Provided by: liquidwar-server_5.6.2-2ubuntu2_i386 bug


       liquidwar - a unique multiplayer wargame


       liquidwar [-vh]


       Liquid  War is a multiplayer wargame. Its rules are very simple but yet


       -v Displays the version number.

       -h Displays copyright and various information.

          There are many other command  lines  options,  which  are  described
          further in this document.


       As  Liquid  War  is  a  cross-platform program (it also runs on DOS and
       Windows), I could reasonably not provide groff UNIX-style documentation
       to  Windows user. Therefore, Liquid War’s documentation is available in
       many formats, including HTML, PostScript and PDF.
       I believe these formats are easier to read  than  this  man  page.   So
       check         out         the        /usr/share/doc/liquidwar        or
       /usr/local/share/doc/liquidwar directories, for this is where HTML  and
       other  documentation  files should be. Otherwise, if you are a die-hard
       man page user, you may continue with this document 8-)


   The Liquid War concept
       Liquid War is a wargame. But it is different from common wargames.

       When playing Liquid War, one has to eat one’s opponent.  There  can  be
       from  2  to 6 players. There are no weapons, the only thing you have to
       do is to move a cursor in a 2-D battlefield. This cursor is followed by
       your  army, which is composed by a great many little fighters. Fighters
       are represented by small colored squares. All the fighters who have the
       same  color  belong  to  the same team. One very often controls several
       thousands fighters at the same time. And when fighters  from  different
       teams meet, they eat each other, it is as simple as that.

   How do teams react?
       Teams   are  composed  of  little  fighters.  These  fighters  all  act
       independently, so it can happen that one single fighters does something
       different from what all the other do.

       The main goal of these fighters is to reach the cursor you control. And
       to do that, they are in  a  way  quite  clever,  for  they  choose  the
       shortest  way  to  reach it. Check it if you want, but it is true, they
       *really* choose *the* shortest way to reach the  cursor.  That  is  the
       whole point with Liquid War.

       But  these  fighters are not perfect, so when they choose this shortest
       way, they do as if they were alone on the battlefield.  That’s  to  say
       that if there is a fighter blocking their way, they won’t have the idea
       to choose another way, which is free from fighters but would have  been
       longer otherwise. So fighters can be blocked.

   Who eats whom?
       When  two  fighters from different team meet each other, they first try
       to avoid fighting, and they dodge. But if there is no way for  them  to
       move,  they  get  angry  and  attack  the  guy  which is blocking them.
       Sometimes, they attack each other and both loose  health.  But  it  can
       happen  that a fighter is attacked by another one, which is himself not
       attacked at all.

       Here is an example of this behaviour: A blue fighter and a red  fighter
       both want to move to their right, for that would be the shortest way to
       reach their cursor if there was nobody on the battlefield. But they are
       blocked  by other fighters. If, for instance, the red fighter is on the
       right and the blue fighter on the left, it is  the  red  fighter  which
       will be eaten.

       When a fighter is attacked, he first looses health, that is to say that
       he gets darker. When his health reaches 0, his  color  changes  and  he
       becomes  a  member of the team by which he has been attacked. Therefore
       the number of fighters on the battlefield always remains the same.

       When fighters of a same team get stuck together and block  each  other,
       then they regenerate, that is to say that they get brighter.

       However, I think the best way for you to understand the way it works is
       to try the game...

   Basic strategy
       When I play Liquid War, I always try to surround my opponents,  and  it
       usually works.

       By  the  way, the computer has no strategy at all, he is a poor player,
       and if you get beaten by him, it means you have to improve  yourself  a

       But  still,  the  computer  doesn’t  do  one thing which I’ve seen many
       beginners doing: he never keeps his  cursor  motionless  right  in  the
       middle of his own fighters, for this is the best way to loose.

   The winner is...
       The  clever guy who has got the greatest number of fighters in his team
       at the end of the game. Or the  one  who  exterminates  all  the  other


       Liquid War rules have been invented by Thomas Colcombet.

       He  was  trying  to  find algorithms to find the shortest path from one
       point to another, and found the Liquid War algorithm. Then it  came  to
       his mind that a game could be build upon this algorithm, and Liquid War
       was born. He programmed the first two  versions  of  Liquid  War  using
       Borland  Pascal  for  DOS,  and  gave  me  some  information  about the
       algorithm so that I could re-program it.

       I’m the guy who  programmed  the  latest  versions  of  Liquid  War.  I
       enhanced the algorithms, and did quite a bunch of work to have the game
       playable by (almost) anyone, that’s to say create a correct GUI.

       If you want to join me, here’s all the information you’ll ever need:

       Christian Mauduit

       Web site:

       GnuPG public key: FD409E94 -
       GnuPG fingerprint: 4762 1EBA 5FA3 E62F 299C  B0BB DE3F 2BCD FD40 9E94

       Snail mail: 32 rue Jean Moulin  95100 Argenteuil  FRANCE

   Other contributors
       As Liquid War is now free software, protected by  the  GPL,  anyone  is
       allowed  to  view,  edit,  modify,  re-compile  the  source  code,  and
       distribute it, as long as Liquid War is  still  distributed  under  the

       Here’s a list of the contributors:

       *  Alstar:  drew a map, which is now included in the main distribution.

       *  Peter Wang: ported Liquid War to GNU/Linux.

       *  Cort Danger Stratton : helped me setting up network support.

       *  Tim Chadburn : wrote midi files for the game. His  contribution  has
          been  truely  appreciated  since  it’s  rather  hard to find GNU GPL
          compliant artwork. He also wrote documentation and helped with  midi
          support in general.

       *  Jan  Gretschuskin  :  contributed  11  maps,  and  made  the  German
          translation. So if you run Liquid War with German  menus,  you  know
          who  you  have  to  thank  ->  Jan!  8-) Also do not forget to visit

       *  Mouse : contributed a map.

       *  Rene Stach : drew 3 maps.

       *  Roderick Schertler : implemented HTTP 1.1 support.

       *  Ryan D. Brown : ported Liquid War to Mac OS X.

       *  Eduard Bloch : maintained the Debian package, and helped with German

       *  Michael Terry : provided a .desktop file for better integration with
          Gnome, KDE and other UNIX desktop environments.

       *  Kasper Hviid : contributed many maps, with their own  textures,  and
          made   the   Danish  translation.  Great  work,  also  available  on

       *  David Redick : wrote an external random map generator, available  on

       *  Alexandre Pineau : maintains the Debian package.

       *  Michael Wagner : translated the web site in German.

       *  Peter Williams : fixed the "too many opened socket" server bug.

       Many  other people helped me by submitting bug reports and patches, and
       I want to thank them for their precious help. Thanks to all the  Debian
       people too, who nicely maintain the Liquid War .deb package.

Mailing lists


       This  list  is  for  general discussions about Liquid War. Here you can
       make suggestions, submit bug  reports,  ask  for  help,  find  players,
       etc...  Basically,  any  question  or remark which concerns the game is
       welcomed on this list.

       Practical informations

       You can’t send messages to  the  list  without  subscribing.  The  only
       reason  for  this  is  that  it’s  one  of  the  only way to block spam
       efficiently. I first thought it could be OK to allow  anyone  to  post,
       but  liquidwar-user seems to have be harvested by robots, so now I need
       to restrict posters. However, I insist on  the  fact  that  anyone  can
       subscribe, and the subscription to the list is not moderated. So if you
       are a human being and not a stupid spam robot, you’re  welcome  on  the
       list 8-)

       Here’s a list of usefull URLs:

       *  To                                                    (un)subscribe:

       *  To                         consult                         archives:

       *  To post on the list:

   Chat and IRC
       Web-based chat-box

       I  have  have  set  up  a  web-based chat-box which is accessible here:

       It’s not as good as a good old IRC channel but not  everybody  can  use
       IRC  (because  of  firewalls  and  the likes), and I like the idea that
       people can chat and have the list of available servers  in  one  single
       web page.

       IRC channels

       I  personnally  spend some time on so you might use it
       to find other players - though I’m not really an IRC  addict...  ...not
       yet at least!

       Here are the channels I recommend:

       *  #liquidwar  : Liquid War dedicated channel, to find players and chat
          while playing.

       *  #netgame_players : general channel for  players  who  want  to  play
          Internet  games  - Free Software and/or Open Source games of course,
          we’re on 8-)

Menus and hot keys

       This section describes how the GUI works.  Since  programming  advanced
       GUIs  with  Allegro  is not so easy - standard C programming definitely
       lacks flexibility -, and also since it’s somewhat hard for me to figure
       out  what  is  user-friendly and what’s not, Liquid War’s menus are not
       always self-explanatory. I’ll just try and  do  something  better  next

       Map menu

       The  map  menu allows you to choose the map you are going to play on. A
       map is defined by 3 things:

       *  A frame. The frame can be chosen with the slider which is below  the
          preview.  The frames are automatically sorted by alphabetical order.

       *  A texture for walls.

       *  A texture for the zone where fighters are allowed to move.

       In the middle of the screen, there is a preview of the level.  In  this
       menu, the values of the parameters can be independently changed by:

       *  Moving a slider.

       *  Clicking on a "+" or a "-" button.

       *  Typing a number.

       On  each  side  of  the  preview,  sliders  allow you to choose the two
       textures. There is also a preview of each texture. Below  this  preview
       there  are  128 little buttons which allow you to choose single colored

       The name of the map and its resolution are displayed in the lower  part
       of the screen.

       You’ll  notice  that  on  some  maps the texture selection zones simply
       disappear. This is because these maps are associated with a texture, so
       choosing a different texture is often not recommended for it won’t look
       as nice as with the right one. If  you  still  want  to  override  this
       behaviour  you  can click on the "on/off" button just right to the "Use
       default texture" label. This is a toggle button which will allow you to
       use  your  own  textures even on maps that normally come with their own

       You’ll also notice that a "Random map" button is available. This button
       generates  a  new  random  map  using  an external program, "lwmapgen",
       developped       by       David       Redick,       available        on

       This program supports many command line options, and if you want a very
       precise  control  on  the  generated  maps,  you’ll  need  to  run   it
       separately.  Looking  at  LW’s  log  file you should be able to see the
       commands LW issues when calling this program, this can give  you  ideas
       on  how  to launch it manually. Alternatively using the "--help" option
       (for instance "liquidwar-mapgen --help" under UNIX) should describe how
       to use it.

       Teams menu

       This menu allows you to choose the teams which are going to play. There
       are 6 square zones in this menu. Each of them is associated to a  team.

       Each team can be either:

       *  Disabled ("Off")

       *  Controlled by a player ("Human")

       *  Controlled by the computer ("Cpu")

       The  computer  plays poorly, so remember that Liquid War is basically a
       multiplayer game, and that the cpu control is  dedicated  to  beginners

       You  can  also  choose the color associated to each team by clicking on
       one of the 12 colored buttons.

       Below the 12 colored buttons, there are four buttons which allow you to
       choose  your keys. Click on one of these buttons and then press the key
       you want to define. Joystick movements and buttons  are  considered  as
       keys.  You  can  disable  the  joystick with the button which is at the
       bottom left of the menu.  Mouse  input  is  also  possible,  and  mouse
       movements are considered as keys too. To define mouse control, click on
       the button associated to the direction you want to  control,  and  then
       move  the  mouse.  Then the button should display something like "M->".
       Mouse sensibility can be set with the little slider at the bottom right
       of the menu.

       Graphics menu

       Here you can choose the graphic options of the game.

       The  "Video  mode"  button  allows you to switch between fullscreen and
       windowed mode. This button is not available under DOS.

       The "Brightness" slider allows you to set the brightness of the game.

       The "Menu res" slider allows you to set  the  resolution  used  by  the
       menus.  There  are  currently  5 possible values, which depend on which
       platform you’re running the game on.

       I personnaly think the menus look best with the 640x480 resolution, but
       some  may  prefer  higher resolutions. Lower resolutions should only be
       used if you have problems using SVGA video modes.

       The "Game res" slider allows you to set the resolution used during  the
       game.  The  allowed  values  are  the  same than those for the menus. I
       recommend that you don’t use resolution higher than 640x480, unless you
       have a Pentium VIII running a 10GHz.

       Page flipping can be toggled. It is up to you to decide wether you keep
       this option or not. The main disavantage of turning page  flipping  off
       is  that  the info bar and the battlefield can look rahter ugly if they
       overlap. But if you turn page flipping on you will not easily reach the
       166 frames per second I sometimes get on small levels with my K6-225. I
       personnaly always turn page flipping off.

       The viewport size defines how much of your screen will be used  by  the

       *  If you set the slider on its left position, the batllefield will not
          be stectched at all. Or if is strechted, it will be by a x2 or a  x4
          factor. So this is the mode wich allows the fastest display.

       *  If  you  set the slider ont its right position, the game will run in
          fullscreen mode.

       *  With all the other positions of the  slider,  the  battlefield  will
          keep its general proportions but it will be stretched.

       The  "Waves"  button allows you to toggle the wave effect. You can also
       do this while playing, by simply pressing F4.

       Sound menu

       This section allows you to set the sound volumes. There are 4  sliders,
       which are:

       *  "Sfx":  sets  the  volume  of  all  the sfx sounds, thats to say’the
          sounds you hear when the game starts, when you loose etc...

       *  "Click": sets the volume of the click, this  nasty  noise  you  hear
          each time your press on a button.

       *  "Game water": sets the volume of the blop blop blop sounds which are
          played continuously while you are playing.

       *  "Menu water": the same  thing  than  "Game  water"  except  that  it
          concerns the sounds played while your are choosing options.

       *  "Music": general music volume.

       Rules menu

       This menu is the one where you can change the rules of the game.

       The  "Time"  slider  controls  the time limit. The game will stop after
       this time is elapsed. You can pause the game by pressing the "F3"  key.

       By  the  way,  an  info  bar  can  display  the time left while you are
       playing. This info bar can be toggled during the game by  pressing  the
       "F1"  key, and you can change its location by pressing the "F2" key. It
       also displays how many fighters there are in each team.

       The "Army size" slider controls the amount of fighters there will be on
       the  battlefield.  The  position  of  the slider reflects the amount of
       fighters of all the teams together. If there are  4  teams,  then  each
       player  will  have  half as many fighters than if there had only been 2

       The "Cursor x" slider controls the speed of your cursor.

       *  If it is set on the left, the cursor goes at the same speed than the

       *  If it is centered, the cursor goes twice faster than the fighters.

       *  If  it is set on the right, the speed of the cursor is multiplicated
          by 3.

       Below is a "Min 160x100" box with a slider on  its  right.  This  means
       that  maps  will automatically be magnified so that they have a size of
       at least 160x100. Indeed, some of the maps that come  with  Liquid  War
       were  designed  in 1995 when 486 Intel computers were common. Therefore
       the maps were smalls. Today, these maps are not really fun to  play  on
       fast  computers,  so  Thomas  Harte suggested this automatic magnifying
       feature, and that was IMHO a smart idea. You can move the slider to the
       right to make maps use a higher resolution - ie magnify them.

       The  "Defaults"  button  of  the "Rules" menu will reset rules to their
       defaults. This way you can tweak  rules  and  then  come  back  to  the
       default  rules  whenever  you want. Note that there’s also a "Defaults"
       button in the main "Options" menu, but it  will  reset  *all*  options,
       including player names... The advantage of the "Defaults" button in the
       "Rules" menu is that it will only reset rules parameters, and keep  the
       rest of your configuration options untouched.

       Speeds menu

       The  "frames/s"  slider  allows  you  to limit the number of frames per
       second. If this slider is set on the left, there won’t be any limit, so
       Liquid  War  will  repaint your screen each time the fighters move. But
       this can be a weird behaviour if your machine is really  fast,  for  no
       one  cares  about  100  fps per second, one can not even see them... So
       this paramters limits the  refreshment  rate,  so  that  there  can  be
       several  logical  moves of the fichters for only one screen refreshing.
       If it is set on its right, the display is limite to 10 fps,  so  you’ll
       have  to  find  your setting. I personnally set it right in the middle,
       and get 40 fps. If you press "F5", you’ll get the number of frames  per
       second,  and  if you press "F6", you’ll get the number of logical moves
       per second. You can also press "F7" or  "F8",  and  you  will  get  the
       percentage  of  time  your computer spends on calculating or displaying
       the level.

       The "rounds/s" slider allows you to limit  the  number  of  rounds  per
       second. If this slider is set on the left, there won’t be any limit, so
       Liquid War will run as fast as possible. This setting will be of no use
       if  you  use  Liquid  War  on a slow computer or if you play with hudge
       maps, but sometimes, with  a  high-end  Pentium  class  computer,  it’s
       simply  impossible  to  play on small maps because things simply go too
       fast. So this parameter is here to help you and avoid the "10000  moves
       per sec" problem.

       Waves menu

       This is where the wave parameters are set. The waves are just a graphic
       effect, which is not really usefull. I don’t often  use  waves,  but  I
       still  think  they  can sometimes look nice. Change these parameters if
       you really mean to do it, but if you don’t understand what  they  mean,
       it is really OK...

       There are 4 different types of waves, each of them being defined by:

       *  An "Ampli" parameter, to define how big the waves have to be.

       *  A  "Number"  parameter, to define how many waves should be displayed
          at the same time.

       *  A "Speed" parameter, to define how fast the waves should move.

       If you want to undestand what the "WX",  "HY",  "WY",  and  "HX"  codes
       mean,  try  to pay with only one type of wave, the "Ampli" parameter of
       the 3 other types of wave being set to 0 (that is to say the slider  is
       on its left position), and sea how it looks like.

       The  wave  effects  can be toggled during the game by pressing the "F4"

       Advanced menu

       This menu allows the user to change the behaviour of the fighters.

       The "Attack" slider sets the agressivity of the fighters. If it is  set
       on  the  right,  fighters eat each other very fast. If it is set on the
       left, it takes ages to fighters to change teams.

       The "Defense" slider sets  the  capacity  that  the  fighters  have  to
       regenerate themselves. The more it is on the right, the faster fighters

       The "New health" slider sets the health of the fighters which have just
       changed  teams.  The  more it is on the left, the weaker these fighters
       will be.

       The "Winner help" slider controls a parameter which causes fighters  to
       attack  with  various strength depending on how many fighters belong to
       their team. Not very clear... Let’s just say that:

       *  If this slider is set on the right, the more fighters  you  have  in
          your team, the more aggressive they will become.

       *  If it is centered, all the fighters of every team will always attack
          with the same strength.

       *  If it is set on the left, the less fighters you have,  the  stronger
          they will be. In this mode, games usually never end.

       The  "Cpu strength" parameter never makes the computer more intelligent
       than a monkey. But if you set  it  on  the  right,  it  advantages  the
       machine  outrageously and fighters controlled by the cpu will be really
       strong. So to get rid of them you’ll  definitely  need  to  be  clever.
       Again  and  again,  don’t  forget  that  Liquid  War was conceived as a
       multiplayer game and that playing against the computer is not really an
       interesting thing to do.

       The  "CPU vs human" parameter allows you to control how aggressive CPUs
       are towards humans.

       *  If set to "Always", CPUs will always attack humans  and  will  never
          try  to  attack  another  CPU, unless there are no humans left. This
          used to be the default behavior in previous Liquid War versions, but
          some  players  remarked that it was rather unfair, so now this is an

       *  If set to "Random", CPUs won’t care wether their opponents are  CPUs
          or humans, they’ll attack anybody. This is the default behavior.

       *  It  set  to  "Never",  CPUs  will attack each other before bothering
          human players.

       The "Allow net bots" button can be used to allow  bots  to  connect  on
       network  games.  Indeed, bots are by default disabled in network games,
       since in this case LW assumes that bots are useless (there are  already
       several  human players). However, turning this option on will allow you
       to connect bots within the game. It’s important to note that this is  a
       per client option, this means that you can’t use it to forbid access to
       bots to a given network game. This option was simply created  to  avoid
       confusion  when  connecting on network games, while still allowing bots
       to connects if you really want them to.

       The "Algorithm" parameter allows you to force the algorithm to standard
       C  mode.  There’s  no real good reason you would like to do this, since
       the C algorithm is slower than the ASM one. Moreover, the ASM algorithm
       is automatically disabled if you play against a computer which does not
       have ASM enabled. Think of this as a testing/debugging option.

   Hot keys
       Here’s a list of keys you might use while playing:

       *  F1: toggles the "info" zone where the game time  and  the  state  of
          each team is displayed.

       *  F2: moves the "info" the zone arround, possible positions being top,
          right, bottom and left.

       *  F3: pauses the game. This function is disabled during network games.

       *  F4:  toggles the "wave effect". Without this "wave effect", which is
          turned on ny default,the game will run faster.

       *  F5: displays the number of frames per second (*).

       *  F6: displays the number of rounds per second (*).

       *  F7: displays  the  precentage  of  CPU  spent  on  the  game  logic,
          calculating where fighters must go for instance (*).

       *  F8: displays the precentage of CPU spent on graphics (*).

       *  F9:  turns  on/off  the "capture" mode. In this mode, screenshots of
          each frame are taken, and written to the hard drive as bitmaps.

       *  F10: quits the game right away without any confirmation prompt, also
          known as the "my boss is coming here!" function.

       (*)  all  these  figures tend to be clearly false as computer go faster
       and faster. Basically, the time  required  for  "logic"  and  "display"
       operations  is  getting  shorter  and  shorter,  and the tools I use to
       measure it are not precise enough. Therefore I get approximations which
       might by plainly wrong.

Network game

       Since release 5.4.0, Liquid War includes network support, that’s to say
       that people can play over a LAN (Local Area Network). However,  due  to
       limitations  in  Liquid War’s legacy code, and also because of the lack
       of time I have, it might be a little tricky to set up a network game at
       first. So please read this section carefully.

       You should keep in mind that:

       *  DOS only releases of Liquid War do not include network support, only
          Windows and GNU/Linux versions will allow you to set  up  a  network

       *  The  game  should  run  fine on any LAN, but there’s no garantee the
          game will be playable on the Internet. Indeed if your  "ping  delay"
          is  not good enough, the game will be awfully slow. Bandwidth is not
          an issue, since Liquid War rarely needs more than 2 Kb/sec.

       *  You’ll need to know what an IP address is.

       *  You don’t need to set up a network game to run a  multiplayer  game.
          Liquid  War  was  originally  a  multiplayer  game  without  network
          support. Network support is here only  for  people  who  don’t  feel
          comfortable when playing at 6 on the same keyboard 8-)

   Getting started
       What do you need?

       You’ll basically need 2 computers connected on the same LAN. We’ll call
       them computer A and B. You might be able to play over the Internet too,
       but  the game can be harder to set up and - which is worse - very slow.

       You’ll also need to know the IP address of computer A. Type  "ipconfig"
       under  Windows  or  "ifconfig"  as  root  under  GNU/Linux  to get this
       information if you don’t have it.

       Starting the server

       Liquid War uses a very traditionnal client/server approach.  Basically,
       the  server  gets informations from all the clients and then dispatches
       the collected information to everybody.

       So  you’ll  need  to  start  a  server  on  computer   A   by   running
       "liquidwar-server" on GNU/Linux or "lwwinsrv.exe" on windows. This is a
       console application, ie it does not set up any graphic mode.

       Here’s a small example of a server start on GNU/Linux:

       $ liquidwar-server
       How many teams will connect to this server?

       At this point you must enter a number between 2 and 6, and  then  press
       "ENTER".  In  this example we will answer 2. The server really needs to
       know how many teams  will  be  in  the  game:  when  enough  teams  are
       connected,  the  game  starts.  It  can also be a good idea to answer 6
       systematically and then force game start by clicking  the  "Start  now"
       button within the client. It’s possible to skip this question by typing
       "liquidwar-server -2" instead of a plain "liquidwar-server".

       Use "-2" to get rid of this question.
       Register on "" (y/n)?

       Now if we answer "y", then the server will  automatically  contact  the
       "meta-server"       and       it       will      be      listed      on

       This can be convenient for people who want to find other gamers to play
       with on the Net. For now, let’s answer "n", we’ll test this meta-server
       stuff later 8-)

       Use "-private" to get rid of this question.
       2002-06-03 16:43:00: Listening on port 8035...
       2002-06-03 16:43:00: Waiting for 2 teams...

       Now the server is ready to accept clients. By  default  it  listens  to
       clients on port 8035. You could change this behavior setting by calling
       "liquidwar-server -port 8061" for instance, but let’s use  the  default
       port to make things easier.

       Starting the clients

       Start  the  client  on  computer  A  normally  by typing "liquidwar" on
       GNU/Linux or double-click "lwwin.exe" on Windows.

       Go to the "Teams" menu and select 2 teams, a red human and a  blue  CPU
       for  instance.  If  you  don’t  know  how to do this, then try and play
       Liquid War on a single computer first. It’s important to notice that by
       default the "blue CPU" won’t connect on the network game. It’s possible
       to allow bots to connect on network games, but  they  are  disabled  by

       Now  come  back  to  the  main  menu, and a "Net Game" button should be
       available. Click it. Now you should be able to:

       *  Start the game.

       *  Change the IP address of the server.

       *  Change the communication port.

       *  Set a password.

       *  Search for internet games automatically.

       Since the server is also running on the same machine (A), you can leave
       the default IP address as is (

       Now  you  are ready to start the second client on computer B. Like with
       computer A, you’ll have to:

       *  Select 2 teams, green an yellow this time.

       *  Select "Net Game" in the main menu.

       But this time you’ll also need to change the server address, since  the
       client is not running on the same computer than the server.

       Now  click  on  "Start  game"  on  computer A. The server should play a
       "system beep", which is usefull if you run a  server  and  want  to  be
       notified  of  client  connections  without watching the console all the
       time, and it should display messages like this:

       2002-06-03 16:44:48: Connection from ""
       2002-06-03  16:44:48:  Team  "Napoleon"  on  client   ""
       2002-06-03 16:44:49: Client "" accepted
       2002-06-03 16:44:49: Waiting for 1 team...

       And  on  the  client  you should see a screen which says "Waiting for 1
       team(s)" with the list of connected players below  (Napoleon).  You  do
       not need to click on the "Start now" button.

       Now  click  on  "Start  game"  on computer B. The server should display
       messages like this:

       2002-06-03 16:49:14: Connection from ""
       2002-06-03 16:49:14:  Team  "Henri  IV"  on  client  ""
       2002-06-03 16:49:15: Client "" accepted
       2002-06-03 16:49:15: Client "" ready
       2002-06-03 16:49:15: Client "" ready
       2002-06-03 16:49:15: Sending info to ""
       2002-06-03 16:49:15: Sending info to ""
       2002-06-03 16:49:16: Game start

       And at that point, the game should start 8-)

       Restart a new game

       Once  the  game  is  over,  you  can  start another network game on the
       clients without touching the server, because the  server  automatically
       restarts and waits for players to connect.

       To  stop the server - if you want to change its settings for instance -
       just go to the console where it’s running and press CTRL-C.

   Using the meta-server

       The meta-server is a piece of software which is running on my web site,
       and allows servers to register themselves so that client can get a list
       of available servers.

       It’s written in PHP and is _very_ basic but I believe it’s  enough  for
       what has to be done: maintain a list of running servers.

       The  source  code for the meta-server is included in the source package
       of Liquid War, so you might run such a server yourself if you want  to.
       However,  by  default, servers will register themselves on my web site,
       and will be listed on

       How to register a server

       Launch the server, and when you get the question:

       Register on "" (y/n)?

       answer "y".

       Note that if you’re behind a proxy or a firewall, the server  might  be
       unable  to register itself. Clients might also have problems to connect
       themselves on your server if there’s a machine which does NAT  (Network
       Address Translation) between you and the meta-server.

       How to find a server

       In  the  main  menu,  click on "Net Game" and then "Search for internet

       Now you should see a list of available servers. You can  click  on  the
       items  in  the list to get more informations about a given server. Once
       you have chosen a server, click on "Join now".

       Now you get on a "Waiting for teams" screen. You might be interested in
       using the "Start now" button. Indeed, if you are 4 players connected on
       a server that accepts up to 6 players, maybe you’ll want to  start  the
       game right away without waiting for 2 more players. In this case, every
       player must click "Start now". A "*" character will replace the "-"  in
       the  players  list  when  a  player clicks on "Start now". When all the
       players are displayed with a "*a, the game starts.

       You can also chat with other players by entering text in the area above
       the  "Send message" button, and then click on this button. Keep in mind
       that this is a very primitive chat  and  that  the  best  way  to  chat
       efficiently  is IMHO to play in windowed mode and have an IRC client at

       Note that  you  can  also  get  the  list  of  available  servers  from There you’ll also find a
       little chat-box which will allow you to  send  exchange  messages  with
       other players.

       Server options

       You  can  pass  options  to  the  server  using  the  command line. The
       following parameters are accepted:

       *  "-n" where "n" is a number between 2 and 6 : with  this  option  you
          can tell the server how many teams will connect to the game. Beware,
          there can be several teams on the same computer, so if you  want  to
          have  a  computer  with 2 players on it and 2 other computers with a
          single player, then you need to use the "-4" option.

       *  "-lag n" where "n" is an integer : with this option, you can control
          the lag used at startup. Normally, Liquid War handles this parameter
          automatically, but you might want to force it to a given value.

       *  "-port n" where "n" is an integer : allows you to change the IP port
          used  by  the  server  to  listen  to  the clients. if you omit this
          parameter, the default port is (8035) is used.

       *  "-log file.log" : dumps all informations in  "file.log"  instead  of
          using the standard output.

       *  "-public"  : skips the "Register on ..." question, and registers the
          server automatically on the meta-server, so that clients can find it

       *  "-private"  :  skips  the  "Register  on ..." question, and does not
          register the server at all.

       *  "-comment This_is_a_comment" : associates a comment to  the  server,
          which  will be displayed by the meta-server. Note that the character
          "_" will be replaced by spaces.  This  makes  command  line  parsing
          easier. I’m lazy 8-)

       *  "-password  xxx"  :  associates  a password to the server. With this
          option, clients will need to give the right password to be  able  to
          connect on the server.

       *  "-callback  cmd"  :  with  this  option,  the  command "cmd" will be
          launched whenever someone connects on an empty server. For instance,
          if  you want to run a permanent server and want to know when someone
          connects but do not wish to permanently keep an eye on the  server’s
          log,  you  might  use  this  option  and put in "cmd" a command that
          automatically sends you a mail. You might also use  a  command  that
          fires a popup window. It’s up to you. 2 sample scripts are available
          in the "misc" directory of the Liquid War source  distribution.  One
          is  "misc/"  and works on UNIX platforms, and the
          other one is  "misc/lwpopup.js",  which  is  automatically  used  by
          "misc/lwserver.bat", and works on Windows.

       Common options

       These  options  work on both client and server, even if they are rather

       *  "-metaserver url" : redefines the URL of the meta-server. Usefull if
          you want to use your own meta-server.

       *  "-netlog"  :  if  you  use this option, the server will dump all the
          network  traffic  on  the  standard  output.  This  is  usefull  for

       *  "-nobeep"  :  Disables  the  system beeps that the application might
          fire. These beeps are mostly used on the server  to  notify  clients

   About Liquid Wars network implementation

       Liquid War uses TCP sockets, and a single-threaded server. This implies

       *  The game can sometimes get blocked if you play on Internet.

       *  The server can’t talk simultaneously with several clients.

       I needed to use TCP sockets, since LW’s algorithm can not cope with any
       data loss and it’s not a reasonnable to try and anticipate what the map
       would be like if the player did not move etc...

       I did not implement any complex multithreaded stuff since I’m lazy  and
       however,  clients  need to have informations about all the other before
       something can be done. However, implementing  a  mutltithreaded  server
       could have advantages over the current solution.

       What is this lag stuff anyway?

       In  Liquid  War,  all the clients send their key presses to the server,
       and then the server dispatches this information to everyone.  This  has
       to be done for every round.

       You  can  easily imagine that if a player has a poor connection, with a
       very long "ping delay", it can take quite  a  long  time  to  send  the
       information to the server, and then get it back.

       So  what  Liquid  War  does  is  that at the beginning of the game, the
       server sends a couple of "blank" key strokes to the clients. This  way,
       clients  receive  data  from  the server before thay have sent any. The
       number of key strokes sent at the beginning of the game is  called  the

       So  if  it takes 200 msec to send and then receive data from the server
       (approx the time returned by the "ping" command) then with a lag of  6,
       you can theorically play at a rate of (1/0.2)*6=30 rounds/sec.

       On  one hand, setting the lag parameter to a high value will avoid many
       network errors and allow you to play at a very fast pace, but  the  big
       drawback  is  that  there will be quite a long time between the instant
       you send a key stroke to the server and the moment  it  comes  back  to
       you.  On  the  other  hand,  setting  the lag to a low value will limit
       drastically he number of rounds per second,  but  make  the  game  more

       However,  since  release 5.4.1, the "lag" is modified automatically and
       should adapt itself to the situation. I’ve not been able to test it  in
       real conditions yet, but it should work 8-)

       Still,  setting  the  lag to a sensible default value can save you some
       trouble. Indeed, by default, Liquid War will choose a value (6), but it
       can  not guess if you are playing on Internet or on a 100 Mbit LAN, and
       it can take quite a long time before Liquid War automatically finds the
       right  value.  To  know  the  right value which should be used with the
       "-lag" option, simply play a few games and watch the average lag (which
       is  displayed  on  the  server  console every minute) at the end of the

       Performance issues

       Liquid War uses a "light" server, and one of  the  advantages  of  this
       solution  is that it allows you to run the server on low-end computers.
       I personnally run a permanent server on a 486 DX2, and it runs  like  a

       The  only  thing  you  have  to  take  care of when running a server is
       bandwidth. Don’t worry, you won’t need a 10Mbit connection,  basically,
       each  clients sends and receives 12 bytes of data at each round. If you
       add TCP/IP headers and the facts that stuff will probably be bundled in
       bigger  packets,  a client must deliver about 15 Kbit/sec (up and down)
       for a game that runs at 100 frames/sec. A 56K V90 modem is  enough  for

       So  if  you run a server with 2 clients connected, the server will need
       to deliver 30 Kbit/sec in both ways. A 56K V90 modem _can_ do that, but
       your provider needs to be a good one 8-)

       And  if  you  run  a server with 6 clients, you simply won’t be able to
       reach the 100 frames/sec with a 56K V90 modem. It will necessarly  drop
       to something less than 30 frames/sec, and is likely to drop to about 15
       frames/sec. OK this is not a big deal, since few Internet games run  at
       more  than  30  frames/sec,  but  well,  if  the  server  has  troubles
       receiving/sending data, everyone will wait, and the fun will go away.

       As a conclusion: if you have the choice, choose the friend who has  the
       best bandwidth to run the server, without even considering the power of
       his computer.

       General information

       Network support in 5.4 and 5.5 is still experimental in many  ways,  so
       you  might  get weird behaviors. Basically, if you have a problem, just
       do the following:

       *  Stop and restart the server when something goes wrong. To  stop  it,
          use CTRL-C.

       *  Check out that you have entered the correct IP addresses.

       *  Try  and  start the client and the server using the "-netlog" option
          to have an idea about what’s happening.

       Bugs in 5.4.x corrected in 5.4.2

       Liquid War 5.4.0 and 5.4.1 were very hard to play  over  the  Internet.
       The  reason  is  that  the  network  routines  did  not do enough error
       checking, and therefore there  were  very  often  errors  when  sending
       and/or  receiving the map to the server. Hopefully, this bug should not
       appear anymore in 5.4.2 or any other recent release.

   About security
       Network games passwords

       As you might have noticed, under  the  box  where  you  can  enter  the
       password,  a  little  notice  explains  that  you  must choose a "weak"
       password. Now you’ll tell me ->  people  keep  on  explaining  me  that
       passwords must be something complex like "aS\r!Y9p" and now I’m told to
       use "hello", what’s up?

       OK, keep in mind Liquid War is a game. This password stuff  is  just  a
       way  to  be  able  to play with your friends only and keep on using the
       meta-server’s services. Liquid War does not encrypt data and I can  see
       no  good reason to do it for, so the password is stored and sent to the
       server in clear, as plain text.

       The consequence is that if you use a valuable password -  for  instance
       the  one  you  use  to  log  in on your computer - the guy who runs the
       server will see your  password  in  the  log  file  if  he  wishes  to.
       Therefore,  use  something  weak,  something that if someones finds out
       what it is, you won’t really care. So "hello" is a wise choice.

       Is Liquid War likely to have security holes?


       Any program is likely to have  security  holes,  especially  when  it’s
       networked.  However,  I  have  good reasons to think that Liquid War is
       safe enough for a game. At least  I  find  it  safe  enough  to  run  a
       permanent public server on my personnal computer 8-)

       FYI,  here are some things which I think make Liquid War rather safe to

       *  Liquid War does not store anything on your  hard  drive  that  would
          have  been  received  from the network. The maps are kept in RAM. So
          you won’t download any virus playing Liquid War on Internet.

       *  Liquid War does not transmit any sort of code on  the  network.  All
          the  transmitted bytes represent plain data. So you’re not likely to
          execute any arbitrary code - virus, worm - when playing on the  Net.

       *  Liquid  War  receives  network packets in static buffers, and if the
          received data is too big, it is truncated. One consequence  is  that
          Liquid  War  has a bunch of "limits". You can’t send hudge maps over
          the network, you can’t have long nicknames, and so on.  But  another
          consequence  is  that  if  you try to send garbage in the buffer, it
          will be truncated. Liquid War will protest with  a  "network  error"
          message and the connection will be closed, but there will be no easy
          exploit possible here.

       *  Liquid War does not use the sprintf, strcpy  and  strcat  functions,
          which  are  known  as  being  rather unsecure since they can lead to
          buffer  overflows.  Instead,  it  uses  the   equivalent   functions
          snprintf,  strncpy  and  strncat. On platforms where these functions
          are supported  natively,  the  game  will  use  the  default  system
          functions,  otherwise  it  will  use  a  free implementation by Mark
          Martinec. FYI, Windows  does  not  support  snprintf-like  functions
          natively, that is, it’s a piece of crap.

       *  Liquid War is Free Software, so I’m not likely to have put backdoors
          in it myself, since anyone can look at the source code 8-)

       However, I have not - and I know nobody who has -  audited  Liquid  War
       for  security  holes.  So  there  might  be  some. Therefore you should
       respect a few things while running Liquid War:

       *  Never run Liquid War as root or administrator. This is obvious but I
          still  mention  it.  If you want to run a Liquid War daemon on UNIX,
          run it as user "nobody"  or  something  approaching.  If  "root"  or
          "administrator"  does  not make sense on your system (DOS, Win98...)
          then I assume you’re not _really_ concerned  about  security  anyway

       *  If  you  run  a  server  7/7  24/24,  use  the  "-log" option to log
          everything in a file. This  way  you’ll  keep  a  trace  of  network
          activity, and if something goes wrong, you might get a chance to see

       *  If you use passwords in network games,  *never*  choose  a  valuable
          password. Use something simple like "hello" or "goodbye".

       *  Keep  in  mind  that  Liquid  War  is a game, and not a bullet proof
          professionnal server.

       Last point: you should be aware that version 5.4.5 of  Liquid  War  has
       been proved to be vulnerable to a local buffer overflow, and one should
       run at least 5.5.9 to get rid of this problem.  FYI  by  the  time  the
       exploit   was   found   on   5.4.5,  5.5.9  was  already  out  8-)  See                               and for more informations.

       Can people cheat when playing on the Net?


       Or  at  least,  not  really.  In fact, you can still find the following
       types of lamers:

       *  A guy who lets the CPU play at his place. He’ll loose anyway because
          the CPU is definitely not a great Liquid War Master 8-)

       *  A  guy  who  tweaks  the  game and gets all his bots fight anyone he
          wishes. That’s mean.

       *  A guy who manages to let you have a 500msec lag while  he  does  not
          have any lag at all.

       Apart  from  this,  I can hardly see any way to cheat. Why? Because the
       Liquid War server does not store any information about the  game.  It’s
       not  aware of who wins, who looses, it knows nothing. The only thing it
       does is to transmit key presses between client computers.

       This way, if someone plays  with  a  tweaked  release  of  Liquid  War,
       thinking  he  will  fool  you,  then  he  will fool you on his computer
       only... On your computer, everything will be  fine.  After  some  time,
       your  screen  and  his  screen  will  have  nothing in common, and both
       players are likely to think they have won. Except the lamer will stay a

       This  also  explains  why  it’s  required  to  play  with the very same
       versions of the game during network games. If you plug a 5.5.2  with  a
       5.5.1,  after a minute the screens will be completely different on each
       client, since there are subtle differences between the  5.5.1  and  the
       5.5.2  engine.  However,  you  shouldn’t  be  able  to do this, since a
       network error will stop you before you can start to play.

       Additionnally, versions 5.5.5 and higher have a checksum system.  Every
       100  rounds,  each client calculates a checksum with its local map, and
       sends it to the server. If the checksum is incorrect, the  server  will
       log a message like:

       Checksum error on client ""

       If you see this, then you’re in one of the following situations:

       *  There’s a bug in the game

       *  A lamer tries to cheat

       FYI,  all  releases from 5.4.0 to 5.5.4 have a bug which causes clients
       to desynchronize after a while...

Command line parameters

       When you launch Liquid War 5, you can use command line options. If  you
       have no problems launching Liquid War, this section should not interest
       you very much.

       You can use several options at the same  time.  The  basic  syntax  for
       options looks like this:

       lw -option1 -option2 parameter2 -option3 parameter3 -option4 -option5

       Note  that  most  of the options are legacy options which where usefull
       with the initial releases of Liquid War, when  you  had  to  run  in  a
       Windows DOS box, and when there were still plenty of 486 computers with
       only 8Mb ram...

   Version checking
       These are basic options which  can  be  usefull  to  figure  out  which
       release of Liquid War is installed.

       *  "-v" : returns the version number of the program.

       *  "-h" : displays a short description and copyright information.

   Changing default paths
       Very  usefull  options, especially if you can not install Liquid War in
       default directories or want to put the game in a special place.

       *  "-cfg myconfigfile.cfg" : causes Liquid War  to  use  the  specified
          config file.

       *  "-dat  mydatafilefile.dat"  : causes Liquid War to use the specified
          datafile. This might be a very interesting option if you run  Liquid
          War  on  a  GNU/Linux  box  where  you  do  not have root access and
          therefore can not put the datafile in /usr.

       *  "-map mycustommapdir" : causes  Liquid  War  to  use  the  specified
          directory as the user map directory. The user map directory is where
          you can put plain bitmaps to be used as maps.

       *  "-tex mycustomtexturedir" : causes Liquid War to use  the  specified
          directory  as the user texture directory. The user texture directory
          is where you can put plain bitmaps to be used as textures.

       *  "-mid mycustommusicdir" : causes Liquid War  to  use  the  specified
          directory  as the user music directory. Any midi file placed in this
          directory will be added to the list of available musics.

       *  "-server myliquidwarserverfile" :  causes  Liquid  War  to  use  the
          specified  file  as the server executable. This option has no effect
          for now since the server is not launched by the client.

       *  "-mapgen mylwmapgenfile" : causes Liquid War to  use  the  specified
          file as the "lwmapgen" executable. "lwmapgen" is an utility by David
          Redick which generates random maps automatically for Liquid War. You
          might  wish  to change this option if random map generation does not
          work for some reason, or if you want to use your own map  generator.

   Troubleshooting switches
       These  options give you control on how Liquid War treats initialisation
       errors, how much memory it should reserve, what kind of video mode  sit
       should not choose etc...

       *  "-vga"  : This option forces Liquid War to use your video card as if
          it was only a basic VGA card. This option is required  if  you  play
          Liquid War from Windows NT.

       *  "-no400300"  :  This  option  disables the VGA 400x300 video mode. I
          created this options for I know that some video cards/monitors don’t
          support the 400x300 mode.

       *  "-silent" : With this option, Liquid War will not play any sound. It
          will not search for any sound card. This can be interesting  if  you
          don’t  have any sound card or if Liquid War doesn’t handle your card

       *  "-nowater" : Causes Liquid War not to load any water sound. Use this
          if Liquid War runs short of memory, and you should gain about 850kb.

       *  "-nosfx" : Causes Liquid War not to load any sound fx. Use  this  if
          Liquid War runs short of memory, and you should gain about 150kb.

       *  "-nomusic" : Causes Liquid War not to load any midi music.

       *  "-mem  n"  :  The  parameter  "n"  sets the amount of memory (in Mb)
          Liquid War will allocate to do all its calculus. If this  number  is
          too small, you won’t be able to play on all the levels. If it is too
          high, Liquid War may not  start  at  all  or  crash  while  you  are
          playing. The default value is 8. If you play Liquid War from Windows
          and Liquid War refuses to run because this parameter  is  too  high,
          then try and give more dpmi memory to Liquid War.

       *  "-nojoy" : This option disables joystick support.

       *  "-noback"  : Causes Liquid War not to load the background image. Use
          this if Liquid War runs short of memory, and you should  gain  about

       *  "-notex"  :  Causes  Liquid War not to load any texture. Use this if
          Liquid War runs short of memory, and you should gain about 750kb.

       *  "-auto" : If you set this option,  Liquid  War  won’t  generate  any
          error while allocating memory or loading data.

       *  "-safe"  :  With  this  option,  you  will  play with a very reduced
          version of Liquid War. It looks rather ugly but should work in a DOS
          box with only 4Mb of DPMI memory. Use this if you experience serious
          memory or device problems. If Liquid War  doesn’t  start  with  this
          option  turned on, I really don’t think I can do anything for you...

       *  "-nice" : With this option, Liquid War will  use  a  mode  which  is
          between the default mode and the "safe" mode.

       *  "-check"  :  With  this  option,  Liquid War will stop as soon as it
          detects something strange while initializing.

       *  "-stop" : If you set this option, Liquid War will prompt you  for  a
          key when the init process is completed.

       *  "-c" : This is a weird option, if you turn it on, the game will only
          use fonctions  which  are  programmed  in  C  langage.  The  default
          behaviour is to use some functions I rewrote in assembly langage, so
          that the game is a little faster.

   Debug options
       These options are usefull if you want  to  debug  the  game  and  trace
       what’s happening.

       *  "-netlog"  :  Dumps  all the network traffic on the standard output.
          This can help finding problems when trying to connect to the  server
          in a network game.

   Server options
       The  server  command  line  options  are described in the section which
       deals which network games in general. IMHO you need to  understand  how
       network works in LW before trying to tweak the server 8-)

   Other options
       Everything else 8-)

       *  "-capture" : Activates the capture mode. In this mode, the game will
          dump a .bmp file on the disk several  times  per  second,  which  is
          usefull  if  you  want  to create an mpeg movie of your game session
          afterwards.  You  can  also  activate  this  mode  interactively  by
          pressing F9 within the game.

       *  "-metaserver url" : redefines the URL of the meta-server. Usefull if
          you want to use your own meta-server.

       *  "-nobeep" : Disables the system beeps  that  the  application  might
          fire.  These  beeps  are mostly used on the server to notify clients

       *  "-tombola" : Activates a special mode where scores are not displayed
          normally.  Instead,  the  game displays 3 random numbers between 1 -

   lwmapgen options
       The external lwmapgen program by  David  Redick  accepts  a  number  of
       command line options. You can type:

       liquidwar-mapgen --help

       to  get  a  list of all available options under UNIX. Under Windows the
       command would be:

       lwwinmap --help

       Note that lwmapgen is called automatically by Liquid War when you click
       on the "Random map" button.

       The  idea  behind lwmapgen is that you choose a function which sets the
       type of  map  generated,  and  then  pass  various  arguments  to  this
       function.  If  you  do  not  explicitly  choose a function, one will be
       picked up for you randomly, and all other parameters will  use  default

       The most usefull and common options are:

       *  "--help" : displays help.

       *  "--out filename" : save bitmap to filename.

       *  "--size n" : bitmap size (an integer between 0 and 5).

       *  "--list" : list all available functions.

       *  "--function function_name" : which function to use.

       Here’s a typical use of lwmapgen:

       liquidwar-mapgen --size 3 --function hole --out test.bmp

Platform specific issues

   General remarks
       Liquid  War is now a cross-platform game, thanks to Allegro. So now you
       can play under different OS.

       The same source tree will compile on all supported platforms, but  with
       slight  differences  when  running. C preprocessor #defines are used to
       code some  platform  specific  stuff,  and  in  some  cases  there  are
       different files for the DOS, Windows and UNIX versions.

       As I said, I try to use the same code for all platforms. This is in the
       long term the best choice. Otherwise there would different branches  of
       the source tree, and I don’t think this is a very good solution.

       Therefore  some  optimizations  that were performed in the old DOS-only
       version  have  been  totally  removed,  for  they  were  100%  platform
       dependent  (ie mode-X asm coding). So the new versions are all a little
       slower than the old 5.1 stuff, but the performance loss is  only  about
       20%,  which  is  not  significant  with  today’s  PCs.  And anyways the
       performance loss is most of the  time  limited  to  the  goog  old  VGA
       320x200x8 mode-X, which starts being kind of obsolete.

       This  is  the  original version. It’s the fastest one as far as I know,
       the safest one and it will always be I think, since Allegro  was  first
       designed  for  DOS,  and DOS allows a full unconditionnal access to all
       the hardware ressources  LW  requires.  LW  doesn’t  use  any  hardware
       acceleration and it’s not been designed to do so. Unfortunately there’s
       no network support for the DOS version of Liquid War.

       When running under a Windows box, the DOS release used to be safer than
       the  native  Windows  port. Now that DOS support is getting really poor
       with recent versions of Windows, the native Windows release  of  Liquid
       War  starts  begin  the  good choice for Windows users. And Allegro for
       Windows is getting quite stable in the 4.x series.

       The other reason to choose this release rather than the DOS release  is
       that it has network support.

       If you have problems running Liquid War under Windows, please check out
       the "data\lwwin.log" file which should be written each time you run the
       game.  It  contains  the  information which is displayed on the console
       under other platforms, and might give you a  clue  about  what’s  going

       This port is the most recent one, and also the one I prefer. Paths have
       been changed to an UNIXish style, ie the data is stored in:


       the executable in:


       and the configuration file is


       Since not all GNU/Linux distributions have  /usr/local/games  in  their
       path,  I  also put a symbolic link to the binaries in /usr/local/bin. I
       believe  Liquid  War  is  quite  FHS  compliant,  so  if  its   default
       directories  do not match your configuration, blame your distro for not
       following  the  standards  8-)  AFAIK  the  only  touchy  directory  is
       /usr/local/share/pixmaps  which I’ve seen on many distribution but does
       not seem to be referenced in the FHS.

       With the latest releases of Allegro,  Liquid  War  is  becoming  pretty
       stable under GNU/Linux. You should also know that the GNU/Linux port is
       usually the most up to date, since I very very seldom boot  Windows  at
       home and do most of the coding under GNU/Linux.

       This  is  the  latest  port,  so  I  expect it to be a little touchy to
       install and/or run for some time.

       Note that to compile the game you’ll need to  install  GNU  tools  like
       gmake  and  gcc.  Liquid War won’t compile with the genuine make and cc

       One thing you might ask is: "why do you provide the binary as  a  plain
       .tgz  file,  it  would  be  much  nicer  if a standard FreeBSD port was
       provided instead!". The answer is that  the  statically  linked  binary
       should  work flawlessly and does not raise any dependency problem. Also
       I don’t know how to make a BSD port and I’m not  really  interested  in
       doing it. If it’s easy to do, then someone can simply do it and send it
       back to me. If it’s hard to do, then I do not really have the time  nor
       motivation  to  do  it. What I did is make the code and install scripts
       FreeBSD friendly so that it would be possible to compile the game under
       FreeBSD. Packaging is another story.

   Mac OS X
       There’s  currently  a  beta  version of a Mac OS X port for Liquid War.
       Ryan D. Brown nicely managed to compile and run the game under  Mac  OS
       X,  and  the  latest  news was that it does basically work. Still, this
       port did not go through intensive testing, so there might still be some
       bugs, expecially concerning networking.

       There were some byte endianess problems in previous (<=5.5.8 ) releases
       of LW, but I tried to fix them and they should be gone now.

       As of today, we’re trying to find out a convenient way to  package  and
       release  the  Mac OS X version of LW. You can contact us on the mailing
       list if you’re interested in this port.

User levels

   A piece of advice
       You can use your own levels whith Liquid War 5. The only thing you have
       to  do  is  to  put  your  own  256-colors  vbitmap  files in a special
       directory, and the program will use them. Currently, BMP, LBM, PCX, and
       TGA  files are supported. It is a good thing to use 256 colors bitmaps,
       for they waste less disk space than truecolor bitmaps, and Liquid War 5
       converts  all  bitmaps  to  32 colors bitmaps. Additionnally, truecolor
       bitmaps might cause  the  DOS  version  to  crash  randomly...  2-color
       bitmaps will also cause the program to crash. I warned you!

       The  best thing you can do to create your user levels is to have a look
       at the few user files I put in the .zip file and try  at  first  to  do
       something that looks about the same!

       Liquid  War  5  does  many checks on user levels and is much safer than
       Liquid War 3. Still,  try  and  help  the  program  not  to  crash,  if

       Liquid  War  considers that dark colors are walls and bright colors are
       associated to the playable area. So you can draw your walls  in  black,
       dark  blue,  etc...  And the rest of the map can be of any bright color
       such as white or yellow.

       You can draw a small map on a big bitmap, as long as you use  a  bright
       background  color. Liquid War will autodetect the range of your map and
       add the border line if necessary.

       Liquid War re-orders all the maps, so that the smallest ones are on the
       left  and  the  most complicated ones on the right when you choose them
       with the slider in the "map" menu. So if you can’t  find  the  map  you
       just  draw, don’t worry, it is probably just mixed with the levels from
       the .dat file.

       The  default  path  for  maps  is   "custom\map\"   on   windows,   and
       "/usr/local/share/games/liquidwar/map" on GNU/Linux.

       All  you  have  to do is put a bitmap in the default directory which is
       "custom\texture\"             on              windows,              and
       "/usr/local/share/games/liquidwar/texture" on GNU/Linux.

       As  of  Liquid  War  5.6.x,  it’s  possible  to  associate a map with a
       texture. All you need is to call the maps with the same name  (case  is
       important,  lowercase  recommendend...).  Look at the "meditate" custom
       map which is shipped with Liquid War for instance.

       This also works  with  internal  builtin  maps  (those  stored  in  the
       datafile)  so for instance if you name a custom texture "world1.bmp" it
       will automatically be associated to the builtin map world1  (to  figure
       out  internal names you have to unpack the source distribution and look
       in the ./data directory). This also works the other way, if you name  a
       map  "wood2.bmp"  it  will be automatically associated with the builtin
       texture wood2.

       Associating a texture with a map requires more work  than  designing  a
       simple  map,  but  the results is usually much nicer. See the "Kasper -
       ..." series of maps for instance.

   Send your levels
       Maybe you will find that the original levels are ugly  and  unplayable.
       Well,  if you have made user levels and think they are great, just send
       them to the Liquid War user mailing list. Please use  only  256  colors
       bitmap  and zip them before sending them, or else they might be blocked
       by my provider...

       As of today, dozens of user maps have already been included  in  Liquid
       War,  this  is very nice for it happens that every map designer has his
       own personnal tastes, so the maps all look different.

       Still, to be included in Liquid  War’s  mainstream  distribution,  your
       maps  will  need to be placed under the terms of the GNU General Public
       License, or at least a compatible license. You should have  received  a
       copy of this license with Liquid War anyway. Read it 8-)

       Of course, you can use *any* map when playing. You can even play with a
       bitmap you got from a proprietary source - such a proprietary game  you
       bought  for  instance  -  but the point is that I can’t - and you can’t
       either - distribute such a map along with Liquid War.

       However, this is enough legal boring stuff! What  you  should  keep  in
       mind  is  that  I’m  always happy when I receive maps from players, and
       it’s a pleasure for me to include them in the mainstream  distribution.

Core algorithm

       General remarks

       If  you  have  played  Liquid War, you must have noticed that your army
       always takes the shortest way to reach the cursor. So  the  fundamental
       stuff  in Liquid War is path-finding. Once you’ve done that the game is
       quite easy to code. Not harder than any other 2D game. Still  the  path
       finding  algorithm  is an interesting one, for it’s not a common method
       that we used.

       Basically, at each round (by round I mean a game logical  update,  this
       occurs 10 or 100 times/sec depending on the level and/or your machine),
       the distance from all the  points  of  the  level  to  your  cursor  is
       calculated.  Now  the  point  is  to calculate this fast, real fast. In
       fact, a "gradient" is calculated for all the points of the  level,  and
       the  value  of  this  gradient  is  the  distance required for a little
       pixel/fighter to reach your cursor, assuming that he takes the shortest
       way.  Liquid  War does this with a 10% error tolerance, and it’s enough
       for keeping the game interesting.

       Once you have this gradient calculated, it’s  not  hard  to  move  your
       fighters.  Basically,  you  just  have to move them toward the adjacent
       point that has the lowest gradient value, ie is  the  closest  to  your


       The  Liquid  War  algorithm  has  been  invented  by  my  friend Thomas
       Colcombet In fact the Liquid War algorithm has been invented before the
       game  itself.  The game came as a consequence of the algorithm, he just
       thought "mmm, cool, we could make a game with that!".

       Later, I enhanced the algorithm, as I coded it. The consequences were a
       performance  increase,  especially  on  simple  but  big levels. I mean
       levels with wide areas for teams  to  move.  Still  the  basis  of  the
       algorithm remained the same.


       The Liquid War algorithm for path-finding is very efficient:

       *  When  you  have  to  move lots of different points toward one single
          point. Good thing that’s the rule of Liquid War!

       *  When you have no clue about how your map will look like, ie  if  the
          walls  are  randomly  placed.  The  complexity  of the level doesn’t
          influence much the speed of the algorithm. The size  does,  but  the
          complexity, ie the number of walls, is not so important.


       The  Liquid  War  algorithm  is  very poor compared to other algorithms

       *  You have several target destinations, that’s to say Liquid War would
          be really slow if there were 100 teams with 10 players only.

       *  You want to move one single point only.

       *  > You want the exact (100% sure) path. In fact, this algorithm finds
          solutions which approach the best one but you can never  figure  out
          if the solution you found is the best, and the algorithm never ends.
          In the long term, the algo will always find  the  best  solution  or
          something  really  close but I don’t know any easy way to figure out
          when you have reached this state.


       The first Liquid War algorithm used  to  calculate  the  gradient  (the
       distance  from  a  point  to your cursor) for every single point of the

       With Liquid War 5, I  used  a  mesh  system.  This  mesh  system  is  a
       structure  of  squares connected together. Squares may be 1,2,4,8 or 16
       units large or any nice value like  that,  and  the  gradient  is  only
       calculated once for each square. Squares have connections between them,
       and each connection is associated to a direction.

       There are 12 directions:

       *  North-North-West (NNW)

       *  North-West (NW)

       *  West-North-West (WNW)

       *  West-South-West (WSW)

       *  South-West (SW)

       *  South-South-West (SSW)

       *  South-South-East (SSE)

       *  South-East (SE)

       *  East-South-East (ESE)

       *  East-North-East (ENE)

       *  North-East (NE)

       *  North-North-East (NNE)


       Well, let me give you an example, supposing that  you  level  structure

       *        *
       *        *
       *       **
       *        *

       The * represent walls, that’s to say squares where fighters can not go.

       Then the mesh structure would be:


       In this mesh, there are 7 zones:

       *  zone 1 has a size of 4. It’s linked with zones 2 (ENE) and 4  (ESE).

       *  zone  2 has a size of 2. It’s linked with zones 3 (ENE,ESE), 5 (SE),
          4 (SSE,SSW) and 1 (SW,WSW,WNW).

       *  zone 3 has a size of 2. It’s linked with zones 5 (SSW), 4 (SW) and 2

       *  zone  4 has a size of 2. It’s linked with zones 2 (NNW,NNE), 4 (NE),
          5 (ENE), 6 (ESE) and 1 (WSW,WNW,NW).

       *  zone 5 has a size of 1. It’s linked with  zones  3  (NNW,NNE,NE),  7
          (SE), 6 (SSE,SSW), 4 (SW,WSW,WNW) and 2 (NW).

       *  zone  6  has  a  size  of  1.  It’s linked with zones 5 (NNW,NNE), 7
          (ENE,ESE) and 4 (WSW,WNW,NW).

       *  zone 7 has a size of  1.  It’s  linked  with  zones  5  (NW)  and  6

       Why such a complicated structure?

       Because it allows the module which calculates the gradient to work much
       faster. With this system, the number of zones is  reduced  a  lot,  and
       calculus  on  the  mesh  can  go very fast. At the same time, this mesh
       structure is complicated to understand by us humans but it’s very  easy
       for the computer.


       For  each  zone defined in the mesh, LW calculates an estimation of the
       distance between the cursor and this zone.

       The algorihm is based on the fact that to cross a zone which size is n,
       n movements are required. Easy, eh?


       Here’s the way the algorithm works:

       for each turn of the game, do:

       *  pick  up a direction between the 12 defined directions. They have to
          be chosen  is  a  peculiar  order  to  avoid  weird  behaviors  from
          fighters, but let’s suppose we just pick up the "next" direction, ie
          if WSW was chosen the last time, we pick up WNW.

       and then for each zone in the mesh, do:

       *  Compare the potential of the current zone with that of its  neighbor
          zone. The neighbor zone to be chosen is the one which corresponds to
          the direction which has been previously picked up, and by  potential
          I  mean  "the  distance  to the cursor, estimated by the algorithm’s
          last pass".

       *  If potential_of_the_neighbor_zone > (potential_of_the_current_zone +
          size_of_the_current_zone)   then   potentiel_of_the_neighbor_zone  =
          potential_of_the_current_zone + size_of_the_current_zone

       How can this work?

       Well, just ask my friend thom-Thom, he’s the one who had  the  idea  of
       this algorithm!

       The  basic  idea is that by applying this simple rule to all the zones,
       after a certain amount of time, it’s impossible to find  any  place  in
       the  mesh  where  the  rule is not respected. And at this time, one can
       consider the potiential is right in any point.

       Of course when the cursor moves the potential has to  be  recalculated,
       but you see, cursors move really slowly in Liquid War, so the algorithm
       has plenty of time to find a new stable solution...


       It’s possible to see this algorithm working by typing:


       while playing, where [n]is the number of the team the gradient of which
       you  want  to  view.  The  game  is still running but you view a team’s
       gradient being calculated in real time instead of seeing the  fighters.

       If you type ufootgrad0 the display comes back to normal mode.


       Once  the  gradient is calculated for any zone on the battlefield, it’s
       quite easy to move the fighters, hey?

       The following method is used to move the players:

       *  A "main direction" is chosen for  the  fighter,  this  direction  is
          chosen using the gradient calculated on the mesh.

       *  Knowing  which  direction  is the main one, a "level of interest" is
          applied to the 12 defined directions.

       There are 4 "level of interest" for directions:

       *  Main directions: the direction calculated.

       *  Good directions: these directions should lead  the  fighter  to  the

       *  Acceptable  directions:  ok,  one  can use this direction, since the
          fighter shouldn’t loose any time using it.

       *  Unpossible directions: wether there’s a wall or using this direction
          means  the  fighter  will  be  farer from his cursor than before, it
          always means that this direction will not be used, never.


       The fighters will try to find any matching situation in this list,  and
       chose the first one.

       *  The  main direction is available, no one on it, OK, let’s follow it.

       *  There’s a good direction with no one on it, OK, let’s follow it.

       *  There’s an acceptable direction with no one on it, OK, let’s  follow

       *  The  main  direction  is available, but there’s an opponent on it, I
          attack! By attacking, one means that  energy  is  drawned  from  the
          attacked  fighter and transmitted to the attacker. When the attacked
          fighter dies, he belongs to the team which killed him.

       *  A good direction is available, but there’s  an  opponent  on  it,  I

       *  The  main  direction  is available, but there’s a mate on it, I cure
          him. That’s to say that energy is given to the mate. This way,  when
          there’s  a big pool of fighters from the same team, they re-generate
          each other.

       *  None of the previous situations found, do nothing.

       Tips and tricks

       The behavior of the armies is quite tricky to set up. I had  myself  to
       try  many algorithms before I came to something nice. In fact, I had to
       introduce some "random" behaviors. They are not  really  random  for  I
       wanted  the game to behave the same when given the same keyboard input,
       but for instance, fighters will prefer NNW to NNE sometimes, and NNE to
       NNW  some  other times. By the way, I think Liquid War could stand as a
       nice example of the thoery of chaos.

Source code

   General remarks

       Liquid War 5 is basically a big C program.  I’ve  splitted  the  source
       code  in  many  small  files  for  I  do not like to have to handle big
       monolithic sources, but this does not mean Liquid War is very  modular.
       In  fact  Liquid War 5 is quite bloated with global variables and other
       ugly stuff 8-(

       Coding style

       To be honest, it’s a big mess. You won’t find 2 files coded in the same
       maner...  OK,  I’m  exagerating a bit. From now I try to make an effort
       and stick to basic rules such as:

       *  use the GNUish-style indentation - the default Emacs mode in fact

       *  prefix global  functions  /  variables  /  constants  /  types  with
          lw_<NAME_OF_THE_file>_. For instance, a "do_it" function in myfile.c
          will be called lw_myfile_do_it

       *  use capitals for constants, globals and types  only.  All  functions
          are in lowercase with "_" to separate words

       *  keep  on using 8.3 filenames for .c source files. This is for better
          DOS integration. DOS version of Liquid War is still maintained,  you
          know 8-)

       *  use English only for code and comments

       I  might decide to rename and cleanup everything some day, for it would
       help other coders to  understand  what  I  wrote,  but  well,  this  is
       certainly not a thrilling task 8-/

   Source files organization
       Main game code

       Here   you’ll   find   the   main()   function,  the  main  game  loop,
       application-wide constants and other global stuff.

       It might be a good start if you want to hack the code.

       *  base.h: contains global constants used in many different files.

       *  game.c / game.h: contains the main game loop.

       *  main.c / main.h: the file where the main  C  function  is  declared.
          Doesn’t  contain  much except calling init functions and running the


       The menus are coded using the Allegro GUI system. While this system  is
       very  powerfull, it’s IMHO not adapted to very complex GUIs, and one of
       its drawbacks is that it’s not  so  easy  to  redesign  something  once
       you’ve coded it.

       Besides,  when  I  started coding the GUI in 1998, I did it in a rather
       ugly way, and now I’m paying for my being lazy at that  time,  since  I
       spent hours coding when I want to change something 8-/

       *  about.c / about.h: contains the code for the about menu.

       *  advanced.c / advanced.h: contains the GUI advanced options menu.

       *  connect.c  /  connect.h:  contains code for the "connect" menu which
          displays which players are connected to the server, before the  game
          actually starts.

       *  controls.c / controls.h: contains the code for the controls menu.

       *  graphics.c / graphics.h: code for the graphic options menu.

       *  internet.c  /  internet.h:  contains  the  code  for the "Search for
          Internet games" menu,  where  one  can  pick  up  a  running  server
          automatically with the help of the meta-server.

       *  language.c  / language.h: contains the code for the "Language" menu.

       *  level.c / level.h: contains code for the menu where the  player  can
          select a level and its options (texture or color).

       *  menu.c / menu.h: contains the code for the main menu.

       *  netgame.c / netgame.h: contains the code for the net game menu.

       *  options.c / options.h: contains the code for the options menu.

       *  play.c  /  play.h: contains the code which ties the menu to the main

       *  rules.c / rules.h: code for the rules menu.

       *  score.c / score.h: functions to display the scores at the end of the

       *  speeds.c / speeds.h: contains the code for the speeds menu.

       *  team.c  /  team.h:  code  for  the team menu, where one choses which
          teams will play.

       *  volume.c / volume.h: code for the sound menu.

       *  wave.c / wave.h: code for the wave menu.

       GUI tools

       These files contain various utilities which are used in the menus.

       *  alleg2.c / alleg2.h: contains  some  tweaked  allegro  functions.  I
          wanted  to  use  bitmaps with sevral colors for my fonts, and change
          some of the allegro default behavior. So rather than  modifying  the
          allegro  source  code  right in the library I copied it in this file
          and then modified it.

       *  back.c / back.h: this modules displays the background image.

       *  dialog.c / dialog.h: contains code for standard dialog boxes.

       *  error.c / error.h: contains functions to display error messages once
          the game is in graphical mode.

       *  help.c  /  help.h:  generic  functions  to  display the various help

       Core algorithm

       Here’s *the* interesting part. All the rest of the code is  just  sugar
       coat to display stuff, receive players commands, communicate with other
       computers, handle errors, etc... But the real thing is here!

       It’s funny to note that these files have almost not been modified since
       Liquid War 5.0.

       It’s also interesting to note that they represent a small percentage of
       the total amount of code in the game. This tends to  prove  -  and  I’m
       convinced  of  it  -  that  game  programming does not only consists in
       having great ideas, but also requires a lot of "dirty" and boring work.
       Honestly,  coding  an  option  menu  is  as boring as coding Liquid War
       algorithm is fun.

       *  fighter.c / fighter.h: contains code to move the  armies,  once  the
          gradient has been calculated.

       *  grad.c  / grad.h: this module calculates the gradient for each team.
          One could say it’s the "kernel" of the game, since most of  the  CPU
          time is spent in this module (except if you have a slow display...).

       *  mesh.c / mesh.h: contains code to set up a usable mesh with  a  map.
          Mesh  are  re-calculated  at  each  time  a new game is started, the
          reason for this being that meshes are *very* big so it would not  be
          reasonnable to save them directly on the HD.

       *  monster.s / monster.h: assembly functions to speed-up the game. It’s
          a replacement for some fighter.c functions.

       *  spread.s  /  spread.h:  contains  assembly  replacements  for   some
          functions  of  grad.c.  These  replacements  do  the  same  than the
          original ones from grad.c, but faster. Could still be optimized.

       Moving cursors

       It looks like nothing, but moving a cursor and deciding where it should
       go if there’s a wall in front of it is not that easy, especially if you
       want things to work nicely.

       *  autoplay.c / autoplay.h: contains the code for the computer AI. This
          module  simulates keypresses from the computer, then the computer is
          handled as any other player.

       *  move.c / move.h: provides an API to move the cursors.

       User input

       Until 5.4.0, Liquid War did not have network support. As it is designed
       to  be  multiplayer,  one  needed  to  have several players on the same
       computer. The mouse also needed to be handled in a  special  way  since
       cursors can *not* pass walls in Liquid War. Additionnally, I wanted all
       input channels (keyboard mouse and joystick) to be handled in a unified

       This  explains  why there’s so much code for user input, when one would
       think at first sight that "polling the keyboard is enough".

       *  joystick.c / joystick.h: contains code to support joystick input. It
          wraps  joystick  buttons  to virtual keyboard keys, so that joystick
          and keyboard behave exactly the same.

       *  keyboard.c / keyboard.h: contains code to handle key presses.

       *  mouse.c / mouse.h: wraps the mouse  movements  to  virtual  keyboard
          keys. This way the mouse can be used to control the players.


       These  files  contain  functions  to intialize various game components.
       100% boring code.

       *  area.c /  area.h:  contains  functions  to  create  the  game  area.
          Basically  it  contains  functions  to create the data structures in
          which the level is stored during the game.

       *  army.c / army.h: functions to create the armies, and place  them  on
          the battlefield.

       *  asm.c  /  asm.h:  various  constants, macros and utilities to ensure
          that asembly code works correctly.

       *  bigdata.c / bigdata.h: I had a really  hard  time  with  the  malloc
          function  with DJGPP under Win95 dos box. I tried to have it working
          for hours and hours but my program kept being buggy. So I decided to
          allocate  the  memory  myself, in a memory zone I create at startup.
          This is what this module does: create a huge memory  zone  and  then
          give parts of it to the rest of the program.

       *  config.c / config.h: contains everything that is related to the game
          configuration. This module contains  in  global  variables  all  the
          parameters that are stored in the config file.

       *  cursor.c / cursor.h: contains the code to init the cursors and place
          them on the battlefield at the beginning of the game.

       *  decal.c / decal.h: This module makes  the  link  between  teams  and
          players.  Its  coding  is  quite ugly, for some modules in LW assume
          that when 2 teams are playing they are always teams 0 and 1. So when
          3  teams  are playing are playing and the second team loses, one has
          to make team 2 become team 1. That’s what this module is for.

       *  exit.c / exit.h: contains code that is executed when the game  ends,
          it shuts down Allegro and displays messages on the console.

       *  gfxmode.c  /  gfxmode.h:  contains  code to set up the various video
          modes, and defines which modes are available for each platform.

       *  init.c / init.h: contains code to  initialize  Allegro  with  proper
          options and analyze failures.

       *  palette.c / palette.h: contains function to set up the current color
          palette. Liquid War  uses  different  palettes,  depending  on  what
          colors are chosen for teams.


       Here lies most of the graphic functions in Liquid War. There’s not that
       much code since Liquid War’s strength is not its  visual  effects,  but
       rather its gameplay.

       The only "funny" thing is the wave effect. I’m quite happy with it, and
       honestly, I do think it is rather fast, given the fact that it uses  no
       3D hardware at all.

       *  disp.c / disp.h: contains functions to display the battlefield.

       *  distor.c  /  distor.h: this module contains code to create the "wave
          effect". It uses a lot of data tables, and is quite  complicated  to

       *  glouglou.s  /  glouglou.h:  assembly module, it is a replacement for
          some functions of distor.c. It goes much faster but does the same.

       *  info.c / info.h: contains code to display the info bar. The info bar
          is the bar which display the time left and the amount of players for
          each team while the game is running.

       *  message.c / message.h: provides an API to  display  messages  during
          the  game.  Very useful if you want to debug the game: you can trace
          and display anything.

       *  pion.c / pion.h: contains code to display the cursors.

       *  viewport.c / vieport.h: code to allocate and resize the  zone  where
          the map is displayed, also called "viewport".

       Sound and music

       Sound  and  music  routines required some encapsulation, since the game
       must be able to run even  if  the  sound  and/or  music  did  not  load

       *  music.c / music.h: contains the code to control MIDI playback.

       *  sound.c / sound.h: functions to play sound.

       Data management

       These  functions handle the datafile contents and also the custom data.

       Note that the various utilities such as liquidwarcol, liquidwarmap  and
       liquidwartex  do  not  share  code  with  the  main executable. This is
       obviously a design error, for liquidwarmap will handle maps in  a  very
       poor  way and is unable to autodetect map errors, whereas the game does
       it rather well. Blame the programmer.

       *  disk.c / disk.h: contains all the code to access data from the  hard
          drive. In fact, all the HD access is done at startup.

       *  map.c  /  map.h:  contains code to load the maps from a datafile raw
          data or a user defined bitmap to a usable structure in RAM.

       *  maptex.c / maptex.h:  contains  code  to  handle  the  "use  default
          texture"   option,   and  associate  a  map  with  a  given  texture

       *  texture.c / texture.h: contains code to  handle  textures.  Textures
          are stored in a special format which uses 5 bits per pixel.

       Random map generator

       Liquid  War  has  a  "generate  random  map" feature which is available
       within the game and also as an external program. The  source  code  for
       the  external  program  is  in  ./utils/lwmapgen  in  Liquid War source
       distribution. This program has been coded  by  David  Redick,  is  also
       available  on and works on
       GNU/Linux. Compiling this program under DOS and/or Windows is  untested
       and unsupported.

       The  random  map generator within Liquid War - which of course works on
       any platform support by LW - uses for its greater part the same  source
       code as the external lwmapgen program.

       *  random.c  / random.h: wrapper for the map generator written by David
          Redick. It basically does the same as ./utils/lwmapgen/main.c except
          that  it  does  it  within Liquid War as it is running and not in an
          external independant program.

       Time handling

       Time handling is fundamental in a game. Time is used for visual effects
       (waves...)  during  the  game, it’s used to generate some pseudo random
       stuff, well, it’s used everywhere!

       Note that on the client, I use 2 "different" clocks. The  first  counts
       the  "real"  time, in seconds. The second one is counts "rounds" and is
       incremented by 1 at each game round.

       *  srvtime.c / srvtime.h: code used to handle time on the server, where
          Allegro’s functions are not available.

       *  ticker.c / ticker.h: sets up a timer callback.

       *  time.c  /  time.h:  functions  to  know  how  long the game has been
          running, knowing that it can be interrupted.

       In-game utilities

       These are various utilities use to monitor and control the  game  while
       one’s playing.

       *  capture.c  / capture.h: code used to capture the video output of the
          game and store it in .bmp files while playing.

       *  checksum.c / checksum.h: utilities to generate  a  checksum  from  a
          given  game state. Used in network code to make sure all the clients
          stay synchronized.

       *  code.c / code.h: This file contains the code to handle  key  presses
          during the game. That’s to say the pause key for instance.

       *  profile.c / profile.h: provides tools to calculate how fast the game
          is runnning and what operations slow it down.

       *  watchdog.c / watchdog.h: this module waits for "secret codes" to  be
          typed while the game is running, and traps them.

       Command line handling

       OK, now to all the UNIX guys, I *know* there are many ways to do things
       in a better and simple way than I did. But keep in mind that  in  1998,
       under  DOS,  I had a rotten command line and even now I need everything
       to work on both UNIX and Microsoft platforms.

       These utilities are not perfect, but they work, that’s all I ask  them.

       *  basicopt.c  / basicopt.h: handles basic command line parameters such
          as "-v" or "-h".

       *  parser.c / parser.h: contains code to parse and analyze the  command
          line parameters.

       *  startup.c  /  startup.h:  analyzes  the  command line parameters and
          stores them into global variables.

       Locale support

       Liquid War now has locale support. Basically, all the labels and  texts
       in the UI are stored in constants. There’s simply file per language.

       Note  to  translators:  if you decide to translate the menus in another
       language, keep in mind that  all  the  translations  must  fit  in  the
       various  buttons  and textboxes. The best resolution to test this - the
       one where letters take most place - is 640x480.

       *  lang.c / lang.h: contains code to handle language dependant stuff.

       *  langen.c / langen.h: contains code to handle English specific stuff.

       *  langfr.c  / langfr.h: contains code to handle French specific stuff.

       Log and various messages

       OK, the API of the log routines is a piece of crap. Now I’m simply  too
       lazy to change it. It works, that’s all I ask.

       BTW,  there’s  a  clear  advantage  in  using custom-made log functions
       instead of plain calls to "fprintf(stderr,...". It might not be obvious
       for  UNIX  users,  but  think  about  Windows. Nothing like a "tail -f"
       there, nor a proper output redirection system. When a  user  clicks  on
       the  Liquid  War  icon,  I want "console" information to be logged in a

       *  log.h: common header for logcli.c and logsrv.c.

       *  logcli.c: contains code to display messages  on  the  console.  It’s
          usefull  for  console may have different behaviors when the games is
          used on different platforms.  This  file  is  used  to  compile  the

       *  logsrv.c:  contains  code  to  display messages on the console. This
          file is used to compile the server, which does not  use  Allegro  at

       *  popupgen.h: common header for popup functions.

       *  popupw32.c: code to handle popup on the Win32 platform. Popups are a
          must-have under Windows for error  diagnostics,  since  the  average
          Windows user never gives any look at any log file...

       Macros, utilities and string support

       As usual, I needed to prepare a small set of usefull macros.

       *  macro.h: contains basic wrappers/macros for snprintf like functions.
          This mostly to ease up string manipulation which is - as always -  a
          nightmare in standard C.

       *  path.c  /  path.h:  code  used  to  handle  filenames and paths, for
          instance remove path and file extension from a filename.

       It’s also important to note that Liquid War uses  snprintf  instead  of
       sprintf, for using the latter is very likely to cause buffer overflows.
       Under Linux glibc provides this function but Microsoft does not provide
       it  natively  on  Windows.  Therefore  I  used  a  third party snprintf
       implementation by Mark  Martinec:
       and  its  source  is  available  in the ./utils directory of Liquid War
       source distribution.

       Byte order and endianess

       As you might know, PC Intel based computers are  "little-endian"  while
       Sun Sparc stations and Mac computers are "big-endian". This is an issue
       for LW since in network games maps are transmitted  in  binary  format.
       Therefore I needed to set up some (un)serialization fonctions.

       *  serial.c / serial.h: code used to transform integers and map headers
          into an uniform cross-platform byte stream which is readable by both
          little and big endian machines.

       Thread support

       Liquid  War  does  have  thread  support,  but it is a "limited" thread
       support. I mean that the game is  generally  monothreaded,  but  a  few
       functions  use threads. For instance, calls to the meta-server are done
       within threads.

       Basically, I  do  not  really  enjoy  programming  in  a  multithreaded
       environnement.  So when possible, I chose the monothread path, and used
       threads only  where  I  simply  would  not  be  able  to  find  another
       acceptable solution.

       I  also  needed  to  use  some  mutexes  to prevent crashes in the user

       *  mutxdos.c: provides fake mutex support under  DOS.  This  module  is
          here only to make compilation easier.

       *  mutxgen.h: header for mutxdos.c, mutxunix.c and mutxw32.c.

       *  mutxunix.c: provides mutex support on UNIX.

       *  mutxw32.c: provides mutex support on Win32.

       *  thrddos.c:  provides  fake  thread support under DOS. This module is
          here only to make compilation easier.

       *  thrdgen.h: header for thrddos.c, thrdunix.c and thrdw32.c.

       *  thrdunix.c: provides thread support on UNIX.

       *  thrdw32.c: provides thread support on Win32.

       Launching external programs

       Liquid War might sometimes  launch  external  programs.  This  is  (for
       security  reason)  not  a  default behavior and has to be activated and
       configured by yourself, using the "-callback" command  line  option  on
       the server for instance.

       *  execgen.h: header for execunix.c and execw32.c.

       *  execunix.c: code to launch external programs on UNIX.

       *  execw32.c: code to launch external programs on Win32.

       *  exec2.c: code to launch external programs within the client, without
          any interaction with the user, ie no  unwanted  popping  window  for

       Low-level network code

       There  are network packages for Allegro, but I decided not to use them.
       Socket support is not that hard to implement under UNIX and  Win32  and
       besides, I’ve done it for my job recently, so I just knew how to do it.

       Another reason which decided me to code my own toolbox is  that  I  did
       not  want  Liquid War to have external dependencies - except Allegro of
       course. This way, UNIX gamers to not have to set up and/or  download  a
       specific  network  library.  It’s  also easier to integrate the game in
       projects like Debian if it has few dependencies.

       This network code is not a masterpiece, it’s just a little set of tools
       that have proven to work. That’s all.

       BTW,  it’s  important  to  notice  that when linking with Allegro, most
       blocking UNIX calls ("sleep" or "recv" for instance) stop working: they
       alwasys  return immediately. This led me to implement weird ugly hacks,
       like calling "recv" in a loop until it gets what it  wants...  This  is
       theorically  and practically a performance killer, but I found no other
       way to fix this. And FYI, this is not an Allegro bug,  it’s  a  feature

       *  dnsutil.c  /  dnsutil.h: wrapper code to issue DNS requests, without
          having to handle the hostent struct.

       *  sock2cli.c: sode used to wrap  low-level  network  function  on  the

       *  sock2gen.h: header for sock2cli.c and sock2srv.c.

       *  sock2srv.c:  code  used  to  wrap  low-level network function on the

       *  sockdos.c: network API for DOS.

       *  sockex.c: netowrk routines shared by sockunix and sockw32.

       *  sockgen.h: header for sockdos.c, sockunix.c and sockw32.c.

       *  sockunix.c: network API for UNIX.

       *  sockw32.c: network API for Win32.

       High-level network code

       These files contains network utilities which are Liquid War specific.

       *  chat.c / chat.h: functions used to handle chat messages  in  network

       *  keyexch.c  /  keyexch.h:  functions  to send and receive keys to the
          server. Used on the client.

       *  netconf.c / netconf.h: code to send and receive the  config  of  the
          clients over the network.

       *  netkey.c  /  netkey.h: contains some tools to manipulate key strokes
          over the network.

       *  netmap.c / netmap.h: code to send and  receive  the  maps  over  the

       *  netmess.c  /  netmess.h:  contains  a parser to interpret plain text
          messages. Used when exhanging information over the network.

       *  netplay.c / netplay.h: contains the code to set up and start network

       *  network.c  /  network.h: contains some network related functions and
          constants used on the client.

       *  ping.c / ping.h: code used on the client  to  estimate  the  average
          ping time with a server.

       *  protocol.c  / protocol.h: contains the sequence of messages send and
          recevied by the client when connecting on the server.

       *  startinf.c / startinf.h: contains struct and tools  to  handle  some
          network informations while starting a network game.

       Communication with the meta-server

       The  meta-server  is  called  by both client and server. Basically, the
       server registers itself, and the client asks for a list of servers.

       The meta-server itself is just a set  of  simple  PHP  scripts  with  a
       simple MySQL database. I chose PHP because my provider allows execution
       of PHP pages, that’s all.

       The protocol is *very* basic, and uses HTTP 1.0 for  requests.  Answers
       are  received  in plain text, with one information per line. There’s no
       garantee that this would work with  any  HTTP  server,  but  experience
       proved that it works with my provider 8-)

       *  httputil.c   /  httputil.h:  low  level  functions  to  handle  http

       *  wwwcli.c / wwwcli.h: code used on the client to communicate with the

       *  wwwsrv.c / wwwsrv.h: code used on the server to communicate with the

       Server code

       The Liquid War server is a rather small program. The only thing it does
       is  accept  new players, transmit map and game parameters between them,
       and then "replicate keys".

       By "replicate keys" I mean that the server asks each client  what  keys
       have  been  pressed  during  the  last  round, and then dispatches this
       informations  to  all  clients.  This  implies  that  the  server   has
       absolutely no idea of who’s loosing, who’s winning, etc...

       All the "logic" of the server is coded in these files, the rest is only
       utilities and helper functions.

       *  server.c / server.h: main code for the server (equivalent of  main.c
          for the client).

       *  srvchan.c  / srvchan.h: code used to handles channels on the server.
          A channel is associated to a given computer and may  manage  several

       *  srvcont.c  / srvcont.h: global network controler used on the server.

       *  srvteam.c / srvteam.h: code used to handle teams on the server.


   Report a new bug
       If you have troubles with Liquid War 5, if you think it is a  bug,  and
       if  it  is  not  described  in this file, then just send a (precise...)
       decription of your problem to the Liquid War user mailing list.

       Network support in Liquid War is far from being perfect, so there are a
       bunch  of little problems which can appear. Basically, once the game is
       correctly started on a LAN, you should have no  problems,  but  getting
       the game started might be difficult.

   Mouse does not work
       Some  users  reported  that  they were unable to control the Liquid War
       cursor with the mouse. Well, the answer is a typical Microsoftish "this
       ain’t a bug, it’s a feature!".

       More seriously, you’re supposed to move the cursor with the keyboard in
       Liquid War. There’s no way to handle the cursor "like a mouse  pointer"
       (*). This is due to:

       *  Severe limitations in the Liquid War core algorithm.

       *  The  fact  that moving the cursor "too fast" would really change the
          gameplay of Liquid War. As a Liquid War integrist 8-) I can tell you
          the  game  would really not be the same if you could move the cursor
          as fast as you wish. It’s part of the game that sometimes  it  takes
          you  ages  to recover from a strategical mistakes. You need to think
          twice before going to the very end of a level. That’s  strategy.  At
          least  that’s  how  I  view  things... Anyways as I mentionned above
          there’s a limitation in the core algorithm.

       (*) This is not perfectly true, there’s a way  to  control  the  cursor
       with  the  mouse, but it’s designed for the case "4 people want to play
       on  the  same  computer  and  one  single  keyboard  is  not   enough".
       Controlling the cursor with the mouse in Liquid War is possible but yet
       rather hard to master 8-/ Try it and you’ll  understand  what  I  mean.
       This mode can be set up in the "Teams" menu.

   Game does not start
       On non UNIX platforms such as Windows or DOS, Liquid War is distributed
       in a .zip file. It’s IMPORTANT that you unzip the .zip  files  with  an
       "unzipper"  which  preserves  the  directory  structure.  Most  install
       problems under  Windows  come  from  broken  unzipping  programs  which
       extract   all  files  in  the  same  directory...  WinZip  8.x  or  the
       unzip32.exe utility that comes with DJGPP are both able  to  uncompress
       Liquid War .zip files correctly.

       On  Liquid  War 5.5.9 and later, the Windows version should detect this
       problem automatically and warn you with a message which basically  says
       something  like  "Unable  to  load datafile. Are you sure Liquid War is
       correctly installed?". If you get this message, you need  to  reinstall
       the  game by unzipping it with a "correct" unzipping program which does
       not wreck directory structrure up.

   Interference with other Windows programs
       It’s been reported that Liquid War can run very slowly on Windows  when
       some  other  programs  (Mozilla for instance) are running. So if Liquid
       War’s menus seem to be really really slow, then try to shut down  other
       applications and run the game again.

       This  problem  does not seem to apply on GNU/Linux - at least if you do
       not run 300 daemons together on your machine 8-)

   Datafile bugs
       Sometimes there are some problems when  compiling  the  datafile,  this

       *  The  liquidwarcol,  liquidwarmap  and  liquidwartex  utilities might
          freeze or segfault. Typing "make" again often solves the problem.

       *  The background image sometimes ends  up  using  the  wrong  palette,
          which has a very nasty consequence: it looks ugly.

       These  bugs  are  quite  hard to get rid off, since I can not reproduce
       them easily. The good solution  would  be  to  completely  rewrite  the
       liquidwarcol, liquidwarmap and liquidwartex utilities.

   Midi does not work on OSS

       IF  your  midi  music  on Liquid War, or indeed any other Allegro game,
       doesn’t work and you are using the  OSS  (Open  Sound  System)  drivers
       (these  are  the  sound  drivers  which  come  with the standard kernel
       distribution), this may well  be  because  Allegro  only  supports  "FM
       synthesis"  and not "wavetable" when it is using OSS. FM synthesis is a
       very old method of making sound from  MIDI  and  has  long  since  been
       replaced  by  wavetable  synthesis, with the net result that it’s quite
       possible you’ve got OSS  MIDI  working  nicely  in  other  applications
       without  having FM support set up at all. This is what I found. (It has
       to be said that I didn’t find the FM sound  quality  quite  as  bad  as
       people have said, though).

       In this situation, it looks to me like you have the following choices:

       Hack Allegro...

       and for the rest of us...

       Use Allegros DIGMID midi driver...

       Get an FM driver up and running...

       *  Find  out which FM driver is appropriate for your sound card. If you
          have distribution-specific tools and docs for setting up sound,  try
          those.  If  not,  you will need to be familiar with the knowledge in
          the Sound-HOWTO and Kernel-HOWTO i.e. know how  to  compile  kernels
          and modules and deal with sound drivers.

       *  Look  through  the  OSS  modules  in  ’make  menuconfig’  and see if
          anything  catches  your  eye.  See  if   there   is   any   specific
          documentation  on  your  sound card on Do a
          few web searches. For my AWE64, I use the OPL3 driver.

       *  Compile and install the FM driver module, or set up your  system  to
          use the new kernel if you want to compile the driver in.

       *  Load  the module, or boot your new kernel. It is very important that
          you pay attention to what is said in the ’help’ for your  FM  driver
          in   ’make   menuconfig’   and  read  any  necessary  files  in  the
          Documentation/sound/ directory. For  example,  I  just  had  a  nice
          half-hour  wondering  why  the hell my FM wasn’t working now when it
          had been before - with the OPL3 driver, you have to give the  option
          io=0x388  to insmod. Which is stated nice and clear in the docs, but
          of  course  I  had  forgotten  since  then.  You  can  prevent  such
          happenings  by  recording options permanently in /etc/modules.conf -
          see the manpage etc.

       *  Try the game. If it’s worked you will hear particularly beepy music.

       Opl3 occult FAQ

       --IMPORTANT--  If  you  are using Liquid War, your FM will only work if
       you go to the map ’Elephant inside a boa’ and  proceed  to  chase  each
       other round in circles for at least 10 minutes. This cures a bug in the
       design of the OPL3 interface which conflicts badly with the core Liquid
       War  algorithms.  How  the hell the music hardware even knows about the
       core algorithms I don’t know, but that’s what I made of the now-defunct
       opl3-occult-FAQ, from which here is an excerpt:

       Many  roads  a  man must take. Those with one-track minds are DOOMED, I
       tells ya.

       ---- The Liquid War algorithm calculates distances to  one  place,  the


       Man  or  machine,  face  or code, must stand strong and solid; must not
       just ooze away as slime.

       ---- We think it might just take objection to the whole ’slimy’  nature
       of the LW beings. As well as it being LIQUID War.

       So,  our  carefully  tailored  approach, is to firstly have the players
       going in all the possible different directions evenly by moving  around
       the  map  in  circles, and secondly to divert the opl3’s attention from
       the general slimy liquidness of it all  by  emphasizing  the  solidity,
       reality,  and  natural  goodness  of that classic tapestry: an elephant
       inside a boa.

       That and it’s a f***ing ace level.

   Checksum errors
       The Liquid War server is a "light" servers which - to some extent - has
       no  idea  about  what is going on in the game. It simply replicates key
       strokes between clients and each client maintains its own  game  state.
       Normally,  the  game  is designed so that given the same user input, it
       will behave exactly the same.

       However, it happens that sometimes 2 clients  can  behave  differently,
       and  this is a (severe) bug. One consequence is that messages reporting
       "Checksum errors" appear on the server’s and on  the  client’s  console
       output.  This  bug  appears  when  using  non-default  rules  settings.
       Basically, if someones tweaks  his  rules,  then  the  checksum  errors
       appear.  Of  course I double-triple checked that options were correctly
       sent on the network, but, well, could not fix the bug. Yet.  The  short
       term solution seems to play with default factory settings...

       I’m highly interested in bug-reports concerning this problem.

To do

       In  its  latest releases Liquid War is quite stable IMHO. However there
       are still some issues with network  under  Windows  for  instance.  I’m
       aware  of  these  bugs  and I’m trying to fix them but this does really
       take time.

       I always welcome bug-reports and patches, as making Liquid War W  5.x.x
       as stable and bug-free as possible is really important to me - and most
       of the time players also appreciate stable programs 8-)

       It’s hard to find people to do that kind of thing. Artists  are  indeed
       pretty  rare, at least artists who wish to create stuff freely... So if
       you feel like adding some theme  support  to  Liquid  War,  this  could
       *really*  help.  I  used the textures I had but it would be nice if one
       could have a "space"  ambiance,  an  "ocean"  ambiance  or  a  "desert"
       ambiance. This could really make the game better I think.

       Musics   (in   midi   format)   are   also  appreciated.  Tim  Chadburn
       spontaneously contributed the first midi files, and it  really  pleased
       me 8-)

   New features
       I  regularly receive requests for new features in Liquid War. Of course
       I do not have enough time to implement them all, so  they  land  in  my
       "todo"  list.  However,  most  "major"  evolutions  are now planned for
       Liquid War 6, since the code in Liquid War 5 is bloated as  hell.  It’s
       all right to debug it and code minor evolutions, but that’s all.

       However,  here’s a list of what "could be" in the next Liquid War 5.x.x
       releases, although it might never be implemented there and  come  later
       with Liquid War 6:

       *  Network  enhancements.  Network in LW5 is somewhat buggy and hard to
          use, improvements wouldn’t harm.

       *  Theme support. This would be a way to get rid of  the  ugly  current
          fonts and menus.

   Liquid War 6
       Liquid War 6 *is* planned.

       This being said, it’s important to note that:

       *  Not one single line of code has been typed yet 8-)

       *  Until  6.0.0  is  released,  5.x.x  remains *the* stable and useable
          branch. 5.x.x will be maintained as long as needed and will probably
          be  maintained (bugfixes I mean) even when 6.0.0 is ready. So if you
          want to contribute some maps, graphics, or  anything  else  for  the
          current  5.x.x branch, don’t fear that your work will be lost before
          2 months because all interest went off 5.x.x and everyone  is  using
          6.0.0 instead. 5.x.x is here to stay.

       *  Liquid  War 6 will be an almost complete rewrite. I mean that common
          code between branches 5 and 6 might end up in representing 0% of the
          total code. I think this is a wise decision, for the current code is
          really hard to maintain, and would not survive any serious  cleanup.
          LW5  was  first  written  in  1998,  for  DOS,  when I had much less
          experience in programming. In 5 years I - and other people as well -
          hacked  major  enhancements  in  it  such as cross-platform support,
          network games, and if you compare release 5.0 with the latest  5.x.x
          release, you’ll see that a bunch of things have changed. I had never
          expected I would patch and fix this game for so long,  and  it’s  no
          surprise that it’s bloated today.

       *  Liquid  War  6 won’t run on "slow" computers anymore. I mean it will
          require some accelerated display (OpenGL for instance) to run.  This
          is IMHO acceptable since LW5 will remain available. People with slow
          computers will always be able to run LW5 instead of LW6. But if some
          nice  fancy  features  are  to be implemented in 6.x.x, one needs to
          drop support for low-class machines.

       I also plan to use different technologies and languages to code LW6. As
       of  today, I have a rather precise idea of what tools I’m going to use,
       but *before* I really start coding LW6, I’d like to test these tools on
       a  "real  life  example".  This  "real life example" will probably be a
       rewrite of the good old HP48  Babal  (  for
       desktop computers (GNU/Linux and Windows). Here are the tools I plan to

       *  "GNU framework". I mean that I’ll  try  to  make  LW6  as  close  as
          possible to the GNU standards. This has the advantage that it’s then
          much easier to make the program operate in a  GNU  environment.  For
          instance LW6 will use GNU automake/autoconf, GNU gettext, and have a
          GNU-ish source tree. This should save time  in  the  long  run,  the
          experience  I  have  on  LW5  teaches  me  that there are a bunch of
          low-level boring tasks (generating documentation in several formats,
          generating  source  tarballs,  handling  i18n/l10n)  which  are done
          automatically by GNU tools, and it’s a good  idea  to  re-use  other
          people’s work and be standard compliant.

       *  Standard  C  language  for the core algorithm. This is where I might
          use a few dozen lines of code from LW5. C  is  fast,  portable,  and
          very adapted to this kind of code.

       *  Assembly  for  the  core  algorithm on Intel architectures. LW5 does
          this too, and it’s even faster than C. However, this  assembly  code
          will  be  written only when the equivalent algorithm is available in
          C. Think of it as an optimization, not as a base component.

       *  OpenGL       display.       I’ll       probably       use       Glut
          (  which is
          portable and does enough stuff for me. I do not think  I’ll  need  a
          wrapper on it and/or a more general library like SDL.

       *  "mod"  music.  Let’s  be clear: MIDI sucks. Well, more precisely, it
          sucks on standard desktop computers (the kind of  computer  everyone
          uses).  Most  of  the time mod files sound much better, and have the
          advantage  of  sounding  the  same   on   every   computer.   MikMod
          ( will probably be used.

       *  Scheme  as  the  glue language for all this. I’ll very certainly use
          Guile (  I’m  strongly
          convinced  that  C  is  absolutely *not* adapted to code large scale
          programs, unless one uses an extension language. Guile  solves  this
          issue  by  offering  a  way  to code some parts in scheme. You might
          wonder why I do not use another extension  language.  The  excellent
          Python  language (which I know better than scheme by now) would be a
          very good contender for instance.  Well,  to  be  honest,  I’m  very
          interested  by  Scheme  and Lisp-like languages in general, and I’ve
          good reasons to think that once I master them, they’ll simply be the
          languages I prefer. But this is enough Scheme advocacy 8-)

       Of  course,  all  this complete rewrite and new tools are not a goal in
       themselves. So here’s the list of new features which are planned to  be
       in LW6:

       *  Truecolor  support. LW5 has strong color limitations (32 colors, not
          32 bits colors but really *only* 32 colors) for  textures  and  this
          won’t be anymore in LW6.

       *  Map  wrapping/tiling.  You could have a map where the right and left
          border would "communicate". Any fighter leaving the map on the right
          side would reappear on the left.

       *  Several  cursors  per  team.  This feature is easy to implement even
          with the current algorithm, but isn’t possible  to  implement  in  a
          reasonnable  time  because  LW5  is bloated. LW6 should have it. The
          fighters would simply follow the closest cursor.

       *  Fancy multiplayer options such as team alliance.

       *  Fancy 3D displays.  This  could  be  very  nice  combined  with  map
          wrapping/tiling.  You  could imagine playing on a sphere, on a tore,
          on a Moebius ring...

       *  Maps could be deeper in some places. In a deep  place  armies  would
          take less surface but would be stronger.

       *  Of  course, anything that LW5 does (unless maybe running under DOS),
          LW6 will do it 8-)

       *  Any idea is welcome! Although I can’t garantee  all  ideas  will  be
          implemented,  there  are at least more chances that it happens given
          the fact that LW6 should be much easier to hack and enhance.

       So, that’s it for LW6 for now. It’s still vaporware,  but  believe  me,
       some day you’ll be able to download liquidwar-6.0.0.tar.gz. Until then,
       any idea, suggestion or help is welcome.


       Liquid War is a multiplayer wargame.

       Copyright (C) 1998-2004 Christian Mauduit (

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under  the  terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at  your
       option) any later version.

       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;  without   even   the   implied   warranty   of
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA


       Christian Mauduit <>

                                    v5.6.2                       Liquid War(6)