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NAME

       xcalc - scientific calculator for X

SYNOPSIS

       xcalc [-stipple] [-rpn] [-toolkitoption...]

DESCRIPTION

       xcalc is a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can emulate a TI-30 or an HP-10C.

OPTIONS

       xcalc  accepts  all of the standard toolkit command line options along with two additional
       options:

       -stipple
               This option indicates that the background of the calculator should be drawn  using
               a  stipple  of  the  foreground  and  background  colors.   On monochrome displays
               improves the appearance.

       -rpn    This option indicates that Reverse Polish Notation should be used.  In  this  mode
               the  calculator  will  look and behave like an HP-10C.  Without this flag, it will
               emulate a TI-30.

OPERATION

       Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer button 1, or in some  cases,  with
       the  keyboard.   Many  common  calculator operations have keyboard accelerators.  To quit,
       press pointer button 3 on the AC key of the TI  calculator,  or  the  ON  key  of  the  HP
       calculator.

       Calculator  Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/- key, and the +, -, *, /, and =
       keys all do exactly what you would expect them to.  It should be noted that the  operators
       obey the standard rules of precedence.  Thus, entering "3+4*5=" results in "23", not "35".
       The parentheses can be used to override this.  For example, "(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)=" results  in
       "6*15=90".

       The  entire number in the calculator display can be selected, in order to paste the result
       of a calculation into text.

       The action procedures associated with each function are given below.  These are useful  if
       you are interested in defining a custom calculator.  The action used for all digit keys is
       digit(n), where n is the corresponding digit, 0..9.

       1/x       Replaces the number in the  display  with  its  reciprocal.   The  corresponding
                 action procedure is reciprocal().

       x^2       Squares  the  number  in  the  display.   The  corresponding action procedure is
                 square().

       SQRT      Takes the square root of the number in the display.   The  corresponding  action
                 procedure is squareRoot().

       CE/C      When  pressed  once, clears the number in the display without clearing the state
                 of the machine.  Allows you  to  re-enter  a  number  if  you  make  a  mistake.
                 Pressing  it  twice  clears the state, also.  The corresponding action procedure
                 for TI mode is clear().

       AC        Clears the display, the state, and the  memory.   Pressing  it  with  the  third
                 pointer  button  turns  off  the  calculator, in that it exits the program.  The
                 action procedure to clear the state is off(); to quit, quit().

       INV       Invert  function.   See  the  individual  function  keys   for   details.    The
                 corresponding action procedure is inverse().

       sin       Computes  the  sine  of the number in the display, as interpreted by the current
                 DRG mode  (see  DRG,  below).   If  inverted,  it  computes  the  arcsine.   The
                 corresponding action procedure is sine().

       cos       Computes  the  cosine,  or  arccosine  when  inverted.  The corresponding action
                 procedure is cosine().

       tan       Computes the tangent, or arctangent when  inverted.   The  corresponding  action
                 procedure is tangent().

       DRG       Changes  the  DRG mode, as indicated by 'DEG', 'RAD', or 'GRAD' at the bottom of
                 of the calculator ``liquid crystal'' display.  When in 'DEG'  mode,  numbers  in
                 the  display are taken as being degrees.  In 'RAD' mode, numbers are in radians,
                 and in 'GRAD' mode, numbers are in grads.  When inverted,  the  DRG  key  has  a
                 feature of converting degrees to radians to grads and vice-versa.  Example:  put
                 the calculator into 'DEG' mode, and enter "45 INV DRG".  The display should  now
                 show  something  along  the lines of ".785398", which is 45 degrees converted to
                 radians.  The corresponding action procedure is degree().

       e         The constant 'e'.  (2.7182818...).  The corresponding action procedure is e().

       EE        Used for entering exponential numbers.  For  example,  to  get  "-2.3E-4"  you'd
                 enter "2 . 3 +/- EE 4 +/-".  The corresponding action procedure is scientific().

       log       Calculates  the  log  (base 10) of the number in the display.  When inverted, it
                 raises "10.0" to the number in the display.  For example, entering "3  INV  log"
                 should result in "1000".  The corresponding action procedure is logarithm().

       ln        Calculates  the  log  (base  e) of the number in the display.  When inverted, it
                 raises "e" to the number in the display.  For example, entering  "e  ln"  should
                 result in "1".  The corresponding action procedure is naturalLog().

       y^x       Raises  the  number  on  the  left to the power of the number on the right.  For
                 example "2 y^x 3 =" results in "8",  which  is  2^3.   For  a  further  example,
                 "(1+2+3)  y^x  (1+2)  =" equals "6 y^x 3" which equals "216".  The corresponding
                 action procedure is power().

       PI        The constant 'pi'.  (3.1415927....)  The corresponding action procedure is pi().

       x!        Computes the factorial of the number in the display.  The number in the  display
                 must  be  an integer in the range 0-500, though, depending on your math library,
                 it might overflow long before  that.   The  corresponding  action  procedure  is
                 factorial().

       (         Left  parenthesis.   The  corresponding  action  procedure for TI calculators is
                 leftParen().

       )         Right parenthesis.  The corresponding action procedure  for  TI  calculators  is
                 rightParen().

       /         Division.  The corresponding action procedure is divide().

       *         Multiplication.  The corresponding action procedure is multiply().

       -         Subtraction.  The corresponding action procedure is subtract().

       +         Addition.  The corresponding action procedure is add().

       =         Perform calculation.  The TI-specific action procedure is equal().

       STO       Copies  the  number  in  the  display to the memory location.  The corresponding
                 action procedure is store().

       RCL       Copies the number from the memory location to the  display.   The  corresponding
                 action procedure is recall().

       SUM       Adds  the  number  in  the  display  to  the number in the memory location.  The
                 corresponding action procedure is sum().

       EXC       Swaps the number in the display with the number in  the  memory  location.   The
                 corresponding action procedure for the TI calculator is exchange().

       +/-       Negate; change sign.  The corresponding action procedure is negate().

       .         Decimal point.  The action procedure is decimal().

       Calculator  Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS (change sign), +, -, *, /, and ENTR
       keys all do exactly what you would expect them to do.  Many of the remaining keys are  the
       same  as  in  TI  mode.  The differences are detailed below.  The action procedure for the
       ENTR key is enter().

       <-        This is a backspace key that can be used if you make a mistake while entering  a
                 number.   It will erase digits from the display.  (See BUGS).  Inverse backspace
                 will clear the X register.  The corresponding action procedure is back().

       ON        Clears the display, the state, and the  memory.   Pressing  it  with  the  third
                 pointer button turns off the calculator, in that it exits the program.  To clear
                 state, the action procedure is off; to quit, quit().

       INV       Inverts the meaning of the function keys.  This would be the  f  key  on  an  HP
                 calculator,  but  xcalc  does not display multiple legends on each key.  See the
                 individual function keys for details.

       10^x      Raises "10.0" to the number  in  the  top  of  the  stack.   When  inverted,  it
                 calculates  the  log  (base 10) of the number in the display.  The corresponding
                 action procedure is tenpower().

       e^x       Raises "e" to the number in the top of the stack.  When inverted, it  calculates
                 the  log  (base  e)  of  the  number  in  the  display.  The action procedure is
                 epower().

       STO       Copies the number in the top of the stack to a memory location.   There  are  10
                 memory  locations.  The desired memory is specified by following this key with a
                 digit key.

       RCL       Pushes the number from the specified memory location onto the stack.

       SUM       Adds the number on top of the stack  to  the  number  in  the  specified  memory
                 location.

       x:y       Exchanges  the  numbers  in  the top two stack positions, the X and Y registers.
                 The corresponding action procedure is XexchangeY().

       R v       Rolls the stack downward.  When  inverted,  it  rolls  the  stack  upward.   The
                 corresponding action procedure is roll().

       blank     These   keys   were  used  for  programming  functions  on  the  HP-10C.   Their
                 functionality has not been duplicated in xcalc.

       Finally, there are two additional action procedures: bell(), which  rings  the  bell;  and
       selection(),  which  performs  a  cut  on  the  entire number in the calculator's ``liquid
       crystal'' display.

ACCELERATORS

       Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands.  xcalc  provides  some  sample  keyboard
       accelerators;  also  users  can  customize  accelerators.  The numeric keypad accelerators
       provided by xcalc should be intuitively correct.  The accelerators defined by xcalc on the
       main keyboard are given below:

       TI Key   HP Key   Keyboard Accelerator   TI Function    HP Function
       ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       SQRT     SQRT     r                      squareRoot()   squareRoot()
       AC       ON       space                  clear()        clear()
       AC       <-       Delete                 clear()        back()
       AC       <-       Backspace              clear()        back()
       AC       <-       Control-H              clear()        back()
       AC                Clear                  clear()
       AC       ON       q                      quit()         quit()
       AC       ON       Control-C              quit()         quit()

       INV      i        i                      inverse()      inverse()
       sin      s        s                      sine()         sine()
       cos      c        c                      cosine()       cosine()
       tan      t        t                      tangent()      tangent()
       DRG      DRG      d                      degree()       degree()

       e                 e                      e()
       ln       ln       l                      naturalLog()   naturalLog()
       y^x      y^x      ^                      power()        power()

       PI       PI       p                      pi()           pi()
       x!       x!       !                      factorial()    factorial()
       (                 (                      leftParen()
       )                 )                      rightParen()

       /        /        /                      divide()       divide()
       *        *        *                      multiply()     multiply()
       -        -        -                      subtract()     subtract()
       +        +        +                      add()          add()
       =                 =                      equal()

       0..9     0..9     0..9                   digit()        digit()
       +/-      CHS      n                      negate()       negate()

                x:y      x                                     XexchangeY()
                ENTR     Return                                enter()
                ENTR     Linefeed                              enter()

CUSTOMIZATION

       The application class name is XCalc.

       xcalc  has  an enormous application defaults file which specifies the position, label, and
       function of each key on the calculator.  It also gives translations to serve  as  keyboard
       accelerators.   Because  these  resources  are  not  specified in the source code, you can
       create a customized calculator by writing a private application defaults file,  using  the
       Athena  Command and Form widget resources to specify the size and position of buttons, the
       label for each button, and the function of each button.

       The foreground and background colors of each calculator key can be individually specified.
       For the TI calculator, a classical color resource specification might be:

       XCalc.ti.Command.background:          gray50
       XCalc.ti.Command.foreground:          white

       For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
       XCalc.ti.button20.background:         black
       XCalc.ti.button20.foreground:         white

       For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, and 39:
       XCalc.ti.button22.background:         white
       XCalc.ti.button22.foreground:         black

WIDGET HIERARCHY

       In  order  to  specify  resources, it is useful to know the hierarchy of the widgets which
       compose xcalc.  In the notation below, indentation indicates hierarchical structure.   The
       widget class name is given first, followed by the widget instance name.
       XCalc xcalc
               Form  ti  or  hp    (the name depends on the mode)
                       Form  bevel
                               Form  screen
                                       Label  M
                                       Toggle  LCD
                                       Label  INV
                                       Label  DEG
                                       Label  RAD
                                       Label  GRAD
                                       Label  P
                       Command  button1
                       Command  button2
                       Command  button3
       and so on, ...
                       Command  button38
                       Command  button39
                       Command  button40

APPLICATION RESOURCES

       rpn (Class Rpn)
               Specifies that the rpn mode should be used.  The default is TI mode.

       stipple (Class Stipple)
               Indicates  that  the  background  should  be  stippled.  The default is ``on'' for
               monochrome displays, and ``off'' for color displays.

       cursor (Class Cursor)
               The name of the symbol used to represent the pointer.  The default is ``hand2''.

COLORS

       If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the following in  the  #ifdef  COLOR
       section of the file you read with xrdb:

       *customization:                 -color

       This  will cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the app-defaults color customization file:
       /etc/X11/app-defaults/XCalc-color.

SEE ALSO

       X(7), xrdb(1), the Athena Widget Set

BUGS

       HP mode is not completely debugged.  In particular, the  stack  is  not  handled  properly
       after errors.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 1994 X Consortium
       See X(7) for a full statement of rights and permissions.

AUTHORS

       John Bradley, University of Pennsylvania
       Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena
       Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium