Provided by: coreutils_5.93-5ubuntu4_i386 bug


       chmod - change file access permissions


       chmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
       chmod [OPTION]... OCTAL-MODE FILE...
       chmod [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...


       This manual page documents the GNU version of chmod.  chmod changes the
       permissions of each given file according to mode, which can be either a
       symbolic  representation  of  changes  to  make,  or  an  octal  number
       representing the bit pattern for the new permissions.

       The       format       of       a        symbolic        mode        is
       ‘[ugoa...][[+-=][rwxXstugo...]...][,...]’.       Multiple      symbolic
       operations can be given, separated by commas.

       A combination of the letters ‘ugoa’ controls which users’ access to the
       file  will  be  changed:  the  user who owns it (u), other users in the
       file’s group (g), other users not in the file’s group (o), or all users
       (a).   If  none of these are given, the effect is as if ‘a’ were given,
       but bits that are set in the umask are not affected.

       The operator ‘+’ causes the permissions selected to  be  added  to  the
       existing  permissions  of each file; ‘-’ causes them to be removed; and
       ‘=’ causes them to be the only permissions that the file has.

       The letters ‘rwxXstugo’ select the new  permissions  for  the  affected
       users:  read  (r),  write (w), execute (or access for directories) (x),
       execute only if  the  file  is  a  directory  or  already  has  execute
       permission  for  some  user (X), set user or group ID on execution (s),
       sticky (t), the permissions granted to the user who owns the file  (u),
       the  permissions  granted  to other users who are members of the file’s
       group (g), and the permissions granted to users that are in neither  of
       the two preceding categories (o).

       A  numeric  mode  is  from  one  to four octal digits (0-7), derived by
       adding up the bits with values 4, 2, and 1.   Any  omitted  digits  are
       assumed  to  be leading zeros.  The first digit selects the set user ID
       (4) and set group ID (2) and sticky (1) attributes.  The  second  digit
       selects  permissions  for  the  user who owns the file: read (4), write
       (2), and execute (1); the third selects permissions for other users  in
       the  file’s group, with the same values; and the fourth for other users
       not in the file’s group, with the same values.

       chmod never changes the permissions of symbolic links; the chmod system
       call  cannot change their permissions.  This is not a problem since the
       permissions of symbolic  links  are  never  used.   However,  for  each
       symbolic link listed on the command line, chmod changes the permissions
       of the pointed-to file.  In  contrast,  chmod  ignores  symbolic  links
       encountered during recursive directory traversals.


       On  older  Unix  systems,  the sticky bit caused executable files to be
       hoarded in swap space.   This  feature  is  not  useful  on  modern  VM
       systems,  and  the Linux kernel ignores the sticky bit on files.  Other
       kernels may use the sticky bit on files  for  system-defined  purposes.
       On some systems, only the superuser can set the sticky bit on files.


       When  the sticky bit is set on a directory, files in that directory may
       be unlinked or renamed only by the directory owner as well as  by  root
       or the file owner.  Without the sticky bit, anyone able to write to the
       directory can delete or rename files.  The sticky bit is commonly found
       on directories, such as /tmp, that are world-writable.


       Change the mode of each FILE to MODE.

       -c, --changes
              like verbose but report only when a change is made

              do not treat ‘/’ specially (the default)

              fail to operate recursively on ‘/’

       -f, --silent, --quiet
              suppress most error messages

       -v, --verbose
              output a diagnostic for every file processed

              use RFILE’s mode instead of MODE values

       -R, --recursive
              change files and directories recursively

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       Each MODE is of the form ‘[ugoa]*([-+=]([rwxXst]*|[ugo]))+’.


       Written by David MacKenzie and Jim Meyering.


       Report bugs to <>.


       Copyright © 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This  is  free  software.   You may redistribute copies of it under the
       terms      of      the      GNU      General       Public       License
       <>.   There  is NO WARRANTY, to the
       extent permitted by law.


       The full documentation for chmod is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the  info  and  chmod programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info chmod

       should give you access to the complete manual.