Provided by: zsh-common_5.5.1-1ubuntu2_all bug

NAME

       zshzle - zsh command line editor

DESCRIPTION

       If  the  ZLE  option  is  set (which it is by default in interactive shells) and the shell
       input is attached to the terminal, the user is able to edit command lines.

       There are two display modes.  The first, multiline mode, is the default.  It only works if
       the  TERM  parameter  is  set  to  a valid terminal type that can move the cursor up.  The
       second, single line mode, is used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up,
       or if the SINGLE_LINE_ZLE option is set.  This mode is similar to ksh, and uses no termcap
       sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset by default.

       The parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line editor.  See  Parameters
       Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The  parameter  zle_highlight  is also used by the line editor; see Character Highlighting
       below.  Highlighting of special characters and the region between the cursor and the  mark
       (as  set  with set-mark-command in Emacs mode, or by visual-mode in Vi mode) is enabled by
       default; consult this reference for more information.  Irascible conservatives  will  wish
       to know that all highlighting may be disabled by the following setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)

       In  many  places,  references  are  made  to the numeric argument.  This can by default be
       entered in emacs mode by holding the alt key and  typing  a  number,  or  pressing  escape
       before  each digit, and in vi command mode by typing the number before entering a command.
       Generally the numeric argument  causes  the  next  command  entered  to  be  repeated  the
       specified number of times, unless otherwise noted below. See also the Arguments subsection
       of the Widgets section for some other ways the  numeric  argument  can  be  modified.  The
       default bindings mentioned here use the digit-argument widget.

KEYMAPS

       A  keymap  in  ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and ZLE commands.  The
       empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one or more names.  If
       all  of  a  keymap's  names are deleted, it disappears.  bindkey can be used to manipulate
       keymap names.

       Initially, there are eight keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       viopp  vi emulation - operator pending
       visual vi emulation - selection active
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The `.safe' keymap is special.  It can never  be  altered,  and  the  name  can  never  be
       removed.   However,  it can be linked to other names, which can be removed.  In the future
       other special keymaps may be added; users should avoid using names beginning with `.'  for
       their own keymaps.

       In  addition  to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to the name `main'.
       If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables contain  the  string  `vi'  when  the
       shell  starts  up then it will be `viins', otherwise it will be `emacs'.  bindkey's -e and
       -v options provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the  `main'  keymap.   If  that  keymap  doesn't
       exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In  the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except for ^J (line feed)
       and ^M (return) which are bound to accept-line.  This is deliberately not pleasant to use;
       if you are using it, it means you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When  ZLE  is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence that is bound to
       some command and is also a prefix of a longer bound string.  In this case ZLE will wait  a
       certain  time  to  see  if  more characters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any
       longer string) it will execute the binding.  This timeout is  defined  by  the  KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if the prefix string is not itself
       bound to a command.

       The key timeout is also applied when ZLE is reading the bytes from a  multibyte  character
       string  when  it  is  in the appropriate mode.  (This requires that the shell was compiled
       with multibyte mode enabled; typically also the  locale  has  characters  with  the  UTF-8
       encoding, although any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is supported.)  If
       the second or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout period, the shell  acts  as
       if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As  well  as  ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to other strings, by using `bindkey
       -s'.  When such a sequence is read, the replacement string is pushed back  as  input,  and
       the  command  reading  process  starts  again using these fake keystrokes.  This input can
       itself invoke further replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the  process  will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command being read.

       A key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name for use in user-defined
       widgets with the read-command widget, described in the subsection `Miscellaneous'  of  the
       section `Standard Widgets' below.

   Local Keymaps
       While for normal editing a single keymap is used exclusively, in many modes a local keymap
       allows for some keys to be customised. For example,  in  an  incremental  search  mode,  a
       binding in the isearch keymap will override a binding in the main keymap but all keys that
       are not overridden can still be used.

       If a key sequence is defined in a local keymap, it will hide a key sequence in the  global
       keymap that is a prefix of that sequence. An example of this occurs with the binding of iw
       in viopp as this hides the binding of i in vicmd. However, a longer sequence in the global
       keymap  that  shares  the same prefix can still apply so for example the binding of ^Xa in
       the global keymap will be unaffected by the binding of ^Xb in the local keymap.

ZLE BUILTINS

       The ZLE module contains three related builtin commands. The  bindkey  command  manipulates
       keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes ZLE on the value of a shell parameter;
       and the zle command manipulates editing widgets and allows  command  line  access  to  ZLE
       commands from within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's  options  can  be divided into three categories: keymap selection for the
              current command, operation selection, and others.   The  keymap  selection  options
              are:

              -e     Selects  keymap  `emacs' for any operations by the current command, and also
                     links `emacs' to `main' so that it is selected by default the next time  the
                     editor starts.

              -v     Selects  keymap  `viins' for any operations by the current command, and also
                     links `viins' to `main' so that it is selected by default the next time  the
                     editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the current command.

              -M keymap
                     The  keymap  specifies  a keymap name that is selected for any operations by
                     the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of  the  options  above  are  used,  the
              `main'  keymap  is  used.   Some  operations do not permit a keymap to be selected,
              namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap names; if any arguments are given, list just  those
                     keymaps.

                     If  the  -L  option  is  also  used, list in the form of bindkey commands to
                     create or link the keymaps.  `bindkey -lL main' shows which keymap is linked
                     to  `main',  if  any,  and hence if the standard emacs or vi emulation is in
                     effect.  This option does not show the .safe keymap  because  it  cannot  be
                     created in that fashion; however, neither is `bindkey -lL .safe' reported as
                     an error, it simply outputs nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps and reset to the default state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that both  names  refer
                     to  the  same  keymap.  The names have equal standing; if either is deleted,
                     the other remains.  If there is already a keymap with the  new-keymap  name,
                     it is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create  a  new keymap, named new-keymap.  If a keymap already has that name,
                     it is  deleted.   If  an  old-keymap  name  is  given,  the  new  keymap  is
                     initialized to be a duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be empty.

              To  use a newly created keymap, it should be linked to main.  Hence the sequence of
              commands to create and use a new keymap `mymap' initialized from the  emacs  keymap
              (which remains unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note  that  while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work when newmap is emacs or viins,
              it will not work for vicmd, as switching from vi insert  to  command  mode  becomes
              impossible.

              The following operations act on the `main' keymap if no keymap selection option was
              given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected keymap.  Only keys
                     that are unbound or bound to self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind  the  specified  in-strings  in the selected keymap.  This is exactly
                     equivalent to binding the strings to undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the in-strings specify prefixes.  Any binding that has
                     the given in-string as a prefix, not including the binding for the in-string
                     itself, if any, will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will remove all bindings in the vi-insert keymap beginning  with  an  escape
                     character  (probably  cursor  keys),  but  leave  the binding for the escape
                     character itself (probably vi-cmd-mode).   This  is  incompatible  with  the
                     option -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind each in-string to each out-string.  When in-string is typed, out-string
                     will be pushed back and treated as input to the line  editor.   When  -R  is
                     also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     Note  that  both  in-string  and  out-string are subject to the same form of
                     interpretation, as described below.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind each in-string to  each  command.   When  -R  is  used,  interpret  the
                     in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List key bindings.  If an in-string is specified, the binding of that string
                     in the selected keymap is displayed.  Otherwise, all  key  bindings  in  the
                     selected  keymap  are displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or -v option
                     is used alone, the keymap is not displayed - the implicit linking of keymaps
                     is the only thing that happens.)

                     When  the  option  -p  is  used, the in-string must be present.  The listing
                     shows all bindings which have the  given  key  sequence  as  a  prefix,  not
                     including any bindings for the key sequence itself.

                     When  the  -L option is used, the list is in the form of bindkey commands to
                     create the key bindings.

              When the -R option  is  used  as  noted  above,  a  valid  range  consists  of  two
              characters,  with  an  optional  `-'  between them.  All characters between the two
              specified, inclusive, are bound as specified.

              For either in-string or out-string, the following escape sequences are recognised:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \e, \E escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \NNN   character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \M[-]X character with meta bit set
              \C[-]X control character
              ^X     control character

              In all other cases, `\' escapes the following  character.   Delete  is  written  as
              `^?'.   Note  that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the same, and that (unlike emacs), the
              bindings `\M-X' and `\eX' are entirely distinct, although they are  initialized  to
              the same bindings by `bindkey -m'.

       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
             [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
             [ -i init-widget ] [ -f finish-widget ]
             [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit buffer, and the line editor
              is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is set to the string value returned by the
              editor.   When the -c flag is given, the parameter is created if it doesn't already
              exist.  The -a flag may be given with -c to create an array parameter,  or  the  -A
              flag to create an associative array.  If the type of an existing parameter does not
              match the type to be created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters as defined in $IFS
              will be shown quoted with a backslash, as will backslashes themselves.  Conversely,
              when the edited text is split into an array,  a  backslash  quotes  an  immediately
              following   separator   character  or  backslash;  no  other  special  handling  of
              backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is performed.

              Individual elements of existing array or associative array parameters may be edited
              by  using  subscript  syntax on name.  New elements are created automatically, even
              without -c.

              If the -p flag is given, the following string  will  be  taken  as  the  prompt  to
              display  at  the  left.   If  the  -r flag is given, the following string gives the
              prompt to display at the right.  If the -h flag is specified, the  history  can  be
              accessed  from ZLE. If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The -M option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during editing, and the  -m
              option  gives  a  keymap  to link to the vicmd keymap during editing.  For vi-style
              editing, this  allows  a  pair  of  keymaps  to  override  viins  and  vicmd.   For
              emacs-style  editing,  only  -M  is  normally needed but the -m option may still be
              used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              Vared calls the usual `zle-line-init' and `zle-line-finish' hooks before and  after
              it takes control. Using the -i and -f options, it is possible to replace these with
              other custom widgets.

              If `-t tty' is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be  used  instead  of
              the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer to a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -f flag [ flag... ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The zle builtin performs a number of different actions concerning ZLE.

              With  no  options and no arguments, only the return status will be set.  It is zero
              if ZLE is currently active and widgets could be invoked using this builtin  command
              and  non-zero  otherwise.   Note  that even if non-zero status is returned, zle may
              still be active as part of the completion system; this does not allow direct  calls
              to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ]
                     List  all  existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option is used, list in
                     the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

                     When combined with the -a option, all widget names are listed, including the
                     builtin ones. In this case the -L option is ignored.

                     If  at  least  one  string  is  given,  and -a is present or -L is not used,
                     nothing will be printed.  The return status will be zero if all strings  are
                     names  of existing widgets and non-zero if at least one string is not a name
                     of a defined widget.  If -a is also present, all widget names are  used  for
                     the comparison including builtin widgets, else only user-defined widgets are
                     used.

                     If at least one string is present and the -L option  is  used,  user-defined
                     widgets matching any string are listed in the form of zle commands to create
                     the widgets.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make the new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that both  names  refer
                     to  the  same  widget.  The names have equal standing; if either is deleted,
                     the other remains.  If there is already a widget with the  new-widget  name,
                     it is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create  a  user-defined  widget.   If  there  is  already  a widget with the
                     specified name, it is overwritten.  When the  new  widget  is  invoked  from
                     within  the  editor, the specified shell function is called.  If no function
                     name is specified, it defaults to the same name as the widget.  For  further
                     information, see the section `Widgets' below.

              -f flag [ flag... ]
                     Set various flags on the running widget.  Possible values for flag are:

                     yank for indicating that the widget has yanked text into the buffer.  If the
                     widget is wrapping  an  existing  internal  widget,  no  further  action  is
                     necessary,  but  if  it  has inserted the text manually, then it should also
                     take care to set YANK_START and YANK_END  correctly.   yankbefore  does  the
                     same but is used when the yanked text appears after the cursor.

                     kill  for  indicating  that  text  has been killed into the cutbuffer.  When
                     repeatedly invoking a kill widget, text is appended to the cutbuffer instead
                     of  replacing  it,  but  when wrapping such widgets, it is necessary to call
                     `zle -f kill' to retain this effect.

                     vichange for indicating that the widget represents a vi change that  can  be
                     repeated as a whole with `vi-repeat-change'. The flag should be set early in
                     the function before inspecting  the  value  of  NUMERIC  or  invoking  other
                     widgets. This has no effect for a widget invoked from insert mode. If insert
                     mode is active when the widget  finishes,  the  change  extends  until  next
                     returning to command mode.

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create  a user-defined completion widget named widget. The completion widget
                     will behave like the built-in  completion-widget  whose  name  is  given  as
                     completion-widget.  To generate the completions, the shell function function
                     will be called.  For further information, see zshcompwid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay the command line; this is to be called from within a  user-defined
                     widget to allow changes to become visible.  If a display-string is given and
                     not empty, this is shown in the status  line  (immediately  below  the  line
                     being edited).

                     If  the  optional  strings are given they are listed below the prompt in the
                     same way as completion lists are printed. If no strings are given but the -c
                     option is used such a list is cleared.

                     Note  that  this  option  is  only  useful  for  widgets  that  do  not exit
                     immediately after using it because the  strings  displayed  will  be  erased
                     immediately after return from the widget.

                     This  command  can  safely be called outside user defined widgets; if zle is
                     active, the display will be refreshed, while  if  zle  is  not  active,  the
                     command  has  no  effect.   In  this  case  there  will  usually be no other
                     arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As with the -R option, the string will be displayed below the command  line;
                     unlike  the  -R  option, the string will not be put into the status line but
                     will instead be printed normally below the  prompt.   This  means  that  the
                     string  will  still  be  displayed  after  the  widget  returns (until it is
                     overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This pushes the characters in the string onto the input stack of ZLE.  After
                     the  widget currently executed finishes ZLE will behave as if the characters
                     in the string were typed by the user.

                     As ZLE uses a stack, if this option  is  used  repeatedly  the  last  string
                     pushed  onto  the stack will be processed first.  However, the characters in
                     each string will be processed in the order  in  which  they  appear  in  the
                     string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects  the  keymap  named  keymap.   An error message will be displayed if
                     there is no such keymap.

                     This keymap selection affects the  interpretation  of  following  keystrokes
                     within  this  invocation  of  ZLE.  Any following invocation (e.g., the next
                     command line) will start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L | -w ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only available if your system supports one of the `poll' or `select'  system
                     calls; most modern systems do.

                     Installs  handler  (the  name of a shell function) to handle input from file
                     descriptor fd.  Installing a handler for an  fd  which  is  already  handled
                     causes  the existing handler to be replaced.  Any number of handlers for any
                     number of readable file descriptors may be installed.  Note that  zle  makes
                     no attempt to check whether this fd is actually readable when installing the
                     handler.  The user must make their own arrangements for  handling  the  file
                     descriptor when zle is not active.

                     When  zle  is attempting to read data, it will examine both the terminal and
                     the list of handled fd's.  If data becomes available on a  handled  fd,  zle
                     calls  handler with the fd which is ready for reading as the first argument.
                     Under normal circumstances this is the only argument, but if  an  error  was
                     detected, a second argument provides details: `hup' for a disconnect, `nval'
                     for a closed or  otherwise  invalid  descriptor,  or  `err'  for  any  other
                     condition.   Systems  that  support only the `select' system call always use
                     `err'.

                     If the option -w is also given, the handler is instead a line editor widget,
                     typically  a shell function made into a widget using `zle -N'.  In that case
                     handler can use all the facilities of zle  to  update  the  current  editing
                     line.  Note, however, that as handling fd takes place at a low level changes
                     to the display will not automatically appear; the widget  should  call  `zle
                     -R'  to force redisplay.  As of this writing, widget handlers only support a
                     single argument and thus are never passed  a  string  for  error  state,  so
                     widgets must be prepared to test the descriptor themselves.

                     If  either  type  of handler produces output to the terminal, it should call
                     `zle -I' before doing so (see below).  Handlers should not attempt  to  read
                     from the terminal.

                     If  no  handler  is  given, but an fd is present, any handler for that fd is
                     removed.  If there is none, an error message is  printed  and  status  1  is
                     returned.

                     If  no arguments are given, or the -L option is supplied, a list of handlers
                     is printed in a form which can be stored for later execution.

                     An fd (but not a handler) may optionally be given with  the  -L  option;  in
                     this  case,  the function will list the handler if any, else silently return
                     status 1.

                     Note that this feature should be used with care.  Activity  on  one  of  the
                     fd's  which  is  not  properly  handled  can  cause  the  terminal to become
                     unusable.  Removing an fd handler  from  within  a  signal  trap  may  cause
                     unpredictable behavior.

                     Here  is  a  simple example of using this feature.  A connection to a remote
                     TCP port is created using the ztcp  command;  see  the  description  of  the
                     zsh/net/tcp  module  in  zshmodules(1).   Then  a handler is installed which
                     simply prints out any data which arrives  on  this  connection.   Note  that
                     `select' will indicate that the file descriptor needs handling if the remote
                     side has closed the connection; we handle that by testing for a failed read.

                            if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                              tcpfd=$REPLY
                              handler() {
                                zle -I
                                local line
                                if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                  # so handle this specially.
                                  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                  zle -F $1
                                  return 1
                                fi
                                print -r - $line
                              }
                              zle -F $tcpfd handler
                            fi

              -I     Unusually, this option is most useful  outside  ordinary  widget  functions,
                     though  it  may be used within if normal output to the terminal is required.
                     It invalidates the current zle display in preparation for output;  typically
                     this  will  be from a trap function.  It has no effect if zle is not active.
                     When a trap exits, the shell checks to see if the display  needs  restoring,
                     hence  the  following  will print output in such a way as not to disturb the
                     line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                              # Invalidate zle display
                              [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                              # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     In general, the trap function may need to test whether zle is active  before
                     using  this  method  (as shown in the example), since the zsh/zle module may
                     not even be loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

                     It is possible to call `zle -I' several times before control is returned  to
                     the  editor; the display will only be invalidated the first time to minimise
                     disruption.

                     Note that there are normally better ways of manipulating  the  display  from
                     within zle widgets; see, for example, `zle -R' above.

                     The  returned  status  is  zero if zle was invalidated, even though this may
                     have been by a previous call to `zle -I' or by a  system  notification.   To
                     test  if  a  zle  widget  may  be  called at this point, execute zle with no
                     arguments and examine the return status.

              -T     This is used  to  add,  list  or  remove  internal  transformations  on  the
                     processing  performed  by  the  line  editor.  It is typically used only for
                     debugging or testing and is therefore of  little  interest  to  the  general
                     user.

                     `zle  -T  transformation  func' specifies that the given transformation (see
                     below) is effected by shell function func.

                     `zle -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation if it was  present
                     (it is not an error if none was).

                     `zle -TL' can be used to list all transformations currently in operation.

                     Currently the only transformation is tc.  This is used instead of outputting
                     termcap codes to the terminal.  When the transformation is in operation  the
                     shell  function is passed the termcap code that would be output as its first
                     argument; if the operation required a numeric argument, that is passed as  a
                     second  argument.   The  function should set the shell variable REPLY to the
                     transformed termcap code.  Typically this is used  to  produce  some  simply
                     formatted  version  of  the  code  and  optional  argument  for debugging or
                     testing.  Note that this transformation is not applied to other non-printing
                     characters such as carriage returns and newlines.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke  the  specified  widget.   This  can only be done when ZLE is active;
                     normally this will be within a user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current numeric argument will be  saved  and
                     then  restored  after the call to widget; `-n num' sets the numeric argument
                     temporarily to num, while `-N' sets it to the default, i.e. as if there were
                     none.

                     With  the  option  -K,  keymap will be used as the current keymap during the
                     execution of the widget.  The previous keymap  will  be  restored  when  the
                     widget exits.

                     Normally,  calling  a  widget in this way does not set the special parameter
                     WIDGET and related parameters, so that the environment  appears  as  if  the
                     top-level  widget called by the user were still active.  With the option -w,
                     WIDGET and related parameters are set to reflect the widget  being  executed
                     by the zle call.

                     Any  further  arguments  will be passed to the widget; note that as standard
                     argument handling is performed, any general argument list should be preceded
                     by  --.   If  it  is  a  shell function, these are passed down as positional
                     parameters; for builtin widgets it is up to the widget in question  what  it
                     does   with   them.    Currently   arguments   are   only   handled  by  the
                     incremental-search commands, the history-search-forward  and  -backward  and
                     the  corresponding functions prefixed by vi-, and by universal-argument.  No
                     error is flagged if the command does not use the  arguments,  or  only  uses
                     some of them.

                     The  return  status reflects the success or failure of the operation carried
                     out by the widget, or if it is a user-defined widget the  return  status  of
                     the shell function.

                     A  non-zero  return  status  causes the shell to beep when the widget exits,
                     unless the BEEP options was unset or the  widget  was  called  via  the  zle
                     command.   Thus  if  a  user  defined  widget requires an immediate beep, it
                     should call the beep widget directly.

WIDGETS

       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A widget's job is simply to perform
       some  small  action.   The  ZLE commands that key sequences in keymaps are bound to are in
       fact widgets.  Widgets can be user-defined or built in.

       The standard widgets built into ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets below.  Other  built-in
       widgets can be defined by other modules (see zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two
       names: its normal canonical name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The  `.'  name  is
       special:  it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget available even
       when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle -N', and implemented as shell functions.  When
       the  widget  is  executed,  the  corresponding shell function is executed, and can perform
       editing (or other) actions.  It is recommended that user-defined widgets should  not  have
       names starting with `.'.

USER-DEFINED WIDGETS

       User-defined  widgets,  being implemented as shell functions, can execute any normal shell
       command.  They can also run other widgets (whether built-in or user-defined) using the zle
       builtin  command.  The  standard  input  of  the  function is redirected from /dev/null to
       prevent external commands from unintentionally blocking ZLE by reading from the  terminal,
       but read -k or read -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine and edit
       the ZLE buffer being edited by reading and setting the special parameters described below.

       These special parameters are always available in widget functions, but are not in any  way
       special  outside  ZLE.   If  they  have  some  normal  value  outside  ZLE,  that value is
       temporarily inaccessible, but will return when the widget function exits.   These  special
       parameters in fact have local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside  completion  widgets  and  traps  called  while ZLE is active, these parameters are
       available read-only.

       Note that the parameters appear as local to any ZLE widget in which they appear.  Hence if
       it is desired to override them this needs to be done within a nested function:

              widget-function() {
                # $WIDGET here refers to the special variable
                # that is local inside widget-function
                () {
                   # This anonymous nested function allows WIDGET
                   # to be used as a local variable.  The -h
                   # removes the special status of the variable.
                   local -h WIDGET
                }
              }

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it is written to, the cursor remains at
              the same offset, unless that would put it outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer currently displayed on screen
              (i.e.  without  any  changes  to  the  preceding  parameters  done  after  the last
              redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The context in which zle was called to read a line; read-only.  One of the values:

              start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

              cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

              select In a select loop (at prompt PS3).

              vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The offset of the cursor, within the edit buffer.   This  is  in  the  range  0  to
              $#BUFFER,  and  is  by  definition equal to $#LBUFFER.  Attempts to move the cursor
              outside the buffer will result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end  of
              the buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the string which the next yank
              would insert in the line.  Later  entries  in  the  kill  ring  are  in  the  array
              killring.   Note  that  the command `zle copy-region-as-kill string' can be used to
              set the text of the cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring in the
              same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The  current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as moving up or down
              in the history to the corresponding history line.  An attempt to set it is  ignored
              if  the  line  is  not  stored  in  the  history.  Note this is not the same as the
              parameter HISTCMD, which always gives the number of the history line being added to
              the main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line being retrieved within zle.

       ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE (integer)
       ISEARCHMATCH_START (integer)
       ISEARCHMATCH_END (integer)
              ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE  indicates whether a part of the BUFFER is currently matched by
              an incremental search pattern. ISEARCHMATCH_START  and  ISEARCHMATCH_END  give  the
              location  of  the  matched  part and are in the same units as CURSOR. They are only
              valid for reading when ISEARCHMATCH_ACTIVE is non-zero.

              All parameters are read-only.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke this widget, as a literal string; read-only.

       KEYS_QUEUED_COUNT (integer)
              The number of bytes pushed back to the input  queue  and  therefore  available  for
              reading  immediately  before any I/O is done; read-only.  See also PENDING; the two
              values are distinct.

       killring (array)
              The array of previously killed items, with the most recently  killed  first.   This
              gives  the  items  that  would be retrieved by a yank-pop in the same order.  Note,
              however, that the most recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring  shows  the
              array of previous entries.

              The  default  size for the kill ring is eight, however the length may be changed by
              normal array operations.  Any empty string in the  kill  ring  is  ignored  by  the
              yank-pop  command,  hence the size of the array effectively sets the maximum length
              of the kill ring, while the number of non-zero strings gives  the  current  length,
              both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The  last  search string used by an interactive search that was aborted by the user
              (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.  This is set  even
              if  the  search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned by the search widget), but not if
              it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The part of the buffer that lies to the left of the  cursor  position.   If  it  is
              assigned  to,  only  that  part  of  the buffer is replaced, and the cursor remains
              between the new $LBUFFER and the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark. With vi-mode operators  that  wait  for  a  movement
              command  to select a region of text, setting MARK allows the selection to extend in
              both directions from the initial cursor position.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The numeric argument. If no numeric argument was given, this  parameter  is  unset.
              When  this  is  set  inside  a widget function, builtin widgets called with the zle
              builtin command will use the value  assigned.  If  it  is  unset  inside  a  widget
              function, builtin widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The  number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes which have already
              been typed and can immediately be read. On systems where the shell is not  able  to
              get  this information, this parameter will always have a value of zero.  Read-only.
              See also KEYS_QUEUED_COUNT; the two values are distinct.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In a multi-line input at the secondary prompt, this  read-only  parameter  contains
              the contents of the lines before the one the cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to  be displayed before the start of the editable text buffer.  This does not
              have to be a complete line; to display a complete line, a newline must be  appended
              explicitly.   The  text  is  reset  on  each  new  invocation  (but  not  recursive
              invocation) of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text to be displayed after the end of the editable text buffer.  This does not have
              to  be  a  complete  line;  to display a complete line, a newline must be prepended
              explicitly.   The  text  is  reset  on  each  new  invocation  (but  not  recursive
              invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The  part  of  the  buffer that lies to the right of the cursor position.  If it is
              assigned to, only that part of the buffer  is  replaced,  and  the  cursor  remains
              between the old $LBUFFER and the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates  if  the  region  is  currently  active.   It  can  be assigned 0 or 1 to
              deactivate and activate the region respectively. A value of 2 activates the  region
              in  line-wise  mode  with  the highlighted text extending for whole lines only; see
              Character Highlighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes  highlighting  for
              an  arbitrary  region  of  the command line that will take effect the next time the
              command line is redisplayed.  Highlighting of the non-editable parts of the command
              line in PREDISPLAY and POSTDISPLAY are possible, but note that the P flag is needed
              for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              ·      Optionally, a `P' to signify that the  start  and  end  offset  that  follow
                     include  any  string set by the PREDISPLAY special parameter; this is needed
                     if the predisplay string itself is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may follow
                     the `P'.

              ·      A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by whitespace.

              ·      An end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by whitespace.

              ·      A  highlight  specification  in  the same format as used for contexts in the
                     parameter zle_highlight, see the section `Character Highlighting' below; for
                     example, standout or fg=red,bold

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies  that  the  first  twenty characters of the text including any predisplay
              string should be highlighted in bold.

              Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and disappears as soon as the
              line is accepted.

              The  final  highlighting  on  the command line depends on both region_highlight and
              zle_highlight; see the section CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING below for details.

       registers (associative array)
              The contents of each of the vi register buffers.  These  are  typically  set  using
              vi-set-buffer followed by a delete, change or yank command.

       SUFFIX_ACTIVE (integer)
       SUFFIX_START (integer)
       SUFFIX_END (integer)
              SUFFIX_ACTIVE  indicates  whether  an auto-removable completion suffix is currently
              active. SUFFIX_START and SUFFIX_END give the location of the suffix and are in  the
              same  units  as  CURSOR.  They  are  only  valid  for reading when SUFFIX_ACTIVE is
              non-zero.

              All parameters are read-only.

       UNDO_CHANGE_NO (integer)
              A number representing the state of the undo history.   The  only  use  of  this  is
              passing  as  an  argument  to the undo widget in order to undo back to the recorded
              point.  Read-only.

       UNDO_LIMIT_NO (integer)
              A number  corresponding  to  an  existing  change  in  the  undo  history;  compare
              UNDO_CHANGE_NO.  If this is set to a value greater than zero, the undo command will
              not allow the line to be undone beyond  the  given  change  number.   It  is  still
              possible  to  use  `zle undo change' in a widget to undo beyond that point; in that
              case, it will not be possible to undo at all until UNDO_LIMIT_NO is  reduced.   Set
              to 0 to disable the limit.

              A  typical  use  of  this  variable  in  a  widget function is as follows (note the
              additional function scope is required):

                     () {
                       local UNDO_LIMIT_NO=$UNDO_CHANGE_NO
                       # Perform some form of recursive edit.
                     }

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The name of the shell function that implements a widget defined with either zle  -N
              or  zle  -C.  In the former case, this is the second argument to the zle -N command
              that defined the widget, or the first argument if there was no second argument.  In
              the  latter  case this is the third argument to the zle -C command that defined the
              widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes the implementation behind the completion widget currently being executed;
              the  second argument that followed zle -C when the widget was defined.  This is the
              name of a builtin completion widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this  is  set
              to the empty string.  Read-only.

       YANK_ACTIVE (integer)
       YANK_START (integer)
       YANK_END (integer)
              YANK_ACTIVE  indicates  whether text has just been yanked (pasted) into the buffer.
              YANK_START and YANK_END give the location of the pasted text and are  in  the  same
              units  as  CURSOR.   They  are only valid for reading when YANK_ACTIVE is non-zero.
              They can also be assigned by widgets that insert text in a yank-like  fashion,  for
              example wrappers of bracketed-paste.  See also zle -f.

              YANK_ACTIVE is read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains a set of space-separated words that describe the current zle state.

              Currently,  the  states  shown  are the insert mode as set by the overwrite-mode or
              vi-replace widgets and whether history commands  will  visit  imported  entries  as
              controlled  by  the  set-local-history  widget.   The  string  contains `insert' if
              characters to be inserted on the command line move existing characters to the right
              or  `overwrite'  if  characters  to  be  inserted overwrite existing characters. It
              contains  `localhistory'  if  only  local  history  commands  will  be  visited  or
              `globalhistory' if imported history commands will also be visited.

              The substrings are sorted in alphabetical order so that if you want to test for two
              specific substrings in a future-proof way, you can do match by doing:

                     if [[ $ZLE_STATE == *globalhistory*insert* ]]; then ...; fi

   Special Widgets
       There are a few user-defined widgets which are special to  the  shell.   If  they  do  not
       exist,  no special action is taken.  The environment provided is identical to that for any
       other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed at the end of incremental search at the point where the isearch prompt  is
              removed from the display.  See zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed  within  incremental  search  when  the  display  is  about to be redrawn.
              Additional output below the incremental search prompt can  be  generated  by  using
              `zle -M' within the widget.  For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note  the  line  output by `zle -M' is not deleted on exit from incremental search.
              This can be done from a zle-isearch-exit widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-pre-redraw
              Executed whenever the input line is about to be redrawn, providing  an  opportunity
              to update the region_highlight array.

       zle-line-init
              Executed  every  time  the line editor is started to read a new line of input.  The
              following example puts the line editor into vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is equivalent to  zle
              vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This  is  similar  to  zle-line-init but is executed every time the line editor has
              finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
              Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parameter KEYMAP is set to
              a  different  value, while the line editor is active.  Initialising the keymap when
              the line editor starts does not cause the widget to be called.

              The value $KEYMAP within the function reflects the new keymap.  The old  keymap  is
              passed as the sole argument.

              This  can  be used for detecting switches between the vi command (vicmd) and insert
              (usually main) keymaps.

STANDARD WIDGETS

       The following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default bindings  in  emacs
       mode,  vi  command  mode  and  vi  insert  mode (the `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps,
       respectively).

       Note that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps; the  shell  assumes
       that  the  cursor  keys  send  the key sequences reported by the terminal-handling library
       (termcap or terminfo).  The key sequences shown in the list are those based on the  VT100,
       common on many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In the case
       of the viins keymap, the initial escape character of the sequences serves also  to  return
       to  the  vicmd keymap: whether this happens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see
       zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move backward one  word,  where  a  word  is  defined  as  a  series  of  non-blank
              characters.

       vi-backward-blank-word-end (unbound) (gE) (unbound)
              Move  to  the  end  of  the  previous  word, where a word is defined as a series of
              non-blank characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       vi-backward-word-end (unbound) (ge) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the  line,  move
              to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       down-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line, move to the end of
              the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If an argument is given to this command,  the  cursor
              will be moved to the end of the line (argument - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move  to the end of the current word, or, if at the end of the current word, to the
              end of the next word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the next occurrence of  it  in  the
              line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read  a  character from the keyboard, and move to the position just before the next
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the previous occurrence  of  it  in
              the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from  the  keyboard,  and  move  to the position just after the
              previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of a word  is  specified
              with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

       up-line (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move up a line in the buffer.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (gg) (unbound)
              Move  to  the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move to the first event
              in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the buffer, move
              to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move  down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the next
              event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the  next
              event in the history list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, search forward in
              the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to the
              cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the last event  in  the
              history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the buffer, move to the next
              history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch the history line specified by the numeric argument.   This  defaults  to  the
              current history line (i.e. the one that isn't history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search   backward   incrementally   for   a   specified   string.   The  search  is
              case-insensitive if the search string  does  not  have  uppercase  letters  and  no
              numeric  argument was given.  The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search to
              the beginning of the line.  When called from a user-defined  function  returns  the
              following  statuses: 0, if the search succeeded; 1, if the search failed; 2, if the
              search term was a bad pattern; 3, if the  search  was  aborted  by  the  send-break
              command.

              A  restricted  set  of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys are
              looked up in the special isearch keymap, and if not found there in the main  keymap
              (note  that  by  default  the  isearch  keymap  is empty).  An interrupt signal, as
              defined by the stty setting, will stop the search and go back to the original line.
              An undefined key will have the same effect.  Note that the following always perform
              the same task within incremental searches and cannot be replaced  by  user  defined
              widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The supported functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform  the  usual  function after exiting incremental search.  The command
                     line displayed is executed.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back up one place in the search history.  If the search  has  been  repeated
                     this does not immediately erase a character in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit  incremental  search,  retaining  the  command  line  but performing no
                     further action.  Note that this function is not bound by default and has  no
                     effect outside incremental search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back  up  one  character  in  the minibuffer; if multiple searches have been
                     performed since the character was inserted the search history is rewound  to
                     the  point just before the character was entered.  Hence this has the effect
                     of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find the next  occurrence  of  the  contents  of  the  mini-buffer.  If  the
                     mini-buffer  is  empty,  the  most  recent  previously used search string is
                     reinstated.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay the command line, remaining in incremental search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Select the `vicmd' keymap; the `main' keymap (insert mode) will be  selected
                     initially.

                     In  addition,  the  modifications that were made while in vi insert mode are
                     merged to form a single undo event.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat the search.   The  direction  of  the  search  is  indicated  in  the
                     mini-buffer.

              Any  character  that  is not bound to one of the above functions, or self-insert or
              self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to be exited.  The character is then looked
              up and executed in the keymap in effect at that point.

              When  called  from  a  widget  function  by the zle command, the incremental search
              commands can take a string argument.  This will be treated as a string of keys,  as
              for  arguments  to  the bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.
              Any characters in the string which are unused by the  incremental  search  will  be
              silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will  search  backwards  for  forceps, leaving the minibuffer containing the string
              `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  forward  incrementally   for   a   specified   string.    The   search   is
              case-insensitive  if  the  search  string  does  not  have uppercase letters and no
              numeric argument was given.  The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search  to
              the beginning of the line.  The functions available in the mini-buffer are the same
              as for history-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with no  -pattern,  but
              the search string typed by the user is treated as a pattern, respecting the current
              settings  of  the  various  options  affecting  pattern  matching.   See   FILENAME
              GENERATION in zshexpn(1) for a description of patterns.  If no numeric argument was
              given lowercase letters in the search string may match  uppercase  letters  in  the
              history.   The  string  may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of
              the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this  may  simply  indicate  the
              pattern is not yet complete.

              Note  that  only  non-overlapping  matches  are  reported,  so  an  expression with
              wildcards may return fewer matches on a line than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with  the  first  word  in  the
              buffer.

              If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a specified string.  The string may  begin  with
              `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available  in  the mini-buffer.  An
              interrupt signal, as defined by the stty  setting,   will  stop  the  search.   The
              functions  available  in  the  mini-buffer  are: accept-line, backward-delete-char,
              vi-backward-delete-char, backward-kill-word,  vi-backward-kill-word,  clear-screen,
              redisplay, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode  is  treated  the  same as accept-line, and magic-space is treated as a
              space.  Any other character that is not bound to self-insert or  self-insert-unmeta
              will  beep  and  be  ignored.  If  the function is called from vi command mode, the
              bindings of the current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the  history  for  a line beginning with the first word in the
              buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the history for a specified string.  The string may begin with
              `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line. The functions  available  in
              the  mini-buffer are the same as for vi-history-search-backward.  Argument handling
              is also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search in the history list for a line matching the current one and fetch the  event
              following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert  the last word from the previous history event at the cursor position.  If a
              positive numeric argument is given, insert that word from the end of  the  previous
              history  event.  If the argument is zero or negative insert that word from the left
              (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating this command replaces the word
              just inserted with the last word from the history event prior to the one just used;
              numeric arguments can be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When called from a shell function invoked from a user-defined widget,  the  command
              can  take  one  to  three arguments.  The first argument specifies a history offset
              which applies to successive calls  to  this  widget:  if  it  is  -1,  the  default
              behaviour  is  used,  while if it is 1, successive calls will move forwards through
              the history.  The value 0 can be used to indicate that the history line examined by
              the  previous  execution  of  the  command  will be reexamined.  Note that negative
              numbers should be preceded by a `--' argument to avoid confusing them with options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the  command  line  in
              normal  array  index  notation  (as  a  more  natural  alternative  to  the numeric
              argument).  Hence 1 is the first word, and -1 (the default) is the last word.

              If a third argument is given, its value is ignored, but it is used to signify  that
              the  history  offset  is  relative to the current history line, rather than the one
              remembered after the previous invocations of insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always copies the first word of the line in the history immediately before the line
              being  edited.   This has the side effect that later invocations of the widget will
              be relative to that line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to  the  previous
              event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move  up  a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to the previous
              event in the history list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, search backward in the
              history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

              If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to  the
              cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its original position.

       set-local-history
              By default, history movement commands visit the imported lines as well as the local
              lines. This widget lets you toggle this on and off, or  set  it  with  the  numeric
              argument. Zero for both local and imported lines and nonzero for only local lines.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the current cursor position, without changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.  If in insert mode,
              this won't delete past the point where insert mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill the word behind the cursor, without going past the point where insert mode was
              last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the
              endpoint of the movement.  Then enter insert mode.  If the  command  is  vi-change,
              change the current line.

              For    compatibility    with   vi,   if   the   command   is   vi-forward-word   or
              vi-forward-blank-word, the whitespace after the word is not included. If you prefer
              the  more  consistent  behaviour with the whitespace included use the following key
              binding:

                     bindkey -a -s cw dwi

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If called from a ZLE widget function in the form `zle  copy-region-as-kill  string'
              then  string will be taken as the text to copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor, the
              mark and the text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like copy-prev-word, but  the  word  is  found  by  using  shell  parsing,  whereas
              copy-prev-word  looks  for  blanks. This makes a difference when the word is quoted
              and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the
              endpoint of the movement.  If the command is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor, without going past the end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       vi-down-case (unbound) (gu) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from  the keyboard, and convert all characters from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement  to  lowercase.   If  the  movement
              command is vi-down-case, swap the case of all characters on the current line.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character on the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill  from  the  cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the end of the line,
              kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill from the cursor back to wherever insert mode was last entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches the one under  the
              cursor.   If  the  cursor is not on a bracket character, move forward without going
              past the end of the line to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case (unbound) (g~) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of all characters from
              the  cursor  position  to the endpoint of the movement.  If the movement command is
              vi-oper-swap-case, swap the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer before  the  cursor.   If  the  kill  buffer
              contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to characters), paste it above the current
              line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer  after  the  cursor.   If  the  kill  buffer
              contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to characters), paste it below the current
              line.

       put-replace-selection (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Replace the contents of the current region or selection with the  contents  of  the
              kill  buffer.  If  the  kill  buffer  contains  a  sequence of lines (as opposed to
              characters), the current line will be split by the pasted lines.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the next character typed into the buffer literally.  An interrupt  character
              will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display  a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next character typed into the
              buffer literally.  An interrupt character will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the current line; that is, put a `'' character at the beginning and the  end,
              and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat  the  last  vi  mode  text  modification.   If  a  count  was  used with the
              modification, it is remembered.  If a count is given to this command, it  overrides
              the  remembered  count, and is remembered for future uses of this command.  The cut
              buffer specification is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace the character under the cursor with a character read from the keyboard.

       self-insert (printable  characters)  (unbound)  (printable  characters  and  some  control
       characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert  a  character into the buffer after stripping the meta bit and converting ^M
              to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap the case of the character under the cursor and move past it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the two characters to the left of the cursor  if  at  end  of  line,  else
              exchange the character under the cursor with the character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

              With  a positive numeric argument N, the word around the cursor, or following it if
              the cursor is between words, is transposed with the preceding N words.  The  cursor
              is put at the end of the resulting group of words.

              With  a  negative  numeric  argument -N, the effect is the same as using a positive
              argument N except that the original cursor position is retained, regardless of  how
              the words are rearranged.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       vi-up-case (unbound) (gU) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from  the keyboard, and convert all characters from the
              cursor position to the endpoint of the movement  to  lowercase.   If  the  movement
              command is vi-up-case, swap the case of all characters on the current line.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring (the history of previously killed
              text) and yank the new top.  Only works following yank, vi-put-before, vi-put-after
              or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from  the keyboard, and copy the region from the cursor
              position to the endpoint of the movement into the kill buffer.  If the  command  is
              vi-yank, copy the current line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy  the  region  from  the  cursor  position to the end of the line into the kill
              buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi, but it isn't  what  it  actually
              does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start   a   new   numeric   argument,   or  add  to  the  current  one.   See  also
              vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to a key  sequence  ending
              in a decimal digit.

              Inside  a  widget  function, a call to this function treats the last key of the key
              sequence which called the widget as the digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively, if this command  is
              followed  by  an  integer  (positive or negative), use that as the argument for the
              next command.  Thus digits cannot be repeated using this command.  For example,  if
              this  command  occurs  twice,  followed  immediately  by forward-char, move forward
              sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed by -2, then forward-char,  move  backward
              two spaces.

              Inside a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle universal-argument num',
              the numeric argument will be set to num; this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must be in the  range  2
              to  36  inclusive.   Subsequent  use  of digit-argument and universal-argument will
              input a new numeric argument in the given base.  The usual  hexadecimal  convention
              is  used:  the  letter  a  or  A  corresponds to 10, and so on.  Arguments in bases
              requiring   digits   from   10   upwards   are   more   conveniently   input   with
              universal-argument, since ESC-a etc. are not usually bound to digit-argument.

              The function can be used with a command argument inside a user-defined widget.  The
              following code sets the base to 16 and lets the user input a  hexadecimal  argument
              until a key out of the digit range is typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In a menu completion, insert the current completion into the buffer, and advance to
              the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at the end  of  the  line,
              list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.  If that fails, attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform  history expansion and insert a space into the buffer.  This is intended to
              be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like complete-word, except that menu completion is  used.   See  the  MENU_COMPLETE
              option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform  menu  completion,  like menu-complete, except that if a menu completion is
              already in progress, move to the previous completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When a previous completion displayed a list below the prompt, this  widget  can  be
              used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute  the  contents  of  the  buffer.   Then  search the history list for a line
              matching the current one and push the event following onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to  be  executed  as  a
              shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If  the  previous  action  added  a  suffix (space, slash, etc.) to the word on the
              command line, remove it.  Otherwise do  nothing.   Removing  the  suffix  ends  any
              active menu completion or menu selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets to enforce a desired
              suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If the previous action added a suffix (space, slash,  etc.)  to  the  word  on  the
              command  line,  force  it  to  be  preserved.  Otherwise do nothing.  Retaining the
              suffix ends any active menu completion or menu selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets to enforce a desired
              suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       bracketed-paste
              This  widget  is  invoked  when  text is pasted to the terminal emulator. It is not
              intended to be bound to actual keys but instead to the special  sequence  generated
              by the terminal emulator when text is pasted.

              When invoked interactively, the pasted text is inserted to the buffer and placed in
              the cutbuffer.  If a numeric argument is given, shell quoting will  be  applied  to
              the pasted text before it is inserted.

              When a named buffer is specified with vi-set-buffer ("x), the pasted text is stored
              in that named buffer but not inserted.

              When called from a widget function as `bracketed-paste name`, the  pasted  text  is
              assigned to the variable name and no other processing is done.

              See also the zle_bracketed_paste parameter.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter  command  mode;  that  is,  select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes, this is bound by
              default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for vi users without  the  mental
              capacity to keep track of their caps lock key (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       deactivate-region
              Make  the current region inactive. This disables vim-style visual selection mode if
              it is active.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads a key sequence, then prints the function bound to that sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the cursor position (point) with the  position  of  the  mark.   Unless  a
              negative  numeric argument is given, the region between point and mark is activated
              so that it can be highlighted.  If a zero numeric argument is given, the region  is
              activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read  the name of an editor command and execute it.  Aliasing this widget with `zle
              -A' or replacing it with `zle -N' has no effect when interpreting key bindings, but
              `zle execute-named-cmd' will invoke such an alias or replacement.

              A  restricted  set  of editing functions is available in the mini-buffer.  Keys are
              looked up in the special command keymap, and if not found there in the main keymap.
              An interrupt signal, as defined by the stty setting, will abort the function.  Note
              that the following always perform  the  same  task  within  the  executed-named-cmd
              environment  and  cannot  be  replaced  by user defined widgets, nor can the set of
              functions  be  extended.   The   allowed   functions   are:   backward-delete-char,
              vi-backward-delete-char,  clear-screen, redisplay, quoted-insert, vi-quoted-insert,
              backward-kill-word,    vi-backward-kill-word,    kill-whole-line,     vi-kill-line,
              backward-kill-line,  list-choices, delete-char-or-list, complete-word, accept-line,
              expand-or-complete and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region  kills  the  last  word,  and  vi-cmd-mode  is  treated  the  same   as
              accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound to one of these functions,
              will complete the name and then list the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST  option  is
              set.   Any  other  character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Like execute-named-cmd, this command may not be redefined, but it may be called  by
              name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the cursor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add one to the beginning
              of each line.  If there is one, remove a # from each line that has one.  In  either
              case,  accept  the  current  line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for
              this to have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line, add one.  If there
              is  one,  remove  it.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for this to have
              any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push the entire current multiline construct onto the buffer stack and return to the
              top-level  (PS1)  prompt.   If  the current parser construct is only a single line,
              this is exactly like push-line.  Next time the editor starts up or is  popped  with
              get-line,  the  construct will be popped off the top of the buffer stack and loaded
              into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the current buffer onto the buffer stack and clear the buffer.  Next time  the
              editor  starts  up,  the  buffer will be popped off the top of the buffer stack and
              loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At the top-level (PS1) prompt, equivalent  to  push-line.   At  a  secondary  (PS2)
              prompt,  move  the  entire current multiline construct into the editor buffer.  The
              latter is equivalent to push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  A keystroke is  read  just  as  in  normal
              operation,  but  instead of the command being executed the name of the command that
              would be executed is stored in the shell parameter REPLY.  This can be used as  the
              argument  of  a  future zle command.  If the key sequence is not bound, status 1 is
              returned; typically, however, REPLY is set to undefined-key to indicate  a  useless
              key sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only  useful from a user-defined widget.  At this point in the function, the editor
              regains control until one of the standard widgets which would normally cause zle to
              exit  (typically  an  accept-line  caused  by  hitting the return key) is executed.
              Instead, control returns to  the  user-defined  widget.   The  status  returned  is
              non-zero  if  the  return  was caused by an error, but the function still continues
              executing and hence may tidy up.  This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to
              alter the command line or key bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.

                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat

              This causes typed letters to be inserted capitalised until either accept-line (i.e.
              typically the return key) is typed or the caps-lock widget is  invoked  again;  the
              later  is  handled  by saving the old definition of caps-lock as save-caps-lock and
              then rebinding it to invoke accept-line.  Note that an  error  from  the  recursive
              edit is detected as a non-zero return status and propagated by using the send-break
              widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be re-expanded,  then
              redisplay  the  edit  buffer.   This  reflects changes both to the prompt variables
              themselves and changes in the expansion of the values (for example, changes in time
              or directory, or changes to the value of variables referred to by the prompt).

              Otherwise,  the  prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and when the display
              as been interrupted by output from another  part  of  the  shell  (such  as  a  job
              notification) which causes the command line to be reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort  the  current  editor  function,  e.g.  execute-named-command,  or the editor
              itself, e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort the parsing of the current  line;
              in  this case the aborted line is available in the shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.
              If the editor is aborted from within vared, the variable ZLE_VARED_ABORTED is set.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and  execute  the  command  `run-help  cmd',
              where cmd is the current command.  run-help is normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify  a  buffer  to be used in the following command.  There are 37 buffers that
              can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers "a to "z, the `yank' buffer "0,  the  nine
              `queued'  buffers  "1  to "9 and the `black hole' buffer "_.  The named buffers can
              also be specified as "A to "Z.

              When a buffer is specified for a cut, change or yank command,  the  text  concerned
              replaces  the  previous  contents  of  the  specified  buffer. If a named buffer is
              specified using a capital, the newly cut text is appended to the buffer instead  of
              overwriting  it.  When using the "_ buffer, nothing happens. This can be useful for
              deleting text without affecting any buffers.

              If no buffer is specified for a cut or change command, "1 is used, and the contents
              of  "1  to  "8 are each shifted along one buffer; the contents of "9 is lost. If no
              buffer is specified for a yank command,  "0  is  used.  Finally,  a  paste  command
              without  a  specified  buffer  will  paste  the  text  from the most recent command
              regardless of any buffer that might have been used with that command.

              When called from a widget function by the zle command, the buffer can optionally be
              specified with an argument. For example,

                     zle vi-set-buffer A

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set  the  mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative numeric argument,
              do not set the mark but deactivate the region so that it is no  longer  highlighted
              (it is still usable for other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       split-undo
              Breaks  the  undo  sequence  at  the  current change.  This is useful in vi mode as
              changes made in insert mode are coalesced on  entering  command  mode.   Similarly,
              undo will normally revert as one all the changes made by a user-defined widget.

       undefined-key
              This  command  is  executed when a key sequence that is not bound to any command is
              typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (u) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.  When  called  from  a  user-defined
              widget,  takes an optional argument indicating a previous state of the undo history
              as returned by the UNDO_CHANGE_NO variable; modifications  are  undone  until  that
              state is reached, subject to any limit imposed by the UNDO_LIMIT_NO variable.

              Note  that  when invoked from vi command mode, the full prior change made in insert
              mode is reverted, the changes having been merged when command mode was selected.

       redo (unbound) (^R) (unbound)
              Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Undo the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the modification.

       visual-mode (unbound) (v) (unbound)
              Toggle vim-style visual selection mode.  If  line-wise  visual  mode  is  currently
              enabled  then it is changed to being character-wise. If used following an operator,
              it forces the subsequent  movement  command  to  be  treated  as  a  character-wise
              movement.

       visual-line-mode (unbound) (V) (unbound)
              Toggle  vim-style line-wise visual selection mode. If character-wise visual mode is
              currently enabled then it is changed to  being  line-wise.  If  used  following  an
              operator,  it  forces  the subsequent movement command to be treated as a line-wise
              movement.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (ga) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, decimal and hexadecimal
              number,  the current cursor position within the buffer and the column of the cursor
              in the current line.

       where-is
              Read the name of an editor command and print the  listing  of  key  sequences  that
              invoke  the  specified command.  A restricted set of editing functions is available
              in the mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special command keymap, and  if  not
              found there in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command `which-command cmd'.
              where cmd is the current command.  which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If the last command executed was a digit as  part  of  an  argument,  continue  the
              argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

   Text Objects
       Text  objects  are  commands  that can be used to select a block of text according to some
       criteria. They are a feature of the vim text editor and so are primarily intended for  use
       with  vi  operators  or  from  visual  selection mode. However, they can also be used from
       vi-insert or emacs mode. Key bindings listed below apply to the viopp and visual keymaps.

       select-a-blank-word (aW)
              Select a word including adjacent blanks, where a word is defined  as  a  series  of
              non-blank characters. With a numeric argument, multiple words will be selected.

       select-a-shell-word (aa)
              Select the current command argument applying the normal rules for quoting.

       select-a-word (aw)
              Select a word including adjacent blanks, using the normal vi-style word definition.
              With a numeric argument, multiple words will be selected.

       select-in-blank-word (iW)
              Select a word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters. With  a
              numeric argument, multiple words will be selected.

       select-in-shell-word (ia)
              Select  the  current command argument applying the normal rules for quoting. If the
              argument begins and ends with matching quote characters, these are not included  in
              the selection.

       select-in-word (iw)
              Select  a word, using the normal vi-style word definition. With a numeric argument,
              multiple words will be selected.

CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING

       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or regions of the line that have a
       particular  significance.   This is controlled by the array parameter zle_highlight, if it
       has been set by the user.

       If the parameter contains the single entry none all highlighting is turned off.  Note  the
       parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise  each  entry  of  the  array  should  consist of a word indicating a context for
       highlighting, then a colon, then a comma-separated list of the types  of  highlighting  to
       apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any  text  within  the  command  line not affected by any other highlighting.  Text
              outside the editable area of the command line is not affected.

       isearch
              When one of the incremental history search widgets  is  active,  the  area  of  the
              command line matched by the search string or pattern.

       region The  currently  selected  text.  In  emacs  terminology, this is referred to as the
              region and is bounded by the cursor (point)  and  the  mark.  The  region  is  only
              highlighted  if  it  is  active,  which is the case after the mark is modified with
              set-mark-command or exchange-point-and-mark.  Note that whether or not  the  region
              is active has no effect on its use within emacs style widgets, it simply determines
              whether it is highlighted. In vi mode, the region corresponds to selected  text  in
              visual mode.

       special
              Individual characters that have no direct printable representation but are shown in
              a special manner by the line editor.  These characters are described below.

       suffix This context is used in completion for characters that are marked as suffixes  that
              will  be  removed  if  the  completion ends at that point, the most obvious example
              being  a  slash  (/)  after  a  directory  name.   Note  that  suffix  removal   is
              configurable;  the  circumstances under which the suffix will be removed may differ
              for different completions.

       paste  Following a command to paste text, the characters that were inserted.

       When region_highlight is set, the contexts that describe  a  region  --  isearch,  region,
       suffix,  and  paste  --  are  applied  first,  then  region_highlight is applied, then the
       remaining zle_highlight contexts are applied.  If a particular character  is  affected  by
       multiple specifications, the last specification wins.

       zle_highlight  may  contain  additional  fields  for controlling how terminal sequences to
       change colours are output.  Each of the following is followed by a colon and a  string  in
       the  same  form  as for key bindings.  This will not be necessary for the vast majority of
       terminals as the defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The start of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.  This is followed by an
              ASCII digit representing the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The start of the escape sequence for the background colour.  This is followed by an
              ASCII digit representing the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The available types of highlighting are  the  following.   Note  that  not  all  types  of
       highlighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No  highlighting  is  applied  to  the given context.  It is not useful for this to
              appear with other types of highlighting; it is used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal integer or the name of one
              of the eight most widely-supported colours.

              Not all terminals support this and, of those that do, not all provide facilities to
              test the support, hence the user should decide based on the  terminal  type.   Most
              terminals  support  the  colours black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and
              white, which can be set by name.  In addition. default  may  be  used  to  set  the
              terminal's  default  foreground colour.  Abbreviations are allowed; b or bl selects
              black.  Some terminals may generate additional colours if  the  bold  attribute  is
              also present.

              On  recent terminals and on systems with an up-to-date terminal database the number
              of colours supported may be tested by the command `echotc Co'; if this succeeds, it
              indicates  a  limit  on  the  number  of colours which will be enforced by the line
              editor.  The number of colours is in any case limited to 256 (i.e. the range  0  to
              255).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The  background  colour  should  be  set  to  colour.   This works similarly to the
              foreground colour, except the background  is  not  usually  affected  by  the  bold
              attribute.

       bold   The  characters  in  the given context are shown in a bold font.  Not all terminals
              distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The characters in the given context are shown in the terminal's standout mode.  The
              actual  effect  is specific to the terminal; on many terminals it is inverse video.
              On some such terminals, where the cursor does not blink it  appears  with  standout
              mode  negated,  making  it  less  than clear where the cursor actually is.  On such
              terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for  highlighting  the  region
              and matched search string.

       underline
              The  characters in the given context are shown underlined.  Some terminals show the
              foreground in a different colour instead; in  this  case  whitespace  will  not  be
              highlighted.

       The characters described above as `special' are as follows.  The formatting described here
       is used irrespective of whether the characters are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control characters in the ASCII range  are  shown  as  `^'  followed  by  the  base
              character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This  item  applies  to  control  characters  not  in  the  ASCII range, plus other
              characters as follows.  If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, multibyte  characters
              not  in  the ASCII character set that are reported as having zero width are treated
              as combining characters when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If  the  option  is
              off,  or  if  a  character  appears  where  a combining character is not valid, the
              character is treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable multibyte characters are shown as a hexadecimal  number  between  angle
              brackets.  The number is the code point of the character in the wide character set;
              this may or may not be Unicode, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, any sequence of one or more bytes  that  does
              not  form  a valid character in the current character set is treated as a series of
              bytes each shown as a special character.  This case can be distinguished from other
              unprintable  characters  as  the  bytes  are  represented as two hexadecimal digits
              between angle brackets, as distinct from the four or eight digits that are used for
              unprintable characters that are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not  all  systems support this: for it to work, the system's representation of wide
              characters must be code values from the Universal Character Set, as defined by  IS0
              10646 (also known as Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
              When  a double-width character appears in the final column of a line, it is instead
              shown on the  next  line.  The  empty  space  left  in  the  original  position  is
              highlighted as a special character.

       If  zle_highlight  is  not  set  or no value applies to a particular context, the defaults
       applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline paste:standout)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within widgets, arbitrary  regions  may  be  highlighted  by  setting  the  special  array
       parameter region_highlight; see above.