Provided by: smartmontools_5.33+5.34cvs20050802-3ubuntu1_i386
smartd.conf - SMART Disk Monitoring Daemon Configuration File
smartmontools-5.34 released 2005/04/20 at 04:56:06 UTC
/etc/smartd.conf is the configuration file for the smartd daemon, which
monitors the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART)
system built into many ATA-3 and later ATA, IDE and SCSI-3 hard drives.
If the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf is present, smartd reads it
at startup, before fork(2)ing into the background. If smartd
subsequently receives a HUP signal, it will then re-read the
configuration file. If smartd is running in debug mode, then an INT
signal will also make it re-read the configuration file. This signal
can be generated by typing <CONTROL-C> in the terminal window where
smartd is running.
CONFIGURATION FILE /etc/smartd.conf
In the absence of a configuration file, under Linux smartd will try to
open the 20 ATA devices /dev/hd[a-t] and the 26 SCSI devices /dev/sd[a-
z]. Under FreeBSD, smartd will try to open all existing ATA devices
(with entries in /dev) /dev/ad[0-9]+ and all existing SCSI devices
/dev/da[0-9]+. Under NetBSD/OpenBSD, smartd will try to open all
existing ATA devices (with entries in /dev) /dev/wd[0-9]+c and all
existing SCSI devices /dev/sd[0-9]+c. Under Solaris smartd will try to
open all entries "/dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?" for IDE/ATA and SCSI disk
devices, and entries "/dev/rmt/*" for SCSI tape devices. Under Windows
smartd will try to open all entries "/dev/hd[a-j]"
("\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-9]") for IDE/ATA devices on WinNT4/2000/XP,
"/dev/hd[a-d]" (bitmask from "\\.\SMARTVSD") for IDE/ATA devices on
Win95/98/98SE/ME, and "/dev/scsi[0-9][0-7]" (ASPI adapter 0-9, ID 0-7)
for SCSI devices on all versions of Windows. Under Darwin, smartd will
open any ATA block storage device.
This can be annoying if you have an ATA or SCSI device that hangs or
misbehaves when receiving SMART commands. Even if this causes no
problems, you may be annoyed by the string of error log messages about
block-major devices that can´t be found, and SCSI devices that can´t be
One can avoid this problem, and gain more control over the types of
events monitored by smartd, by using the configuration file
/etc/smartd.conf. This file contains a list of devices to monitor,
with one device per line. An example file is included with the
smartmontools distribution. You will find this sample configuration
file in /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/. For security, the configuration
file should not be writable by anyone but root. The syntax of the file
is as follows:
· There should be one device listed per line, although you may have
lines that are entirely comments or white space.
· Any text following a hash sign ´#´ and up to the end of the line is
taken to be a comment, and ignored.
· Lines may be continued by using a backslash ´\´ as the last non-
whitespace or non-comment item on a line.
· Note: a line whose first character is a hash sign ´#´ is treated as
a white-space blank line, not as a non-existent line, and will end
a continuation line.
Here is an example configuration file. It´s for illustrative purposes
only; please don´t copy it onto your system without reading to the end
of the DIRECTIVES Section below!
# This is an example smartd startup config file
# /etc/smartd.conf for monitoring three
# ATA disks, three SCSI disks, and six ATA disks
# behind two 3ware controllers.
# First ATA disk on each of two interfaces. On
# the second disk, start a long self-test every
# Sunday between 3 and 4 am.
/dev/hda -a -m email@example.com,root@localhost
/dev/hdc -a -I 194 -I 5 -i 12 -s L/../../7/03
# SCSI disks. Send a TEST warning email to admin on
/dev/sdb -m firstname.lastname@example.org -M test
# Strange device. It´s SCSI. Start a scheduled
# long self test between 5 and 6 am Monday/Thursday
/dev/weird -d scsi -s L/../../(1|4)/05
# Four ATA disks on a 3ware 6/7/8000 controller.
# Start short self-tests daily between midnight and 1am,
# 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4 am
# (Note that the syntax /dev/twe0 is also allowed.)
/dev/sdc -d 3ware,0 -a -s S/../.././00
/dev/sdc -d 3ware,1 -a -s S/../.././01
/dev/sdd -d 3ware,2 -a -s S/../.././02
/dev/sdd -d 3ware,3 -a -s S/../.././03
# Two ATA disks on a 3ware 9000 controller.
# Start long self-tests Sundays between midnight and
# 1am and 2-3 am
/dev/twa0 -d 3ware,0 -a -s L/../../7/00
/dev/twa0 -d 3ware,1 -a -s L/../../7/02
# The following line enables monitoring of the
# ATA Error Log and the Self-Test Error Log.
# It also tracks changes in both Prefailure
# and Usage Attributes, apart from Attributes
# 9, 194, and 231, and shows continued lines:
/dev/hdd -l error \
-l selftest \
-t \ # Attributes not tracked:
-I 194 \ # temperature
-I 231 \ # also temperature
-I 9 # power-on hours
CONFIGURATION FILE DIRECTIVES
If the first non-comment entry in the configuration file is the text
string DEVICESCAN in capital letters, then smartd will ignore any
remaining lines in the configuration file, and will scan for devices.
DEVICESCAN may optionally be followed by Directives that will apply to
all devices that are found in the scan. Please see below for
The following are the Directives that may appear following the device
name or DEVICESCAN on any line of the /etc/smartd.conf configuration
file. Note that these are NOT command-line options for smartd. The
Directives below may appear in any order, following the device name.
For an ATA device, if no Directives appear, then the device will be
monitored as if the ´-a´ Directive (monitor all SMART properties) had
If a SCSI disk is listed, it will be monitored at the maximum
implemented level: roughly equivalent to using the ´-H -l selftest´
options for an ATA disk. So with the exception of ´-d´, ´-m´, ´-l
selftest´, ´-s´, and ´-M´, the Directives below are ignored for SCSI
disks. For SCSI disks, the ´-m´ Directive sends a warning email if the
SMART status indicates a disk failure or problem, if the SCSI inquiry
about disk status fails, or if new errors appear in the self-test log.
If a 3ware controller is used then the corresponding SCSI (/dev/sd?) or
character device (/dev/twe? or /dev/twa?) must be listed, along with
the ´-d 3ware,N´ Directive (see below). The individual ATA disks
hosted by the 3ware controller appear to smartd as normal ATA devices.
Hence all the ATA directives can be used for these disks (but see note
Specifies the type of the device. This Directive may be used
multiple times for one device, but the arguments ata, scsi,
marvell, and 3ware,N are mutually-exclusive. If more than one is
given then smartd will use the last one which appears.
If none of these three arguments is given, then smartd will
first attempt to guess the device type by looking at whether the
sixth character in the device name is an ´s´ or an ´h´. This
will work for device names like /dev/hda or /dev/sdb, and
corresponds to choosing ata or scsi respectively. If smartd
can´t guess from this sixth character, then it will simply try
to access the device using first ATA and then SCSI ioctl()s.
The valid arguments to this Directive are:
ata - the device type is ATA. This prevents smartd from issuing
SCSI commands to an ATA device.
scsi - the device type is SCSI. This prevents smartd from
issuing ATA commands to a SCSI device.
marvell - Under Linux, interact with SATA disks behind Marvell
chip-set controllers (using the Marvell rather than libata
3ware,N - the device consists of one or more ATA disks connected
to a 3ware RAID controller. The non-negative integer N (in the
range from 0 to 15 inclusive) denotes which disk on the
controller is monitored. In log files and email messages this
disk will be identified as 3ware_disk_XX with XX in the range
from 00 to 15 inclusive.
This Directive may at first appear confusing, because the 3ware
controller is a SCSI device (such as /dev/sda) and should be
listed as such in the the configuration file. However when the
´-d 3ware,N´ Directive is used, then the corresponding disk is
addressed using native ATA commands which are ´passed through´
the SCSI driver. All ATA Directives listed in this man page may
be used. Note that while you may use any of the 3ware SCSI
logical devices /dev/sd? to address any of the physical disks
(3ware ports), error and log messages will make the most sense
if you always list the 3ware SCSI logical device corresponding
to the particular physical disks. Please see the smartctl man
page for further details.
ATA disks behind 3ware controllers may alternatively be accessed
via a character device interface /dev/twe0-15 (3ware
6000/7000/8000 controllers) and /dev/twa0-15 (3ware 9000 series
controllers). Note that the 9000 series controllers may only be
accessed using the character device interface /dev/twa0-15 and
not the SCSI device interface /dev/sd?. Please see the smartctl
man page for further details.
Note that older 3w-xxxx drivers do not pass the ´Enable
Autosave´ (-S on) and ´Enable Automatic Offline´ (-o on)
commands to the disk, if the SCSI interface is used, and produce
these types of harmless syslog error messages instead: ´3w-xxxx:
tw_ioctl(): Passthru size (123392) too big´. This can be fixed
by upgrading to version 1.02.00.037 or later of the 3w-xxxx
driver, or by applying a patch to older versions. See
http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ for instructions.
Alternatively use the character device interfaces /dev/twe0-15
(3ware 6/7/8000 series controllers) or /dev/twa0-15 (3ware 9000
3ware controllers are currently ONLY supported under Linux.
removable - the device or its media is removable. This
indicates to smartd that it should continue (instead of exiting,
which is the default behavior) if the device does not appear to
be present when smartd is started. This Directive may be used
in conjunction with the other ´-d´ Directives.
This ´nocheck´ Directive is used to prevent a disk from being
spun-up when it is periodically polled by smartd.
ATA disks have five different power states. In order of
increasing power consumption they are: ´OFF´, ´SLEEP´,
´STANDBY´, ´IDLE´, and ´ACTIVE´. Typically in the OFF, SLEEP,
and STANDBY modes the disk´s platters are not spinning. But
usually, in response to SMART commands issued by smartd, the
disk platters are spun up. So if this option is not used, then
a disk which is in a low-power mode may be spun up and put into
a higher-power mode when it is periodically polled by smartd.
Note that if the disk is in SLEEP mode when smartd is started,
then it won’t respond to smartd commands, and so the disk won’t
be registered as a device for smartd to monitor. If a disk is in
any other low-power mode, then the commands issued by smartd to
register the disk will probably cause it to spin-up.
The ´-n´ (nocheck) Directive specifies if smartd´s periodic
checks should still be carried out when the device is in a
low-power mode. It may be used to prevent a disk from being
spun-up by periodic smartd polling. The allowed values of
never - smartd will poll (check) the device regardless of its
power mode. This may cause a disk which is spun-down to be
spun-up when smartd checks it. This is the default behavior if
the ’-n’ Directive is not given.
sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.
standby - check the device unless it is in SLEEP or STANDBY
mode. In these modes most disks are not spinning, so if you
want to prevent a laptop disk from spinning up each time that
smartd polls, this is probably what you want.
idle - check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY or IDLE
mode. In the IDLE state, most disks are still spinning, so this
is probably not what you want.
When a periodic test is skipped, smartd normally writes an
informal log message. The message can be suppressed by appending
the option ´,q´ to POWERMODE (like ´-n standby,q´). This
prevents a laptop disk from spinning up due to this message.
Specifies how tolerant smartd should be of SMART command
failures. The valid arguments to this Directive are:
normal - do not try to monitor the disk if a mandatory SMART
command fails, but continue if an optional SMART command fails.
This is the default.
permissive - try to monitor the disk even if it appears to lack
SMART capabilities. This may be required for some old disks
(prior to ATA-3 revision 4) that implemented SMART before the
SMART standards were incorporated into the ATA/ATAPI
Specifications. This may also be needed for some Maxtor disks
which fail to comply with the ATA Specifications and don’t
properly indicate support for error- or self-test logging.
[Please see the smartctl -T command-line option.]
Enables or disables SMART Automatic Offline Testing when smartd
starts up and has no further effect. The valid arguments to
this Directive are on and off.
The delay between tests is vendor-specific, but is typically
Note that SMART Automatic Offline Testing is not part of the ATA
Specification. Please see the smartctl -o command-line option
documentation for further information about this feature.
Enables or disables Attribute Autosave when smartd starts up and
has no further effect. The valid arguments to this Directive
are on and off. Also affects SCSI devices. [Please see the
smartctl -S command-line option.]
-H Check the SMART health status of the disk. If any Prefailure
Attributes are less than or equal to their threshold values,
then disk failure is predicted in less than 24 hours, and a
message at loglevel ´LOG_CRITICAL´ will be logged to syslog.
[Please see the smartctl -H command-line option.]
Reports increases in the number of errors in one of the two
SMART logs. The valid arguments to this Directive are:
error - report if the number of ATA errors reported in the ATA
Error Log has increased since the last check.
selftest - report if the number of failed tests reported in the
SMART Self-Test Log has increased since the last check, or if
the timestamp associated with the most recent failed test has
increased. Note that such errors will only be logged if you run
self-tests on the disk (and it fails a test!). Self-Tests can
be run automatically by smartd: please see the ´-s´ Directive
below. Self-Tests can also be run manually by using the
´-t short´ and ´-t long´ options of smartctl and the results of
the testing can be observed using the smartctl ´-l selftest´
[Please see the smartctl -l and -t command-line options.]
Run Self-Tests or Offline Immediate Tests, at scheduled times.
A Self- or Offline Immediate Test will be run at the end of
periodic device polling, if all 12 characters of the string
T/MM/DD/d/HH match the extended regular expression REGEXP. Here:
T is the type of the test. The values that smartd will try to
match (in turn) are: ´L´ for a Long Self-Test, ´S´ for a
Short Self-Test, ´C´ for a Conveyance Self-Test (ATA only),
and ´O´ for an Offline Immediate Test (ATA only). As soon
as a match is found, the test will be started and no
additional matches will be sought for that device and that
MM is the month of the year, expressed with two decimal digits.
The range is from 01 (January) to 12 (December) inclusive.
Do not use a single decimal digit or the match will always
DD is the day of the month, expressed with two decimal digits.
The range is from 01 to 31 inclusive. Do not use a single
decimal digit or the match will always fail!
d is the day of the week, expressed with one decimal digit.
The range is from 1 (Monday) to 7 (Sunday) inclusive.
HH is the hour of the day, written with two decimal digits, and
given in hours after midnight. The range is 00 (midnight to
just before 1am) to 23 (11pm to just before midnight)
inclusive. Do not use a single decimal digit or the match
will always fail!
Some examples follow. In reading these, keep in mind that in
extended regular expressions a dot ´.´ matches any single
character, and a parenthetical expression such as ´(A|B|C)´
denotes any one of the three possibilities A, B, or C.
To schedule a short Self-Test between 2-3am every morning, use:
To schedule a long Self-Test between 4-5am every Sunday morning,
To schedule a long Self-Test between 10-11pm on the first and
fifteenth day of each month, use:
To schedule an Offline Immediate test after every midnight, 6am,
noon,and 6pm, plus a Short Self-Test daily at 1-2am and a Long
Self-Test every Saturday at 3-4am, use:
Scheduled tests are run immediately following the regularly-
scheduled device polling, if the current local date, time, and
test type, match REGEXP. By default the regularly-scheduled
device polling occurs every thirty minutes after starting
smartd. Take caution if you use the ´-i´ option to make this
polling interval more than sixty minutes: the poll times may
fail to coincide with any of the testing times that you have
specified with REGEXP, and so the self tests may not take place
as you wish.
Before running an offline or self-test, smartd checks to be sure
that a self-test is not already running. If a self-test is
already running, then this running self test will not be
interrupted to begin another test.
smartd will not attempt to run any type of test if another test
was already started or run in the same hour.
Each time a test is run, smartd will log an entry to SYSLOG.
You can use these to verify that you constructed REGEXP
correctly. The matching order (L before S before C before O)
ensures that if multiple test types are all scheduled for the
same hour, the longer test type has precedence. This is usually
the desired behavior.
Unix users: please beware that the rules for extended regular
expressions [regex(7)] are not the same as the rules for
file-name pattern matching by the shell [glob(7)]. smartd will
issue harmless informational warning messages if it detects
characters in REGEXP that appear to indicate that you have made
-m ADD Send a warning email to the email address ADD if the ´-H´, ´-l´,
´-f´, ´-C´, or ´-O´ Directives detect a failure or a new error,
or if a SMART command to the disk fails. This Directive only
works in conjunction with these other Directives (or with the
equivalent default ´-a´ Directive).
To prevent your email in-box from getting filled up with warning
messages, by default only a single warning will be sent for each
of the enabled alert types, ´-H´, ´-l´, ´-f´, ´-C´, or ´-O´ even
if more than one failure or error is detected or if the failure
or error persists. [This behavior can be modified; see the ´-M´
To send email to more than one user, please use the following
"comma separated" form for the address:
user1@add1,user2@add2,...,userN@addN (with no spaces).
To test that email is being sent correctly, use the ´-M test´
Directive described below to send one test email message on
By default, email is sent using the system mail command. In
order that smartd find the mail command (normally /bin/mail) an
executable named ´mail´ must be in the path of the shell or
environment from which smartd was started. If you wish to
specify an explicit path to the mail executable (for example
/usr/local/bin/mail) or a custom script to run, please use the
´-M exec´ Directive below.
Note that by default under Solaris, in the previous paragraph,
´mailx´ and ´/bin/mailx´ are used, since Solaris ´/bin/mail´
does not accept a ´-s´ (Subject) command-line argument.
On Windows, the ´Blat´ mailer (http://blat.sourceforge.net/) is
used by default. This mailer uses a different command line
syntax, see ´-M exec´ below.
Note also that there is a special argument <nomailer> which can
be given to the ´-m´ Directive in conjunction with the ´-M exec´
Directive. Please see below for an explanation of its effect.
If the mailer or the shell running it produces any STDERR/STDOUT
output, then a snippet of that output will be copied to SYSLOG.
The remainder of the output is discarded. If problems are
encountered in sending mail, this should help you to understand
and fix them. If you have mail problems, we recommend running
smartd in debug mode with the ´-d´ flag, using the ´-M test´
Directive described below.
The following extension is available on Windows: By specifying
´msgbox´ as a mail address, a warning "email" is displayed as a
message box on the screen. Using both ´msgbox´ and regular mail
addresses is possible, if ´msgbox´ is the first word in the
comma separated list. With ´sysmsgbox´, a system modal (always
on top) message box is used. If running as a service, a service
notification message box (always shown on current visible
desktop) is used.
These Directives modify the behavior of the smartd email
warnings enabled with the ´-m´ email Directive described above.
These ´-M´ Directives only work in conjunction with the ´-m´
Directive and can not be used without it.
Multiple -M Directives may be given. If more than one of the
following three -M Directives are given (example: -M once -M
daily) then the final one (in the example, -M daily) is used.
The valid arguments to the -M Directive are (one of the
once - send only one warning email for each type of disk problem
detected. This is the default.
daily - send additional warning reminder emails, once per day,
for each type of disk problem detected.
diminishing - send additional warning reminder emails, after a
one-day interval, then a two-day interval, then a four-day
interval, and so on for each type of disk problem detected. Each
interval is twice as long as the previous interval.
In addition, one may add zero or more of the following
test - send a single test email immediately upon smartd startup.
This allows one to verify that email is delivered correctly.
exec PATH - run the executable PATH instead of the default mail
command, when smartd needs to send email. PATH must point to an
executable binary file or script.
By setting PATH to point to a customized script, you can make
smartd perform useful tricks when a disk problem is detected
(beeping the console, shutting down the machine, broadcasting
warnings to all logged-in users, etc.) But please be careful.
smartd will block until the executable PATH returns, so if your
executable hangs, then smartd will also hang. Some sample
scripts are included in
The return status of the executable is recorded by smartd in
SYSLOG. The executable is not expected to write to STDOUT or
STDERR. If it does, then this is interpreted as indicating that
something is going wrong with your executable, and a fragment of
this output is logged to SYSLOG to help you to understand the
problem. Normally, if you wish to leave some record behind, the
executable should send mail or write to a file or device.
Before running the executable, smartd sets a number of
environment variables. These environment variables may be used
to control the executable´s behavior. The environment variables
exported by smartd are:
is set to the argument of -M exec, if present or else to
´mail´ (examples: /bin/mail, mail).
is set to the device path (examples: /dev/hda, /dev/sdb).
is set to the device type (possible values: ata, scsi,
3ware,N). Here N=0,...,15 denotes the ATA disk behind a
3ware RAID controller.
is set to the device description. For SMARTD_DEVICETYPE of
ata or scsi, this is the same as SMARTD_DEVICE. For 3ware
RAID controllers, the form used is ´/dev/sdc
[3ware_disk_01]´. In this case the device string contains a
space and is NOT quoted. So to use $SMARTD_DEVICESTRING in
a bash script you should probably enclose it in double
gives the reason for the warning or message email. The
possible values that it takes and their meanings are:
EmailTest: this is an email test message.
Health: the SMART health status indicates imminent failure.
Usage: a usage Attribute has failed.
SelfTest: the number of self-test failures has increased.
ErrorCount: the number of errors in the ATA error log has
CurrentPendingSector: one of more disk sectors could not be
read and are marked to be reallocated (replaced with spare
OfflineUncorrectableSector: during off-line testing, or
self-testing, one or more disk sectors could not be read.
FailedHealthCheck: the SMART health status command failed.
FailedReadSmartData: the command to read SMART Attribute
FailedReadSmartErrorLog: the command to read the SMART error
FailedReadSmartSelfTestLog: the command to read the SMART
self-test log failed.
FailedOpenDevice: the open() command to the device failed.
is determined by the address argument ADD of the ´-m´
Directive. If ADD is <nomailer>, then SMARTD_ADDRESS is not
set. Otherwise, it is set to the comma-separated-list of
email addresses given by the argument ADD, with the commas
replaced by spaces (example:email@example.com root). If
more than one email address is given, then this string will
contain space characters and is NOT quoted, so to use it in
a bash script you may want to enclose it in double quotes.
is set to the one sentence summary warning email message
string from smartd. This message string contains space
characters and is NOT quoted. So to use $SMARTD_MESSAGE in a
bash script you should probably enclose it in double quotes.
is set to the contents of the entire email warning message
string from smartd. This message string contains space and
return characters and is NOT quoted. So to use
$SMARTD_FULLMESSAGE in a bash script you should probably
enclose it in double quotes.
is a text string giving the time and date at which the first
problem of this type was reported. This text string contains
space characters and no newlines, and is NOT quoted. For
Sun Feb 9 14:58:19 2003 CST
is an integer, which is the unix epoch (number of seconds
since Jan 1, 1970) for SMARTD_TFIRST.
The shell which is used to run PATH is system-dependent. For
vanilla Linux/glibc it´s bash. For other systems, the man page
for popen(3) should say what shell is used.
If the ´-m ADD´ Directive is given with a normal address
argument, then the executable pointed to by PATH will be run in
a shell with STDIN receiving the body of the email message, and
with the same command-line arguments:
-s "$SMARTD_SUBJECT" $SMARTD_ADDRESS
that would normally be provided to ´mail´. Examples include:
-m user@home -M exec /bin/mail
-m admin@work -M exec /usr/local/bin/mailto
-m root -M exec /Example_1/bash/script/below
Note that on Windows, the syntax of the ´Blat´ mailer is used:
- -q -subject "$SMARTD_SUBJECT" -to "$SMARTD_ADDRESS"
If the ´-m ADD´ Directive is given with the special address
argument <nomailer> then the executable pointed to by PATH is
run in a shell with no STDIN and no command-line arguments, for
-m <nomailer> -M exec /Example_2/bash/script/below
If the executable produces any STDERR/STDOUT output, then smartd
assumes that something is going wrong, and a snippet of that
output will be copied to SYSLOG. The remainder of the output is
Some EXAMPLES of scripts that can be used with the ´-M exec´
Directive are given below. Some sample scripts are also included
-f Check for ´failure´ of any Usage Attributes. If these
Attributes are less than or equal to the threshold, it does NOT
indicate imminent disk failure. It "indicates an advisory
condition where the usage or age of the device has exceeded its
intended design life period." [Please see the smartctl -A
-p Report anytime that a Prefail Attribute has changed its value
since the last check, 30 minutes ago. [Please see the smartctl
-A command-line option.]
-u Report anytime that a Usage Attribute has changed its value
since the last check, 30 minutes ago. [Please see the smartctl
-A command-line option.]
-t Equivalent to turning on the two previous flags ´-p´ and ´-u´.
Tracks changes in all device Attributes (both Prefailure and
Usage). [Please see the smartctl -A command-line option.]
-i ID Ignore device Attribute number ID when checking for failure of
Usage Attributes. ID must be a decimal integer in the range
from 1 to 255. This Directive modifies the behavior of the ´-f´
Directive and has no effect without it.
This is useful, for example, if you have a very old disk and
don´t want to keep getting messages about the hours-on-lifetime
Attribute (usually Attribute 9) failing. This Directive may
appear multiple times for a single device, if you want to ignore
-I ID Ignore device Attribute ID when tracking changes in the
Attribute values. ID must be a decimal integer in the range
from 1 to 255. This Directive modifies the behavior of the
´-p´, ´-u´, and ´-t´ tracking Directives and has no effect
without one of them.
This is useful, for example, if one of the device Attributes is
the disk temperature (usually Attribute 194 or 231). It´s
annoying to get reports each time the temperature changes. This
Directive may appear multiple times for a single device, if you
want to ignore multiple Attributes.
-r ID When tracking, report the Raw value of Attribute ID along with
its (normally reported) Normalized value. ID must be a decimal
integer in the range from 1 to 255. This Directive modifies the
behavior of the ´-p´, ´-u´, and ´-t´ tracking Directives and has
no effect without one of them. This Directive may be given
A common use of this Directive is to track the device
Temperature (often ID=194 or 231).
-R ID When tracking, report whenever the Raw value of Attribute ID
changes. (Normally smartd only tracks/reports changes of the
Normalized Attribute values.) ID must be a decimal integer in
the range from 1 to 255. This Directive modifies the behavior
of the ´-p´, ´-u´, and ´-t´ tracking Directives and has no
effect without one of them. This Directive may be given
If this Directive is given, it automatically implies the ´-r´
Directive for the same Attribute, so that the Raw value of the
Attribute is reported.
A common use of this Directive is to track the device
Temperature (often ID=194 or 231). It is also useful for
understanding how different types of system behavior affects the
values of certain Attributes.
-C ID [ATA only] Report if the current number of pending sectors is
non-zero. Here ID is the id number of the Attribute whose raw
value is the Current Pending Sector count. The allowed range of
ID is 0 to 255 inclusive. To turn off this reporting, use
ID = 0. If the -C ID option is not given, then it defaults to
-C 197 (since Attribute 197 is generally used to monitor pending
A pending sector is a disk sector (containing 512 bytes of your
data) which the device would like to mark as ‘‘bad" and
reallocate. Typically this is because your computer tried to
read that sector, and the read failed because the data on it has
been corrupted and has inconsistent Error Checking and
Correction (ECC) codes. This is important to know, because it
means that there is some unreadable data on the disk. The
problem of figuring out what file this data belongs to is
operating system and file system specific. You can typically
force the sector to reallocate by writing to it (translation:
make the device substitute a spare good sector for the bad one)
but at the price of losing the 512 bytes of data stored there.
-U ID [ATA only] Report if the number of offline uncorrectable sectors
is non-zero. Here ID is the id number of the Attribute whose
raw value is the Offline Uncorrectable Sector count. The
allowed range of ID is 0 to 255 inclusive. To turn off this
reporting, use ID = 0. If the -U ID option is not given, then
it defaults to -U 198 (since Attribute 198 is generally used to
monitor offline uncorrectable sectors).
An offline uncorrectable sector is a disk sector which was not
readable during an off-line scan or a self-test. This is
important to know, because if you have data stored in this disk
sector, and you need to read it, the read will fail. Please see
the previous ´-C´ option for more details.
[ATA only] Modifies the behavior of smartd to compensate for
some known and understood device firmware bug. The arguments to
this Directive are exclusive, so that only the final Directive
given is used. The valid values are:
none - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA
specifications. This is the default, unless the device has
presets for ´-F´ in the device database.
samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware
Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities in
the SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA
specification). Enabling this option tells smartd to evaluate
these quantities in byte-reversed order. Some signs that your
disk needs this option are (1) no self-test log printed, even
though you have run self-tests; (2) very large numbers of ATA
errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible
values for the ATA error log timestamps.
samsung2 - In more recent Samsung disks (firmware revisions
ending in "-23") the number of ATA errors reported is byte
swapped. Enabling this option tells smartd to evaluate this
quantity in byte-reversed order.
Note that an explicit ´-F´ Directive will over-ride any preset
values for ´-F´ (see the ´-P´ option below).
[Please see the smartctl -F command-line option.]
Modifies the labeling for Attribute N, for disks which use non-
standard Attribute definitions. This is useful in connection
with the Attribute tracking/reporting Directives.
This Directive may appear multiple times. Valid arguments to
this Directive are:
9,minutes - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in minutes.
Its raw value will be displayed in the form ´Xh+Ym´. Here X is
hours, and Y is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive. Y is
always printed with two digits, for example ´06´ or ´31´ or
9,seconds - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in seconds.
Its raw value will be displayed in the form ´Xh+Ym+Zs´. Here X
is hours, Y is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive, and Z is
seconds in the range 0-59 inclusive. Y and Z are always printed
with two digits, for example ´06´ or ´31´ or ´00´.
9,halfminutes - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time,
measured in units of 30 seconds. This format is used by some
Samsung disks. Its raw value will be displayed in the form
´Xh+Ym´. Here X is hours, and Y is minutes in the range 0-59
inclusive. Y is always printed with two digits, for example
´06´ or ´31´ or ´00´.
9,temp - Raw Attribute number 9 is the disk temperature in
192,emergencyretractcyclect - Raw Attribute number 192 is the
Emergency Retract Cycle Count.
193,loadunload - Raw Attribute number 193 contains two values.
The first is the number of load cycles. The second is the
number of unload cycles. The difference between these two
values is the number of times that the drive was unexpectedly
powered off (also called an emergency unload). As a rule of
thumb, the mechanical stress created by one emergency unload is
equivalent to that created by one hundred normal unloads.
194,10xCelsius - Raw Attribute number 194 is ten times the disk
temperature in Celsius. This is used by some Samsung disks
(example: model SV1204H with RK100-13 firmware).
194,unknown - Raw Attribute number 194 is NOT the disk
temperature, and its interpretation is unknown. This is
primarily useful for the -P (presets) Directive.
198,offlinescanuncsectorct - Raw Attribute number 198 is the
Offline Scan UNC Sector Count.
200,writeerrorcount - Raw Attribute number 200 is the Write
201,detectedtacount - Raw Attribute number 201 is the Detected
220,temp - Raw Attribute number 220 is the disk temperature in
Note: a table of hard drive models, listing which Attribute
corresponds to temperature, can be found at:
N,raw8 - Print the Raw value of Attribute N as six 8-bit
unsigned base-10 integers. This may be useful for decoding the
meaning of the Raw value. The form ´N,raw8´ prints Raw values
for ALL Attributes in this form. The form (for example)
´123,raw8´ only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
N,raw16 - Print the Raw value of Attribute N as three 16-bit
unsigned base-10 integers. This may be useful for decoding the
meaning of the Raw value. The form ´N,raw16´ prints Raw values
for ALL Attributes in this form. The form (for example)
´123,raw16´ only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
N,raw48 - Print the Raw value of Attribute N as a 48-bit
unsigned base-10 integer. This may be useful for decoding the
meaning of the Raw value. The form ´N,raw48´ prints Raw values
for ALL Attributes in this form. The form (for example)
´123,raw48´ only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
Specifies whether smartd should use any preset options that are
available for this drive. The valid arguments to this Directive
use - use any presets that are available for this drive. This
is the default.
ignore - do not use any presets for this drive.
show - show the presets listed for this drive in the database.
showall - show the presets that are available for all drives and
[Please see the smartctl -P command-line option.]
-a Equivalent to turning on all of the following Directives: ´-H´
to check the SMART health status, ´-f´ to report failures of
Usage (rather than Prefail) Attributes, ´-t´ to track changes in
both Prefailure and Usage Attributes, ´-l selftest´ to report
increases in the number of Self-Test Log errors, ´-l error´ to
report increases in the number of ATA errors, ´-C 197´ to report
nonzero values of the current pending sector count, and ´-U 198´
to report nonzero values of the offline pending sector count.
Note that -a is the default for ATA devices. If none of these
other Directives is given, then -a is assumed.
# Comment: ignore the remainder of the line.
\ Continuation character: if this is the last non-white or non-
comment character on a line, then the following line is a
continuation of the current one.
If you are not sure which Directives to use, I suggest experimenting
for a few minutes with smartctl to see what SMART functionality your
disk(s) support(s). If you do not like voluminous syslog messages, a
good choice of smartd configuration file Directives might be:
-H -l selftest -l error -f.
If you want more frequent information, use: -a.
ADDITIONAL DETAILS ABOUT DEVICESCAN
If the first non-comment entry in the configuration file is the
text string DEVICESCAN in capital letters, then smartd will
ignore any remaining lines in the configuration file, and will
scan for devices.
If DEVICESCAN is not followed by any Directives, then smartd
will scan for both ATA and SCSI devices, and will monitor all
possible SMART properties of any devices that are found.
DEVICESCAN may optionally be followed by any valid Directives,
which will be applied to all devices that are found in the scan.
DEVICESCAN -m firstname.lastname@example.org
will scan for all devices, and then monitor them. It will send
one email warning per device for any problems that are found.
DEVICESCAN -d ata -m email@example.com
will do the same, but restricts the scan to ATA devices only.
DEVICESCAN -H -d ata -m firstname.lastname@example.org
will do the same, but only monitors the SMART health status of
the devices, (rather than the default -a, which monitors all
EXAMPLES OF SHELL SCRIPTS FOR ´-M exec´
These are two examples of shell scripts that can be used with
the ´-M exec PATH´ Directive described previously. The paths to
these scripts and similar executables is the PATH argument to
the ´-M exec PATH´ Directive.
Example 1: This script is for use with ´-m ADDRESS -M exec
PATH´. It appends the output of smartctl -a to the output of
the smartd email warning message and sends it to ADDRESS.
# Save the email message (STDIN) to a file:
cat > /root/msg
# Append the output of smartctl -a to the message:
/usr/sbin/smartctl -a -d $SMART_DEVICETYPE $SMARTD_DEVICE >> /root/msg
# Now email the message to the user at address ADD:
/bin/mail -s "$SMARTD_SUBJECT" $SMARTD_ADDRESS < /root/msg
Example 2: This script is for use with ´-m <nomailer> -M exec
PATH´. It warns all users about a disk problem, waits 30
seconds, and then powers down the machine.
# Warn all users of a problem
wall ´Problem detected with disk: ´ "$SMARTD_DEVICESTRING"
wall ´Warning message from smartd is: ´ "$SMARTD_MESSAGE"
wall ´Shutting down machine in 30 seconds... ´
# Wait half a minute
# Power down the machine
/sbin/shutdown -hf now
Some example scripts are distributed with the smartmontools
package, in /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/examplescripts/.
Please note that these scripts typically run as root, so any
files that they read/write should not be writable by ordinary
users or reside in directories like /tmp that are writable by
ordinary users and may expose your system to symlink attacks.
As previously described, if the scripts write to STDOUT or
STDERR, this is interpreted as indicating that there was an
internal error within the script, and a snippet of STDOUT/STDERR
is logged to SYSLOG. The remainder is flushed.
Bruce Allen email@example.com
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department
The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
Christian Franke (Windows interface)
Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
Frederic L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.
This code was derived from the smartsuite package, written by Michael
Cornwell, and from the previous ucsc smartsuite package. It extends
these to cover ATA-5 disks. This code was originally developed as a
Senior Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems Laboratory
(now part of the Storage Systems Research Center), Jack Baskin School
of Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz.
HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS:
Please see the following web site for updates, further documentation,
bug reports and patches:
smartd(8), smartctl(8), syslogd(8), syslog.conf(5), badblocks(8),
CVS ID OF THIS PAGE:
$Id: smartd.conf.5.in,v 1.70 2005/04/08 19:17:53 chrfranke Exp $