Provided by: python3-twisted_18.7.0-2_all bug


       trial - run unit tests


       trial [ options ] [ file | package | module | TestCase | testmethod ] ...

       trial --help | -h


       trial  loads and executes a suite of unit tests, obtained from modules, packages and files
       listed on the command line.

       trial will take either filenames or fully  qualified  Python  names  as  arguments.   Thus
       `trial        myproject/',        `trial'       and       `trial' are all valid ways to invoke trial. Multiple  such
       arguments  are  also  accepted,  and  their  order  will  determine the order in which the
       corresponding tests are run.

       After running the given test suite, the default test reporter prints a summary of the test
       run. This consists of the word "PASSED" (if all tests ran as expected) or "FAILED" (if any
       test behaved unexpectedly) followed by a count of the  different  kinds  of  test  results
       encountered. The possible kinds of test results includes:

              Tests  that  passed  all  their  assertions and completed without error.  These are
              marked "PASSED" in the normal test output.

              Tests  that  failed  an  assertion,  called   or   explicitly   raised
              self.failureException for some reason. These are marked "FAILED" in the normal test

       errors Tests that raised an unexpected exception (including  AssertionError),  tests  that
              caused  the tearDown() method to raise an exception, tests that run for longer than
              the timeout interval, tests that caused something to call  twisted.python.log.err()
              without subsequently calling self.flushLoggedErrors(), tests that leave the reactor
              in an unclean state, etc. These are marked "ERROR" in the normal test output.

              Note that because errors can be caused after the actual test method returns, it  is
              possible for a single test to be reported as both an error and a failure, and hence
              the total number of test results can be greater than  the  total  number  of  tests

       skips  Tests  that were skipped, usually because of missing dependencies. These are marked
              "SKIPPED" in the normal test output.

              Tests that failed, but were expected to fail, usually because the  test  is  for  a
              feature  that  hasn't  been  implemented yet. These are marked "TODO" in the normal
              test output.

              Tests that should have been listed under expectedFailures,  except  that  for  some
              reason the test succeeded. These are marked "SUCCESS!?!" in the normal test output.


       -j, --jobs number
              Set  the  number  of process workers to run. It conflicts with the debug, exitfirst
              and profile options.

       -b, --debug
              Run the tests in a debugger. If that debugger is 'pdb' (which  is  the  default  if
              unspecified),  a  `.pdbrc'  will be loaded from the current directory if it exists.
              Also does post-mortem debugging on exceptions.

       -B, --debug-stacktraces
              Report Deferred creation and callback stack traces.

              Generate coverage information in the `coverage'  subdirectory  of  the  trial  temp
              directory  (`_trial_temp'  by  default).  For  each  Python  module  touched by the
              execution of the given tests, a file will be  created  in  the  coverage  directory
              named for the module's fully-qualified name with the suffix `.cover'.  For example,
              because the trial test runner is written in Python,  the  coverage  directory  will
              almost always contain a file named `twisted.trial.runner.cover'.

              Each  `.cover' file contains a copy of the Python source of the module in question,
              with a prefix at the beginning of each line containing coverage  information.   For
              lines  that  are not executable (blank lines, comments, etc.)  the prefix is blank.
              For executable lines that were run in the course of the test suite, the prefix is a
              number  indicating the number of times that line was executed.  The string `>>>>>>'
              prefixes executable lines that were not executed in the course of the test suite.

              Note that this functionality uses Python's sys.settrace() function, so  tests  that
              call sys.settrace() themselves are likely to break trial's coverage functionality.

              Specifies  the  debugger  to  use  when  the --debug option is passed. The argument
              should be the fully qualified name of an object that implements the same  interface
              as the standard library's `pdb'.

              Disable  the  garbage  collector  for the duration of the test run. As each test is
              run, trial  saves  the  TestResult  objects,  which  means  that  Python's  garbage
              collector  has  more  non-garbage  objects  to  wade  through, making each garbage-
              collection run slightly slower. Disabling garbage  collection  entirely  will  make
              some  test  suites  complete  faster  (contrast  --force-gc, below), at the cost of
              increasing (possibly greatly) memory consumption.  This  option  also  makes  tests
              slightly more deterministic, which might help debugging in extreme circumstances.

       -e, --rterrors
              Print tracebacks to standard output as soon as they occur.

              Run  gc.collect()  before  and  after  each  test case. This can be used to isolate
              errors that occur when objects get collected.  This option would  be  the  default,
              except it makes tests run about ten times slower.

       -h, --help
              Print a usage message to standard output, then exit.

              Print  a  list  of  possible  orders that TestCase test methods can be run in, then
              exit. The orders can be used with the --order option described below.

              Print a list of valid reporters to standard output, then  exit.  Reporters  can  be
              selected with the --reporter option described below.

              Print  a  list  of  possible reactors to standard output, then exit. Not all listed
              reactors are available on  every  platform.  Reactors  can  be  selected  with  the
              --reactor option described below.

       -l, --logfile logfile
              Direct  the  log  to  a different file. The default file is `test.log'.  logfile is
              relative to _trial_temp.

       -n, --dry-run
              Go through all the tests and make them pass without running.

       -N, --no-recurse
              By default, trial recurses through packages  to  find  every  module  inside  every
              subpackage.  Unless, that is, you specify this option.

       --nopm Don't  automatically  jump  into  debugger  for post-mortem analysis of exceptions.
              Only usable in conjunction with --debug.

       --order order
              Specify what order to run the individual test methods within the  given  TestCases.
              By default, they are run alphabetically. See --help-order for a list of other valid

              Run tests under the Python profiler.

       -r, --reactor reactor
              Choose which reactor to use.  See --help-reactors for a list.

       --recursionlimit limit
              Set Python's recursion limit. See sys.setrecursionlimit().

       --reporter reporter
              Select the reporter to use for trial's output.  Use the --help-reporters option  to
              see a list of valid reporters.

       -x, --exitfirst
              Stop  the  test  run  after  the  first  test which does not succeed. This includes
              failures, errors, or unexpected  successes.  Won't  work  with  the  --jobs  option

       --spew Print  an  insanely  verbose  log of everything that happens. Useful when debugging
              freezes or locks in complex code.

       --tbformat format
              Format to display tracebacks with. Acceptable values  are  `default',  `brief'  and
              `verbose'. `brief' produces tracebacks that play nicely with Emacs' GUD.

       --temp-directory directory
              WARNING:  Do  not  use this option unless you know what you are doing.  By default,
              trial creates a directory called _trial_temp under the current  working  directory.
              When  trial  runs,  it  first deletes this directory, then creates it, then changes
              into the directory to run the tests. The log file and any coverage files are stored
              here.  Use  this  option  if  you  wish to have trial run in a directory other than
              _trial_temp. Be warned, trial will delete the directory before re-creating it.

       --testmodule filename
              Ask trial to look into filename and run any tests specified using  the  Emacs-style
              buffer variable `test-case-name'.

              As of Twisted 8.0, trial will report an error if the reactor is left unclean at the
              end of the test. This option is provided to assist in migrating from Twisted 2.5 to
              Twisted 8.0 and later. Enabling this option will turn the errors into warnings.

       -u, --until-failure
              Keep  looping  the  tests  until one of them raises an error or a failure.  This is
              particularly useful for reproducing intermittent failures.

              Prints the Twisted version number and exit.

       --without-module modulenames
              Simulate the lack of the specified comma-separated list of modules. This  makes  it
              look  like  the  modules  are not present in the system, causing tests to check the
              behavior for that configuration.

       -z, --random seed
              Run the tests in random order using the specified seed. Don't pass this  option  if
              you also are passing --order.


       The    latest    version    of    the    trial    documentation    can    be    found   at


       Written by Jonathan M. Lange


       To report a bug, visit


       Copyright © 2003-2013 Twisted Matrix Laboratories
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO  warranty;  not

                                             Jun 2013                                    TRIAL(1)