys_bin", "sys_man", and "sys_info" options are used on Unix systems to control the
       generation of links for executables, Info files and man pages. See the "path" action for
       details.

       The last three options affect behavior on Windows installations.  If "desktop_integration"
       is set, then some packages will install items in a sub-folder of the Start menu for "tlmgr
       gui", documentation, etc.  If "fileassocs" is set, Windows file associations are made (see
       also the "postaction" action).  Finally, if "multiuser" is set, then adaptions to the
       registry and the menus are done for all users on the system instead of only the current
       user.  All three options are on by default.

   paper
       paper [a4|letter]
       [xdvi|pdftex|dvips|dvipdfmx|context|psutils] paper [papersize|--list]
       paper --json

       With no arguments ("tlmgr paper"), shows the default paper size setting for all known
       programs.

       With one argument (e.g., "tlmgr paper a4"), sets the default for all known programs to
       that paper size.

       With a program given as the first argument and no paper size specified (e.g., "tlmgr dvips
       paper"), shows the default paper size for that program.

       With a program given as the first argument and a paper size as the last argument (e.g.,
       "tlmgr dvips paper a4"), set the default for that program to that paper size.

       With a program given as the first argument and "--list" given as the last argument (e.g.,
       "tlmgr dvips paper --list"), shows all valid paper sizes for that program.  The first size
       shown is the default.

       If "--json" is specified without other options, the paper setup is dumped in JSON format.
       For the format of JSON output see "tlpkg/doc/JSON-formats.txt", format definition
       "TLPAPER".

       Incidentally, this syntax of having a specific program name before the "paper" keyword is
       unusual.  It is inherited from the longstanding "texconfig" script, which supports other
       configuration settings for some programs, notably "dvips".  "tlmgr" does not support those
       extra settings.

   path
       path [--w32mode=user|admin] add
       path [--w32mode=user|admin] remove
           On Unix, merely adds or removes symlinks for binaries, man pages, and info pages in
           the system directories specified by the respective options (see the "option"
           description above).  Does not change any initialization files, either system or
           personal.

           On Windows, the registry part where the binary directory is added or removed is
           determined in the following way:

           If the user has admin rights, and the option "--w32mode" is not given, the setting
           w32_multi_user determines the location (i.e., if it is on then the system path,
           otherwise the user path is changed).

           If the user has admin rights, and the option "--w32mode" is given, this option
           determines the path to be adjusted.

           If the user does not have admin rights, and the option "--w32mode" is not given, and
           the setting w32_multi_user is off, the user path is changed, while if the setting
           w32_multi_user is on, a warning is issued that the caller does not have enough
           privileges.

           If the user does not have admin rights, and the option "--w32mode" is given, it must
           be "user" and the user path will be adjusted. If a user without admin rights uses the
           option "--w32mode admin" a warning is issued that the caller does not have enough
           privileges.

   pinning
       The "pinning" action manages the pinning file, see "Pinning" below.

       "pinning show"
           Shows the current pinning data.

       "pinning add" repo pkgglob...
           Pins the packages matching the pkgglob(s) to the repository repo.

       "pinning remove" repo pkgglob...
           Any packages recorded in the pinning file matching the <pkgglob>s for the given
           repository repo are removed.

       "pinning remove repo --all"
           Remove all pinning data for repository repo.

   platform
       platform list|add|remove platform...
       platform set platform
       platform set auto
           "platform list" lists the TeX Live names of all the platforms (a.k.a. architectures),
           ("i386-linux", ...) available at the package repository.

           "platform add" platform... adds the executables for each given platform platform to
           the installation from the repository.

           "platform remove" platform... removes the executables for each given platform platform
           from the installation, but keeps the currently running platform in any case.

           "platform set" platform switches TeX Live to always use the given platform instead of
           auto detection.

           "platform set auto" switches TeX Live to auto detection mode for platform.

           Platform detection is needed to select the proper "xz" and "wget" binaries that are
           shipped with TeX Live.

           "arch" is a synonym for "platform".

           Options:

           --dry-run
               Nothing is actually installed; instead, the actions to be performed are written to
               the terminal.

   postaction
       postaction [option...] install [shortcut|fileassoc|script] [pkg...]
       postaction [option...] remove [shortcut|fileassoc|script] [pkg...]
           Carry out the postaction "shortcut", "fileassoc", or "script" given as the second
           required argument in install or remove mode (which is the first required argument),
           for either the packages given on the command line, or for all if "--all" is given.

           Options:

           --w32mode=[user|admin]
               If the option "--w32mode" is given the value "user", all actions will only be
               carried out in the user-accessible parts of the registry/filesystem, while the
               value "admin" selects the system-wide parts of the registry for the file
               associations.  If you do not have enough permissions, using "--w32mode=admin" will
               not succeed.

           --fileassocmode=[1|2]
               "--fileassocmode" specifies the action for file associations.  If it is set to 1
               (the default), only new associations are added; if it is set to 2, all
               associations are set to the TeX Live programs.  (See also "option fileassocs".)

           --all
               Carry out the postactions for all packages

   print-platform
       Print the TeX Live identifier for the detected platform (hardware/operating system)
       combination to standard output, and exit.  "--print-arch" is a synonym.

   print-platform-info
       Print the TeX Live platform identifier, TL platform long name, and original output from
       guess.

   remove [option...] pkg...
       Remove each pkg specified.  Removing a collection removes all package dependencies (unless
       "--no-depends" is specified), but not any collection dependencies of that collection.
       However, when removing a package, dependencies are never removed.  Options:

       --all
           Uninstalls all of TeX Live, asking for confirmation unless "--force" is also
           specified.

       --backup
       --backupdir directory
           These options behave just as with the update action (q.v.), except they apply to
           making backups of packages before they are removed.  The default is to make such a
           backup, that is, to save a copy of packages before removal.

           The "restore" action explains how to restore from a backup.

       --no-depends
           Do not remove dependent packages.

       --no-depends-at-all
           See above under install (and beware).

       --force
           By default, removal of a package or collection that is a dependency of another
           collection or scheme is not allowed.  With this option, the package will be removed
           unconditionally.  Use with care.

           A package that has been removed using the "--force" option because it is still listed
           in an installed collection or scheme will not be updated, and will be mentioned as
           "forcibly removed" in the output of "tlmgr update --list".

       --dry-run
           Nothing is actually removed; instead, the actions to be performed are written to the
           terminal.

   repository
       repository list
       repository list path|tag
       repository add path [tag]
       repository remove path|tag
       repository set path[#tag] [path[#tag] ...]
           This action manages the list of repositories.  See MULTIPLE REPOSITORIES below for
           detailed explanations.

           The first form ("list") lists all configured repositories and the respective tags if
           set. If a path, url, or tag is given after the "list" keyword, it is interpreted as
           source from where to initialize a TeX Live Database and lists the contained packages.
           This can also be an up-to-now not used repository, both locally and remote. If one
           pass in addition "--with-platforms", for each package the available platforms (if any)
           are listed, too.

           The third form ("add") adds a repository (optionally attaching a tag) to the list of
           repositories.  The forth form ("remove") removes a repository, either by full
           path/url, or by tag.  The last form ("set") sets the list of repositories to the items
           given on the command line, not keeping previous settings

           In all cases, one of the repositories must be tagged as "main"; otherwise, all
           operations will fail!

   restore
       restore [option...] pkg [rev]
       restore [option...] --all
           Restore a package from a previously-made backup.

           If "--all" is given, try to restore the latest revision of all package backups found
           in the backup directory.

           Otherwise, if neither pkg nor rev are given, list the available backup revisions for
           all packages.  With pkg given but no rev, list all available backup revisions of pkg.

           When listing available packages, "tlmgr" shows the revision, and in parenthesis the
           creation time if available (in format yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm).

           If (and only if) both pkg and a valid revision number rev are specified, try to
           restore the package from the specified backup.

           Options:

           --all
               Try to restore the latest revision of all package backups found in the backup
               directory. Additional non-option arguments (like pkg) are not allowed.

           --backupdir directory
               Specify the directory where the backups are to be found. If not given it will be
               taken from the configuration setting in the TLPDB.

           --dry-run
               Nothing is actually restored; instead, the actions to be performed are written to
               the terminal.

           --force
               Don't ask questions.

           --json
               When listing backups, the option "--json" turn on JSON output.  The format is an
               array of JSON objects ("name", "rev", "date").  For details see
               "tlpkg/doc/JSON-formats.txt", format definition: "TLBACKUPS".  If both "--json"
               and "--data" are given, "--json" takes precedence.

   search
       search [option...] what
       search [option...] --file what
       search [option...] --all what
           By default, search the names, short descriptions, and long descriptions of all locally
           installed packages for the argument what, interpreted as a (Perl) regular expression.

           Options:

           --file
               List all filenames containing what.

           --all
               Search everything: package names, descriptions and filenames.

           --global
               Search the TeX Live Database of the installation medium, instead of the local
               installation.

           --word
               Restrict the search of package names and descriptions (but not filenames) to match
               only full words.  For example, searching for "table" with this option will not
               output packages containing the word "tables" (unless they also contain the word
               "table" on its own).

   shell
       Starts an interactive mode, where tlmgr prompts for commands. This can be used directly,
       or for scripting. The first line of output is "protocol" n, where n is an unsigned number
       identifying the protocol version (currently 1).

       In general, tlmgr actions that can be given on the command line translate to commands in
       this shell mode.  For example, you can say "update --list" to see what would be updated.
       The TLPDB is loaded the first time it is needed (not at the beginning), and used for the
       rest of the session.

       Besides these actions, a few commands are specific to shell mode:

       protocol
           Print "protocol n", the current protocol version.

       help
           Print pointers to this documentation.

       version
           Print tlmgr version information.

       quit, end, bye, byebye, EOF
           Exit.

       restart
           Restart "tlmgr shell" with the original command line; most useful when developing
           "tlmgr".

       load [local|remote]
           Explicitly load the local or remote, respectively, TLPDB.

       save
           Save the local TLPDB, presumably after other operations have changed it.

       get [var] =item set [var [val]]
           Get the value of var, or set it to val.  Possible var names: "debug-translation",
           "machine-readable", "no-execute-actions", "require-verification", "verify-downloads",
           "repository", and "prompt". All except "repository" and "prompt" are booleans, taking
           values 0 and 1, and behave like the corresponding command line option.  The
           "repository" variable takes a string, and sets the remote repository location. The
           "prompt" variable takes a string, and sets the current default prompt.

           If var or then val is not specified, it is prompted for.

   show
       Synonym for "info".

   uninstall
       Synonym for remove.

   update [option...] [pkg...]
       Updates the packages given as arguments to the latest version available at the
       installation source.  Either "--all" or at least one pkg name must be specified.  Options:

       --all
           Update all installed packages except for "tlmgr" itself.  Thus, if updates to "tlmgr"
           itself are present, this will simply give an error, unless also the option "--force"
           or "--self" is given.  (See below.)

           In addition to updating the installed packages, during the update of a collection the
           local installation is (by default) synchronized to the status of the collection on the
           server, for both additions and removals.

           This means that if a package has been removed on the server (and thus has also been
           removed from the respective collection), "tlmgr" will remove the package in the local
           installation.  This is called ``auto-remove'' and is announced as such when using the
           option "--list".  This auto-removal can be suppressed using the option
           "--no-auto-remove" (not recommended, see option description).

           Analogously, if a package has been added to a collection on the server that is also
           installed locally, it will be added to the local installation.  This is called
           ``auto-install'' and is announced as such when using the option "--list".  This auto-
           installation can be suppressed using the option "--no-auto-install".

           An exception to the collection dependency checks (including the auto-installation of
           packages just mentioned) are those that have been ``forcibly removed'' by you, that
           is, you called "tlmgr remove --force" on them.  (See the "remove" action
           documentation.)  To reinstall any such forcibly removed packages use
           "--reinstall-forcibly-removed".

           If you want to exclude some packages from the current update run (e.g., due to a slow
           link), see the "--exclude" option below.

       --self
           Update "tlmgr" itself (that is, the infrastructure packages) if updates to it are
           present. On Windows this includes updates to the private Perl interpreter shipped
           inside TeX Live.

           If this option is given together with either "--all" or a list of packages, then
           "tlmgr" will be updated first and, if this update succeeds, the new version will be
           restarted to complete the rest of the updates.

           In short:

             tlmgr update --self        # update infrastructure only
             tlmgr update --self --all  # update infrastructure and all packages
             tlmgr update --force --all # update all packages but *not* infrastructure
                                        # ... this last at your own risk, not recommended!

       --dry-run
           Nothing is actually installed; instead, the actions to be performed are written to the
           terminal.  This is a more detailed report than "--list".

       --list [pkg]
           Concisely list the packages which would be updated, newly installed, or removed,
           without actually changing anything.  If "--all" is also given, all available updates
           are listed.  If "--self" is given, but not "--all", only updates to the critical
           packages (tlmgr, texlive infrastructure, perl on Windows, etc.)  are listed.  If
           neither "--all" nor "--self" is given, and in addition no pkg is given, then "--all"
           is assumed (thus, "tlmgr update --list" is the same as "tlmgr update --list --all").
           If neither "--all" nor "--self" is given, but specific package names are given, those
           packages are checked for updates.

       --exclude pkg
           Exclude pkg from the update process.  If this option is given more than once, its
           arguments accumulate.

           An argument pkg excludes both the package pkg itself and all its related platform-
           specific packages pkg.ARCH.  For example,

             tlmgr update --all --exclude a2ping

           will not update "a2ping", "a2ping.i386-linux", or any other "a2ping."ARCH package.

           If this option specifies a package that would otherwise be a candidate for auto-
           installation, auto-removal, or reinstallation of a forcibly removed package, "tlmgr"
           quits with an error message.  Excludes are not supported in these circumstances.

           This option can also be set permanently in the tlmgr config file with the key
           "update-exclude".

       --no-auto-remove [pkg...]
           By default, "tlmgr" tries to remove packages which have disappeared on the server, as
           described above under "--all".  This option prevents such removals, either for all
           packages (with "--all"), or for just the given pkg names.  This can lead to an
           inconsistent TeX installation, since packages are not infrequently renamed or replaced
           by their authors.  Therefore this is not recommend.

       --no-auto-install [pkg...]
           Under normal circumstances "tlmgr" will install packages which are new on the server,
           as described above under "--all".  This option prevents any such automatic
           installation, either for all packages (with "--all"), or the given pkg names.

           Furthermore, after the "tlmgr" run using this has finished, the packages that would
           have been auto-installed will be considered as forcibly removed.  So, if "foobar" is
           the only new package on the server, then

             tlmgr update --all --no-auto-install

           is equivalent to

             tlmgr update --all
             tlmgr remove --force foobar

       --reinstall-forcibly-removed
           Under normal circumstances "tlmgr" will not install packages that have been forcibly
           removed by the user; that is, removed with "remove --force", or whose installation was
           prohibited by "--no-auto-install" during an earlier update.

           This option makes "tlmgr" ignore the forcible removals and re-install all such
           packages. This can be used to completely synchronize an installation with the server's
           idea of what is available:

             tlmgr update --reinstall-forcibly-removed --all

       --backup
       --backupdir directory
           These two options control the creation of backups of packages before updating; that
           is, backup of packages as currently installed.  If neither options is given, no backup
           will made. If "--backupdir" is given and specifies a writable directory then a backup
           will be made in that location. If only "--backup" is given, then a backup will be made
           to the directory previously set via the "option" action (see below). If both are given
           then a backup will be made to the specified directory.

           You can also set options via the "option" action to automatically make backups for all
           packages, and/or keep only a certain number of backups.

           "tlmgr" always makes a temporary backup when updating packages, in case of download or
           other failure during an update.  In contrast, the purpose of this "--backup" option is
           to save a persistent backup in case the actual content of the update causes problems,
           e.g., introduces an TeX incompatibility.

           The "restore" action explains how to restore from a backup.

       --no-depends
           If you call for updating a package normally all depending packages will also be
           checked for updates and updated if necessary. This switch suppresses this behavior.

       --no-depends-at-all
           See above under install (and beware).

       --force
           Force update of normal packages, without updating "tlmgr" itself (unless the "--self"
           option is also given).  Not recommended.

           Also, "update --list" is still performed regardless of this option.

       If the package on the server is older than the package already installed (e.g., if the
       selected mirror is out of date), "tlmgr" does not downgrade.  Also, packages for
       uninstalled platforms are not installed.

       "tlmgr" saves a copy of the "texlive.tlpdb" file used for an update with a suffix
       representing the repository url, as in "tlpkg/texlive.tlpdb."long-hash-string.  These can
       be useful for fallback information, but if you don't like them accumulating (e.g.,
       "mirror.ctan.org" resolves to many different hosts, each resulting in a possibly different
       hash), it's harmless to delete them.

CONFIGURATION FILE FOR TLMGR

       There are two configuration files for "tlmgr": One is system-wide in
       "TEXMFSYSCONFIG/tlmgr/config", and the other is user-specific in
       "TEXMFCONFIG/tlmgr/config".  The user-specific one is the default for the "conf tlmgr"
       action.  (Run "kpsewhich -var-value=TEXMFSYSCONFIG" or "... TEXMFCONFIG ..." to see the
       actual directory names.)

       A few defaults corresponding to command-line options can be set in these configuration
       files.  In addition, the system-wide file can contain a directive to restrict the allowed
       actions.

       In these config files, empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored.  All other lines
       must look like:

         key = value

       where the spaces are optional but the "=" is required.

       The allowed keys are:

       "auto-remove", value 0 or 1 (default 1), same as command-line option.
       "gui-expertmode", value 0 or 1 (default 1). This switches between the full GUI and a
       simplified GUI with only the most common settings.
       "gui-lang" llcode, with a language code value as with the command-line option.
       "no-checksums", value 0 or 1 (default 0, see below).
       "persistent-downloads", value 0 or 1 (default 1), same as command-line option.
       "require-verification", value 0 or 1 (default 0), same as command-line option.
       "update-exclude", value: comma-separated list of packages (no space allowed). Same as the
       command line option "--exclude" for the action "update".
       "verify-downloads", value 0 or 1 (default 1), same as command-line option.

       The system-wide config file can contain one additional key:

       "allowed-actions" action1 [,action,...] The value is a comma-separated list of "tlmgr"
       actions which are allowed to be executed when "tlmgr" is invoked in system mode (that is,
       without "--usermode").
           This allows distributors to include the "tlmgr" in their packaging, but allow only a
           restricted set of actions that do not interfere with their distro package manager.
           For native TeX Live installations, it doesn't make sense to set this.

       The "no-checksums" key needs more explanation.  By default, package checksums computed and
       stored on the server (in the TLPDB) are compared to checksums computed locally after
       downloading.  "no-checksums" disables this process.

       The checksum algorithm is SHA-512.  Your system must have one of (looked for in this
       order) the Perl "Digest::SHA" module, the "openssl" program (<http://openssl.org>), the
       "sha512sum" program (from GNU Coreutils, <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils>), or
       finally the "shasum" program (just to support old Macs).  If none of these are available,
       a warning is issued and "tlmgr" proceeds without checking checksums.  (Incidentally, other
       SHA implementations, such as the pure Perl and pure Lua modules, are much too slow to be
       usable in our context.)  "no-checksums" avoids the warning.

CRYPTOGRAPHIC VERIFICATION

       "tlmgr" and "install-tl" perform cryptographic verification if possible.  If verification
       is performed and successful, the programs report "(verified)" after loading the TLPDB;
       otherwise, they report "(not verified)".  But either way, by default the installation
       and/or updates proceed normally.

       If a program named "gpg" is available (that is, found in "PATH"), by default cryptographic
       signatures will be checked: we require the main repository be signed, but not any
       additional repositories. If "gpg" is not available, by default signatures are not checked
       and no verification is carried out, but "tlmgr" still proceeds normally.

       The behavior of the verification can be controlled by the command line and config file
       option "verify-repo" which takes one of the following values: "none", "main", or "all".
       With "none", no verification whatsoever is attempted.  With "main" (the default)
       verification is required only for the main repository, and only if "gpg" is available;
       though attempted for all, missing signatures of subsidiary repositories will not result in
       an error.  Finally, in the case of "all", "gpg" must be available and all repositories
       need to be signed.

       In all cases, if a signature is checked and fails to verify, an error is raised.

       Cryptographic verification requires checksum checking (described just above) to succeed,
       and a working GnuPG ("gpg") program (see below for search method).  Then, unless
       cryptographic verification has been disabled, a signature file ("texlive.tlpdb.*.asc") of
       the checksum file is downloaded and the signature verified. The signature is created by
       the TeX Live Distribution GPG key 0x0D5E5D9106BAB6BC, which in turn is signed by Karl
       Berry's key 0x0716748A30D155AD and Norbert Preining's key 0x6CACA448860CDC13.  All of
       these keys are obtainable from the standard key servers.

       Additional trusted keys can be added using the "key" action.

   Configuration of GnuPG invocation
       The executable used for GnuPG is searched as follows: If the environment variable
       "TL_GNUPG" is set, it is tested and used; otherwise "gpg" is checked; finally "gpg2" is
       checked.

       Further adaptation of the "gpg" invocation can be made using the two environment variables
       "TL_GNUPGHOME", which is passed to "gpg" as the value for "--homedir", and "TL_GNUPGARGS",
       which replaces the default options "--no-secmem-warning --no-permission-warning".

USER MODE

       "tlmgr" provides a restricted way, called ``user mode'', to manage arbitrary texmf trees
       in the same way as the main installation.  For example, this allows people without write
       permissions on the installation location to update/install packages into a tree of their
       own.

       "tlmgr" is switched into user mode with the command line option "--usermode".  It does not
       switch automatically, nor is there any configuration file setting for it.  Thus, this
       option has to be explicitly given every time user mode is to be activated.

       This mode of "tlmgr" works on a user tree, by default the value of the "TEXMFHOME"
       variable.  This can be overridden with the command line option "--usertree".  In the
       following when we speak of the user tree we mean either "TEXMFHOME" or the one given on
       the command line.

       Not all actions are allowed in user mode; "tlmgr" will warn you and not carry out any
       problematic actions.  Currently not supported (and probably will never be) is the
       "platform" action.  The "gui" action is currently not supported, but may be in a future
       release.

       Some "tlmgr" actions don't need any write permissions and thus work the same in user mode
       and normal mode.  Currently these are: "check", "help", "list", "print-platform",
       "print-platform-info", "search", "show", "version".

       On the other hand, most of the actions dealing with package management do need write
       permissions, and thus behave differently in user mode, as described below: "install",
       "update", "remove", "option", "paper", "generate", "backup", "restore", "uninstall",
       "symlinks".

       Before using "tlmgr" in user mode, you have to set up the user tree with the
       "init-usertree" action.  This creates usertree"/web2c" and usertree"/tlpkg/tlpobj", and a
       minimal usertree"/tlpkg/texlive.tlpdb".  At that point, you can tell "tlmgr" to do the
       (supported) actions by adding the "--usermode" command line option.

       In user mode the file usertree"/tlpkg/texlive.tlpdb" contains only the packages that have
       been installed into the user tree using "tlmgr", plus additional options from the
       ``virtual'' package "00texlive.installation" (similar to the main installation's
       "texlive.tlpdb").

       All actions on packages in user mode can only be carried out on packages that are known as
       "relocatable".  This excludes all packages containing executables and a few other core
       packages.  Of the 2500 or so packages currently in TeX Live the vast majority are
       relocatable and can be installed into a user tree.

       Description of changes of actions in user mode:

   User mode install
       In user mode, the "install" action checks that the package and all dependencies are all
       either relocated or already installed in the system installation.  If this is the case, it
       unpacks all containers to be installed into the user tree (to repeat, that's either
       "TEXMFHOME" or the value of "--usertree") and add the respective packages to the user
       tree's "texlive.tlpdb" (creating it if need be).

       Currently installing a collection in user mode installs all dependent packages, but in
       contrast to normal mode, does not install dependent collections.  For example, in normal
       mode "tlmgr install collection-context" would install "collection-basic" and other
       collections, while in user mode, only the packages mentioned in "collection-context" are
       installed.

       If a package shipping map files is installed in user mode, a backup of the user's
       "updmap.cfg" in "USERTREE/web2c/" is made, and then this file regenerated from the list of
       installed packages.

   User mode backup, restore, remove, update
       In user mode, these actions check that all packages to be acted on are installed in the
       user tree before proceeding; otherwise, they behave just as in normal mode.

   User mode generate, option, paper
       In user mode, these actions operate only on the user tree's configuration files and/or
       "texlive.tlpdb".  creates configuration files in user tree

MULTIPLE REPOSITORIES

       The main TeX Live repository contains a vast array of packages.  Nevertheless, additional
       local repositories can be useful to provide locally-installed resources, such as
       proprietary fonts and house styles.  Also, alternative package repositories distribute
       packages that cannot or should not be included in TeX Live, for whatever reason.

       The simplest and most reliable method is to temporarily set the installation source to any
       repository (with the "-repository" or "option repository" command line options), and
       perform your operations.

       When you are using multiple repositories over a sustained length of time, however,
       explicitly switching between them becomes inconvenient.  Thus, it's possible to tell
       "tlmgr" about additional repositories you want to use.  The basic command is "tlmgr
       repository add".  The rest of this section explains further.

       When using multiple repositories, one of them has to be set as the main repository, which
       distributes most of the installed packages.  When you switch from a single repository
       installation to a multiple repository installation, the previous sole repository will be
       set as the main repository.

       By default, even if multiple repositories are configured, packages are still only
       installed from the main repository.  Thus, simply adding a second repository does not
       actually enable installation of anything from there.  You also have to specify which
       packages should be taken from the new repository, by specifying so-called ``pinning''
       rules, described next.

   Pinning
       When a package "foo" is pinned to a repository, a package "foo" in any other repository,
       even if it has a higher revision number, will not be considered an installable candidate.

       As mentioned above, by default everything is pinned to the main repository.  Let's now go
       through an example of setting up a second repository and enabling updates of a package
       from it.

       First, check that we have support for multiple repositories, and have only one enabled (as
       is the case by default):

        $ tlmgr repository list
        List of repositories (with tags if set):
          /var/www/norbert/tlnet

       Ok.  Let's add the "tlcontrib" repository (this is a real repository, hosted at
       <http://tlcontrib.metatex.org>, maintained by Taco Hoekwater et al.), with the tag
       "tlcontrib":

        $ tlmgr repository add http://tlcontrib.metatex.org/2012 tlcontrib

       Check the repository list again:

        $ tlmgr repository list
        List of repositories (with tags if set):
           http://tlcontrib.metatex.org/2012 (tlcontrib)
           /var/www/norbert/tlnet (main)

       Now we specify a pinning entry to get the package "context" from "tlcontrib":

        $ tlmgr pinning add tlcontrib context

       Check that we can find "context":

        $ tlmgr show context
        tlmgr: package repositories:
        ...
        package:     context
        repository:  tlcontrib/26867
        ...

       - install "context":

        $ tlmgr install context
        tlmgr: package repositories:
        ...
        [1/1,  ??:??/??:??] install: context @tlcontrib [

       In the output here you can see that the "context" package has been installed from the
       "tlcontrib" repository (@tlcontrib).

       Finally, "tlmgr pinning" also supports removing certain or all packages from a given
       repository:

         $ tlmgr pinning remove tlcontrib context  # remove just context
         $ tlmgr pinning remove tlcontrib --all    # take nothing from tlcontrib

       A summary of the "tlmgr pinning" actions is given above.

GUI FOR TLMGR

       The graphical user interface for "tlmgr" requires Perl/Tk
       <http://search.cpan.org/search?query=perl%2Ftk>.  For Windows the necessary modules are
       shipped within TeX Live, for all other (i.e., Unix-based) systems Perl/Tk (as well as Perl
       of course) has to be installed outside of TL.  <http://tug.org/texlive/distro.html#perltk>
       has a list of invocations for some distros.

       The GUI is started with the invocation "tlmgr gui"; assuming Tk is loadable, the graphical
       user interface will be shown.  The main window contains a menu bar, the main display, and
       a status area where messages normally shown on the console are displayed.

       Within the main display there are three main parts: the "Display configuration" area, the
       list of packages, and the action buttons.

       Also, at the top right the currently loaded repository is shown; this also acts as a
       button and when clicked will try to load the default repository.  To load a different
       repository, see the "tlmgr" menu item.

       Finally, the status area at the bottom of the window gives additional information about
       what is going on.

   Main display
       Display configuration area

       The first part of the main display allows you to specify (filter) which packages are
       shown.  By default, all are shown.  Changes here are reflected right away.

       Status
           Select whether to show all packages (the default), only those installed, only those
           not installed, or only those with update available.

       Category
           Select which categories are shown: packages, collections, and/or schemes.  These are
           briefly explained in the "DESCRIPTION" section above.

       Match
           Select packages matching for a specific pattern.  By default, this searches both
           descriptions and filenames.  You can also select a subset for searching.

       Selection
           Select packages to those selected, those not selected, or all.  Here, ``selected''
           means that the checkbox in the beginning of the line of a package is ticked.

       Display configuration buttons
           To the right there are three buttons: select all packages, select none (a.k.a.
           deselect all), and reset all these filters to the defaults, i.e., show all available.

       Package list area

       The second are of the main display lists all installed packages.  If a repository is
       loaded, those that are available but not installed are also listed.

       Double clicking on a package line pops up an informational window with further details:
       the long description, included files, etc.

       Each line of the package list consists of the following items:

       a checkbox
           Used to select particular packages; some of the action buttons (see below) work only
           on the selected packages.

       package name
           The name (identifier) of the package as given in the database.

       local revision (and version)
           If the package is installed the TeX Live revision number for the installed package
           will be shown.  If there is a catalogue version given in the database for this
           package, it will be shown in parentheses.  However, the catalogue version, unlike the
           TL revision, is not guaranteed to reflect what is actually installed.

       remote revision (and version)
           If a repository has been loaded the revision of the package in the repository (if
           present) is shown.  As with the local column, if a catalogue version is provided it
           will be displayed.  And also as with the local column, the catalogue version may be
           stale.

       short description
           The short description of the package.

       Main display action buttons

       Below the list of packages are several buttons:

       Update all installed
           This calls "tlmgr update --all", i.e., tries to update all available packages.  Below
           this button is a toggle to allow reinstallation of previously removed packages as part
           of this action.

           The other four buttons only work on the selected packages, i.e., those where the
           checkbox at the beginning of the package line is ticked.

       Update
           Update only the selected packages.

       Install
           Install the selected packages; acts like "tlmgr install", i.e., also installs
           dependencies.  Thus, installing a collection installs all its constituent packages.

       Remove
           Removes the selected packages; acts like "tlmgr remove", i.e., it will also remove
           dependencies of collections (but not dependencies of normal packages).

       Backup
           Makes a backup of the selected packages; acts like "tlmgr backup". This action needs
           the option "backupdir" set (see "Options -" General>).

   Menu bar
       The following entries can be found in the menu bar:

       "tlmgr" menu
           The items here load various repositories: the default as specified in the TeX Live
           database, the default network repository, the repository specified on the command line
           (if any), and an arbitrarily manually-entered one.  Also has the so-necessary "quit"
           operation.

       "Options menu"
           Provides access to several groups of options: "Paper" (configuration of default paper
           sizes), "Platforms" (only on Unix, configuration of the supported/installed
           platforms), "GUI Language" (select language used in the GUI interface), and "General"
           (everything else).

           Several toggles are also here.  The first is "Expert options", which is set by
           default.  If you turn this off, the next time you start the GUI a simplified screen
           will be shown that display only the most important functionality.  This setting is
           saved in the configuration file of "tlmgr"; see "CONFIGURATION FILE FOR TLMGR" for
           details.

           The other toggles are all off by default: for debugging output, to disable the
           automatic installation of new packages, and to disable the automatic removal of
           packages deleted from the server.  Playing with the choices of what is or isn't
           installed may lead to an inconsistent TeX Live installation; e.g., when a package is
           renamed.

       "Actions menu"
           Provides access to several actions: update the filename database (aka "ls-R",
           "mktexlsr", "texhash"), rebuild all formats ("fmtutil-sys --all"), update the font map
           database ("updmap-sys"), restore from a backup of a package, and use of symbolic links
           in system directories (not on Windows).

           The final action is to remove the entire TeX Live installation (also not on Windows).

       "Help menu"
           Provides access to the TeX Live manual (also on the web at
           <http://tug.org/texlive/doc.html>) and the usual ``About'' box.

   GUI options
       Some generic Perl/Tk options can be specified with "tlmgr gui" to control the display:

       "-background" color
           Set background color.

       "-font "" fontname fontsize """
           Set font, e.g., "tlmgr gui -font "helvetica 18"".  The argument to "-font" must be
           quoted, i.e., passed as a single string.

       "-foreground" color
           Set foreground color.

       "-geometry" geomspec
           Set the X geometry, e.g., "tlmgr gui -geometry 1024x512-0+0" creates the window of
           (approximately) the given size in the upper-right corner of the display.

       "-xrm" xresource
           Pass the arbitrary X resource string xresource.

       A few other obscure options are recognized but not mentioned here.  See the Perl/Tk
       documentation (<http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?Tk>) for the complete list, and any X
       documentation for general information.

MACHINE-READABLE OUTPUT

       With the "--machine-readable" option, "tlmgr" writes to stdout in the fixed line-oriented
       format described here, and the usual informational messages for human consumption are
       written to stderr (normally they are written to stdout).  The idea is that a program can
       get all the information it needs by reading stdout.

       Currently this option only applies to the update, install, and "option" actions.

   Machine-readable "update" and "install" output
       The output format is as follows:

         fieldname "\t" value
         ...
         "end-of-header"
         pkgname status localrev serverrev size runtime esttot
         ...
         "end-of-updates"
         other output from post actions, not in machine readable form

       The header section currently has two fields: "location-url" (the repository source from
       which updates are being drawn), and "total-bytes" (the total number of bytes to be
       downloaded).

       The localrev and serverrev fields for each package are the revision numbers in the local
       installation and server repository, respectively.  The size field is the number of bytes
       to be downloaded, i.e., the size of the compressed tar file for a network installation,
       not the unpacked size. The runtime and esttot fields are only present for updated and
       auto-install packages, and contain the currently passed time since start of
       installation/updates and the estimated total time.

       Line endings may be either LF or CRLF depending on the current platform.

       "location-url" location
           The location may be a url (including "file:///foo/bar/..."), or a directory name
           ("/foo/bar").  It is the package repository from which the new package information was
           drawn.

       "total-bytes" count
           The count is simply a decimal number, the sum of the sizes of all the packages that
           need updating or installing (which are listed subsequently).

       Then comes a line with only the literal string "end-of-header".

       Each following line until a line with literal string "end-of-updates" reports on one
       package.  The fields on each line are separated by a tab.  Here are the fields.

       pkgname
           The TeX Live package identifier, with a possible platform suffix for executables.  For
           instance, "pdftex" and "pdftex.i386-linux" are given as two separate packages, one on
           each line.

       status
           The status of the package update.  One character, as follows:

           "d"     The package was removed on the server.

           "f"     The package was removed in the local installation, even though a collection
                   depended on it.  (E.g., the user ran "tlmgr remove --force".)

           "u"     Normal update is needed.

           "r"     Reversed non-update: the locally-installed version is newer than the version
                   on the server.

           "a"     Automatically-determined need for installation, the package is new on the
                   server and is (most probably) part of an installed collection.

           "i"     Package will be installed and isn't present in the local installation (action
                   install).

           "I"     Package is already present but will be reinstalled (action install).

       localrev
           The revision number of the installed package, or "-" if it is not present locally.

       serverrev
           The revision number of the package on the server, or "-" if it is not present on the
           server.

       size
           The size in bytes of the package on the server.  The sum of all the package sizes is
           given in the "total-bytes" header field mentioned above.

       runtime
           The run time since start of installations or updates.

       esttot
           The estimated total time.

   Machine-readable "option" output
       The output format is as follows:

         key "\t" value

       If a value is not saved in the database the string "(not set)" is shown.

       If you are developing a program that uses this output, and find that changes would be
       helpful, do not hesitate to write the mailing list.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       "tlmgr" uses many of the standard TeX environment variables, as reported by, e.g., "tlmgr
       conf" ("conf").

       In addition, for ease in scripting and debugging, "tlmgr" looks for the following
       environment variables. These are not of interest for normal user installations.

       "TEXLIVE_COMPRESSOR"
           This option allows selecting a different compressor program for backups and
           intermediate rollback containers. The order of selection is:

           1.      If the environment variable "TEXLIVE_COMPRESSOR" is defined, use it; abort if
                   it doesn't work. Possible values: "lz4", "gzip", "xz". The necessary options
                   are added internally.

           2.      If lz4 is available (either from the system or TL) and working, use that.

           3.      If gzip is available (from the system) and working, use that.

           4.      If xz is available (either from the system or TL) and working, use that.

           lz4 and gzip are much faster in creating tlmgr's local backups.  The unconditional use
           of xz for the tlnet containers is unaffected, to minimize download sizes.

       "TEXLIVE_DOWNLOADER"
       "TL_DOWNLOAD_PROGRAM"
       "TL_DOWNLOAD_ARGS"
           These options allow selecting different download programs then the ones automatically
           selected by the installer. The order of selection is:

           1.      If the environment variable "TEXLIVE_DOWNLOADER" is defined, use it; abort if
                   the specified program doesn't work.  Possible values: "curl", "wget". The
                   necessary options are added internally.

           2.      If the environment variable "TL_DOWNLOAD_PROGRAM" is defined (can be any
                   value), use it together with "TL_DOWNLOAD_ARGS"; abort if it doesn't work.

           3.      If LWP is available and working, use that (by far the most efficient method,
                   as it supports persistent downloads).

           4.      If curl is available (from the system) and working, use that.

           5.      If wget is available (either from the system or TL) and working, use that.

           TL still provides "wget" binaries for some platforms, so some download method should
           always be available.

AUTHORS AND COPYRIGHT

       This script and its documentation were written for the TeX Live distribution
       (<http://tug.org/texlive>) and both are licensed under the GNU General Public License
       Version 2 or later.

       $Id: tlmgr.pl 48271 2018-07-25 01:51:31Z preining $