Provided by: xmabacus_7.1.6-1_i386 bug

NAME

       xabacus - Abacus X widget

SYNOPSIS

       xabacus
        [-geometry   [{width}][x{height}][{+-}{xoff}[{+-}{yoff}]]]   [-display
       [{host}]:[{vs}]]  [-[no]mono]   [-[no]{reverse|rv}]   [-{foreground|fg}
       {color}]  [-{background|bg}  {color}]  [-{border|bd}  {color}]  [-frame
       {color}] [-rail {color}] [-bead  {color}]  [-rails  {int}]  [-[no]slot]
       [-[no]diamond]                                          [-[no]vertical]
       [-{chinese|japanese|korean|roman|russian}] [-base {int}]  [-displayBase
       {int}] [-[no]romanNumerals] [-[no]sign] [-[no]quarter] [-tnumber {int}]
       [-bnumber {int}] [-tfactor {int}]  [-bfactor  {int}]  [-tspaces  {int}]
       [-bspaces   {int}]   [-[no]torient]   [-[no]borient]   [-delay   msecs]
       [-[no]sound]   [-bumpSound    {filename}]    [-moveSound    {filename}]
       [-[no]demo]  [-[no]script]  [-demopath  {path}]  [-demofont {fontname}]
       [-demofg {color}] [-demobg {color}] [-version]

DESCRIPTION

       This is an implementation of  the  classic  Chinese  abacus  (Saun-pan)
       which has its origins in the 12th century.

       The  device  has  two  decks.   Each  deck,  separated  by a partition,
       normally has 13 rails on which are mounted beads.  Each rail on the top
       deck  contains 1 or 2 beads, and each rod on the bottom deck contains 4
       or 5 beads.  Each bead on the upper deck has a  value  of  five,  while
       each  bead  on  the  lower deck has value of one.  Beads are considered
       counted, when moved towards the partition separating the decks, i.e. to
       add  a  value of one a bead in the bottom deck is moved up and to add a
       value of 5 a bead in the top deck is moved down.

       The basic operations  of  the  abacus  are  addition  and  subtraction.
       Multiplication  can be done by mentally doing the multiplications while
       adding up the intermediate results.  Division would  be  similar  where
       the  intermediate  results  are  subtracted.  There are techniques like
       using your thumb and forefinger which does not apply with mouse  entry.
       Also  with  multiplication, one can carry out calculations on different
       parts of the abacus, here it is nice to have a long abacus.

       The pre-WWII Japanese abacus (Soroban) (or Korean Supan) is similar  to
       the Chinese abacus but has only one bead per rail on the top deck.  The
       later Japanese abacus was further simplified to have only 4  beads  per
       rail on the bottom deck.

       The  Roman  hand-abacus predates the Chinese abacus and is very similar
       to the later Japanese abacus, but seems to have fallen out of use  with
       the  Fall of the Roman Empire (at least 3 are in existence).  The Roman
       abaci are brass plates where the beads move in slots.  In  addition  to
       the normal 7 columns of beads, they generally have 2 special columns on
       the right side. In two examples: the first special column was for 12ths
       (12  uncia  (ounces) = 1 as) and had one extra bead in the bottom deck.
       Also the last column was a combination of halves, quarters, and  thirds
       of  an  ounce and had no slot in the top deck and 4 beads at the bottom
       (beads did not have to come to the top to be counted but at  one  of  3
       marked  points  where  the top bead was for halves, 1 for quarters, and
       the bottom 2 for thirds).  In another surviving example: the 2  special
       columns  were  switched  and  the  combination column was broken into 3
       separate slots.

       The Russian abacus was invented in the 17th century, here the beads are
       moved  from  right  to  left (currently the xabacus can not be oriented
       that way and one has to move the beads down).  It has colored beads  in
       the middle for ease of use.  Quarters represent 1/4 Rubles and are only
       present historically on the Russian abacus (Schoty).  Some of the older
       Schoty  have  a extra place for the 1/4 Kopek (quarter percent) as well
       as the 1/4 Ruble (quarter).

       The signed bead is an invention of the author and is not present on any
       historical   abacus  (to  his  knowledge)  and  is  used  to  represent
       negatives.  "New & Improved" abacus models  have  two  auxiliary  decks
       stacked  above the principal deck that enable multiplication, division,
       square-root, and cube-root computations to be performed with equal ease
       as addition and subtraction.

FEATURES

       Click  "mouse-left"  button on a bead you want to move.  The beads will
       shift themselves to vacate the row and column that was clicked.

       Click "mouse-right" button, or press "C" or  "c"  keys,  to  clear  the
       abacus.

       Press "O" or "o" keys to toggle the demo mode.

       Press "I" or "i" keys to increment the number of rails.

       Press "D" or "d" keys to decrement the number of rails.

       Press  "F"  or  "f"  keys  to switch between Chinese, Japanese, Korean,
       Roman, and Russian formats.

       Press "V" or "v" keys to toggle vertical Russian orientation.

       Press "M" or "m" keys to toggle Roman Numerals.

       Press "S" or "s" keys to toggle the availability of sign bead.

       Press "U" or "u" keys to toggle the availability of quarter beads.

       Press ">" or "." keys to speed up the movement of beads.

       Press "<" or "," keys to slow down the movement of beads.

       Press "@"  key to toggle the sound.

       Press "Esc" key to hide program.

       Press "Q", "q", or "CTRL-C" keys to kill program.

       The abacus may be resized.  Beads will reshape depending  on  the  room
       they  have.   Demo  Mode: In this mode, the abacus is controlled by the
       program.  When started  with  the  demo  option,  a  second  window  is
       presented  that  should  be  placed  directly  below the abacus-window.
       Descriptive text, and  user  prompts  are  displayed  in  this  window.
       Pressing  ’q’  during  the demo will quit it.  Clicking the left mouse-
       button with the pointer in the window will restart the demo  (beginning
       of current lesson).

OPTIONS

       -geometry {+|-}X{+|-}Y
               This  option  sets  the  initial  position of the abacus window
               (resource name "geometry").

       -display host:dpy
               This option specifies the X server to contact.

       -[no]mono
               This option allows you to  display on  a  color  screen  as  if
               monochrome (resource name "mono").

       -[no]{reverse|rv}
               This  option  allows  you  to  see the abacus window in reverse
               video (resource name "reverse").

       -{foreground|fg} color
               This option specifies  the  foreground  of  the  abacus  window
               (resource name "foreground").

       -{background|bg} color
               This  option  specifies  the  background  of  the abacus window
               (resource name "background").

       -{border|bd} color
               This option specifies the foreground of the border of the beads
               (resource name "borderColor").

       -frame color
               This  option  specifies  the  foreground of the frame (resource
               name "frameColor").

       -rail color
               This option specifies the foreground  of  the  rails  (resource
               name "railColor").

       -bead color
               This  option  specifies  the  foreground of the beads (resource
               name "beadColor").

       -rails int
               This option  specifies  the  number  of  rails  (resource  name
               "rails").

       -[no]slot
               This  option allows you to have either slots or rails (resource
               name "slot").

       -[no]diamond
               This option allows you to have either diamond  or  round  beads
               (resource name "diamond").

       -chinese
               This  option  specifies the format on the abacus (resource name
               "format") to "Chinese" for the Chinese Saun-pan.

       -japanese
               This option specifies the format on the abacus  (resource  name
               "format")  to  "Japanese"  for  the Japanese post-WWII Soroban.
               This is also similar to the Roman Hand Abacus.

       -korean This option specifies the format on the abacus  (resource  name
               "format") to "Korean" for the Korean Supan or Japanese pre-WWII
               Soroban.

       -roman  This option specifies the format on the abacus  (resource  name
               "format") to "Roman" for the Roman Hand Abacus, note beads move
               in slots.  To complete, specify romanNumerals".

       -russian
               This option specifies the format on the abacus  (resource  name
               "format")  to  "Russian"  for the Russian Schoty.  To complete,
               specify quarter".

       -other  This option specifies the format on the abacus  (resource  name
               "format")  to  "Other".  This option specifies a format that is
               more configurable by using resources, since there are few rules
               to govern its behavior.

       -base int
               This  option specifies the base used on abacus (default is base
               10) (resource name "base").  By default, one  has  to  set  the
               format  mode  to not be Other for this to work (unless you know
               what you are doing).

       -displayBase int
               This option specifies the base displayed (default is  base  10)
               (resource  name  "displayBase").   If  this  is  different then
               "base" then  it  is  implemented  using  "long  long"  and  the
               calculation is limited by its bounds.  Also the fractional part
               does not scale with the "displayBase" so if  the  "displayBase"
               is  greater  than the "base" it looses some precision.  Also no
               rounding is done.

       -[no]vertical
               This option allows you to set the abacus  to  allow  a  Russian
               orientation (resource name "vertical").

       -[no]romanNumerals
               This  option  allows  you  to  set  the  abacus  to allow Roman
               Numerals (resource name "romanNumerals").  Roman Numerals above
               3999  are  normally  represented with bars on top, due to ASCII
               constraints  this  is  represented  instead   in   lower   case
               (historically   case   was   ignored).   Roman  Numerals  above
               3,999,999 were not represented  historically.   Roman  numerals
               change with displayBase in an "experimental" way.

       -[no]sign
               This  option  allows  you  to set the abacus to allow negatives
               (resource name "sign").

       -[no]quarter
               This option allows you to set  the  abacus  to  allow  quarters
               (resource name "quarter").

       -tnumber int
               This option specifies the number of beads on top (resource name
               "topNumber").

       -bnumber int
               This option specifies the number of beads on  bottom  (resource
               name "bottomNumber").

       -tfactor int
               This  option specifies the multiply factor for the beads on top
               (resource name "topFactor").

       -bfactor int
               This option specifies the multiply factor  for  the   beads  on
               bottom (resource name "bottomFactor").

       -tspaces int
               This  option  specifies  the  number of spaces on top (resource
               name "topSpaces").

       -bspaces int
               This option specifies the number of spaces on bottom  (resource
               name "bottomSpaces").

       -[no]torient
               This  option  specifies  the  orientation  of  the beads on top
               (resource name "topOrient").

       -[no]borient
               This option specifies the orientation of the  beads  on  bottom
               (resource name "bottomOrient").

       -delay msecs
               This  option  specifies  the number of milliseconds it takes to
               move a bead or a  group  of  beads  one  space  (resource  name
               "delay").

       -[no]sound
               This  option specifies if a sliding bead should make a sound or
               not (resource name "sound").

       -bumpSound filename
               This option specifies the file for  the  bump  sound  (resource
               name "bumpSound").

       -moveSound filename
               This  option  specifies  the  file for the move sound (resource
               name "moveSound").

       -[no]demo
               This option specifies to run in demo mode.  In this  mode,  the
               abacus  is  controlled  by  the  current  lesson (resource name
               "demo").  When started with the demo option, a window  contains
               descriptive  text,  and  user  prompts  are  displayed  in this
               window.  Pressing ’q’ during the demo will quit  it.   Clicking
               the  left  mouse-button  with  the  pointer  in the window will
               restart the demo (beginning of current lesson).  The demo  uses
               Abacus1.les  for the first Chinese Abacus lesson, Abacusjp1.les
               for the first Japanese (and Roman) Abacus lesson, Abacusko1.les
               for  the  Korean  Abacus,  and  Abacusru1.les  for  the Russian
               Abacus.

       -[no]script
               This option specifies to log application to stdout, every  time
               the user clicks to move the beads (resource name "script"). The
               output is a set of deck, rail, beads added or  subtracted,  and
               the  number  of text lines (4).  This can be edited to add text
               to the lesson and used as a  new  demo  keeping  the  generated
               numbers and the number of lines constant.  If you want to add a
               "do nothing", the first line generated is an example  of  that.
               For example: "xabacus -script > Abacus5.les"

       -demopath path
               This option specifies the path for the demo, possibly something
               like /usr/share/games/xabacus (resource name  "demoPath").   It
               initially  looks  for  Abacus1.les.   If it finds that, it will
               later look for Abacus2.les, etc.

       -demofont fontstring
               This option specifies the font for the  explanatory  text  that
               appears  in the secondary window, during the demo.  The default
               font is 18 point  Times-Roman  (-*-times-*-r-*-*-*-180-*).  The
               alternate font is 8x13.

       -demofg color
               This  option specifies the foreground of the abacus demo window
               (resource name "demoForeground").

       -demobg color
               This option specifies the background of the abacus demo  window
               (resource name "demoBackground").

       -version
               This option tells you what version of xabacus you have.

REFERENCES

       Luis Fernandes  http://www.ee.ryerson.ca/~elf/abacus/

       Lee Kai-chen, How to Learn Lee’s Abacus, 1958, 58 pages.

       Abacus Guide Book, 57 pages.

       Georges  Ifrah,  The Universal History of Numbers, Wiley Press 2000, pp
       209-211, 288-294.

       Review of the above: http://www.ams.org/notices/200201/rev-dauben.pdf

       David  Eugene  Smith,  History  of   Mathematics   Volume   II,   Dover
       Publications, Inc 1958, pp 156-195.0

SEE ALSO

       X(1), xrubik(6), xskewb(6), xdino(6), xpyraminx(6), xoct(6), xmball(6),
       xmlink(6), xpanex(6), xcubes(6), xtriangles(6), xhexagons(6)

COPYRIGHTS

       ® Copyright 1994-2005, David Albert Bagley

       Luis  Fernandes,  <elf@ee.ryerson.ca>  wrote  an  independent   program
       (xabacus 1.00) with a demo mode and postscript file.  I tried, with his
       permission, to take the best features of both into one program.  Also I
       had help with some of the abacus in the Java version by Sarat Chandran,
       <aratcmahadevan@yahoo.com> and some of these  ideas  were  ported  back
       into this X version.

BUG REPORTS AND PROGRAM UPDATES

       Send bugs (or their reports, or fixes) to the author:
              David Albert Bagley, <bagleyd@tux.org>

       The latest version is currently at:
              ftp://ftp.tux.org/pub/tux/bagleyd/xabacus
              ftp://ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/apps/math