Provided by: pari-gp_2.1.7-2_i386 bug


       gp - PARI calculator


       gp [-emacs] [-f] [-test] [-q] [-s stacksize] [-p primelimit]


       Invokes  the  PARI-GP  calculator.  This  is  an  advanced programmable
       calculator,  which  computes  symbolically   as   long   as   possible,
       numerically  where  needed,  and  contains a wealth of number-theoretic
       functions (elliptic curves, class  field  theory...).  Its  basic  data
       types are

              integers,   real  numbers,  exact  rational  numbers,  algebraic
              numbers, p-adic numbers, complex numbers,

       modular integers
              integers modulo n,

              and rational functions,

       power series,

       binary quadratic forms,

       matrices, vectors,
              and lists,

       character strings,

       and recursive combinations of these.


       A numeric argument to the following options can be followed by a k or a
       M at the user’s convenience. In that case the argument is multiplied by
       1000 or 1000000 respectively. The following command  line  options  are

       -emacs GP  can  be  run  in  an  Emacs  shell (see GP User’s manual for
              details). This flag is then required for smooth interaction with
              the relevant Emacs package (pari.el). It is set automatically by
              the pari.el package, and will produce nice display  oddities  if
              you set it outside of an Emacs session.

       -f     Fast  start (or factory settings). Do not read .gprc (see below)
              upon startup.

       -q     Quiet mode. Don’t print headers or history  numbers,  don’t  say

       -p primelimit
              Upon  startup,  GP computes a table of small primes used in most
              number-theoretic  applications.  If  primelimit  is  set   here,
              include  primes  up  to  that  bound  instead  of  the  default.
              Unreasonably high  values  will  considerably  increase  startup
              time.  Exceedingly small values will cause some number-theoretic
              functions to fail  with  the  message  "not  enough  precomputed

       -s stacksize
              Size of GP internal stack. The stack is increased from within GP
              in case of need but might interrupt  an  important  computation.
              If  your  machine  can  stand  it,  start  with  a  bigger stack
              (especially if you make heavy use of linear algebra).  Not  that
              computations  with  a smaller stack may be more efficient due to
              better data locality. Sensible  computations  should  need  less
              than 20MB.

       -test  run  GP  in  test mode: suppress printing of history numbers and
              wrap long output  lines  (to  get  readable  diff  output).  For
              benches only.


       ?      to get online help.

       ??     to  get  extended  online  help  (more  precisely,  to  call the
              external help program, gphelp by default)

       quit   (or \q), or EOF (Ctrl-D) to quit gp.

       The following works only when gp was linked with GNU readline library:

       arrow keys
              for editing and viewing the input history.

       TAB     for automatic completion


       The  following  material  is  included  in  the  standard  distribution
       (originally in TeX format):

       The PARI/GP Userss Manual

       PARI/GP, a tutorial
              (tutorial.dvi): not yet completed but still useful.

       PARI/GP reference card
              (  4 pages, based on an earlier version by Joseph H.

              explains the use of the pari.el package, and how to customize it
              (prompt, colors).


       gp     main executable

              (or  $GPRC  if  set)  read  at beginning of execution by each gp
              shell.  A  default  gprc   gprc.dft   is   provided   with   the
              distribution. If this file cannot be found, /etc/gprc is checked

              default logfile (can be changed in .gprc or interactively  using
              default() )
              default psfile used for postscript output (as above)

              default external help program (as above)

              elisp package to run pari in an Emacs shell. Must be loaded from
              your .emacs file.

       *.gp   gp programs


       $GPRC  place to look for the  user’s  gprc  file  (before  $HOME/.gprc,
              ./gprc, and /etc/gprc in this order).


       The most recent distributions can be found at

       Tips,  development  info, nice icons and bad jokes can be found at PARI
       home page, set up by Gerhard Niklasch at


       There are three mailing lists  devoted  to  the  PARI/GP  package  (run
       courtesy  of  Dan  Bernstein),  and most feedback should be directed to
       those. They are:

       - pari-announce (moderated): for us to announce major version  changes.

       -  pari-dev:  for  everything  related  to  the  development  of  PARI,
       including  suggestions,  technical  questions,  bug  reports  or  patch

       - pari-users: for everything else.

       To subscribe, send empty messages respectively to


       If  you  find  a bug, you should report it. But first make sure that it
       really is a bug and that it appears in the latest version  of  gp  that
       you have. Then you can actually mail your bug report (make it short and
       easily reproducible if possible), including the header gp  displays  on
       startup,  to  the pari-dev mailing list (preferably) or to pari@math.u-  Fixes are welcome too !


       Despite the leading G, GP has nothing to do with GNU. The first version
       was  originally called GPC, for Great Programmable Calculator. For some
       reason, the trailing C was eventually dropped.

       PARI has nothing to do with the French capital. The name is a pun about
       the  project’s  early  stages  when  the authors started to implement a
       library for "Pascal ARIthmetic"  in  the  PASCAL  programming  language
       (they quickly switched to C).

       For  the  benefit  of  non-native  French  speakers,  here’s a slightly
       expanded explanation: Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)  was  a  famous  French
       mathematician   and   philosopher  who  was  one  of  the  founders  of
       probability and devised one of the first "arithmetic machines". He once
       proposed  the  following  "proof"  of  the  existence  of  God  for the
       unbelievers: whether He exists or not I lose nothing  by  believing  in
       Him,  whereas if He does and I misbehave... This is the so-called "pari
       de Pascal" (Pascal’s bet).

       Note that PARI also means "fairy" in Persian.


       PARI was originally written by  Christian  Batut,  Dominique  Bernardi,
       Henri Cohen, and Michel Olivier in Laboratoire A2X (Universite Bordeaux
       I, France), and was maintained by Henri Cohen up  to  version  1.39.15,
       and by Karim Belabas since then.

       A   great   number   of  people  have  contributed  to  the  successive
       improvements which eventually resulted in the present version. See  the
       AUTHORS file in the distribution.


       dvips(1), emacs(1), gap(1), ghostview(1), gphelp(1), maple(1), perl(1),
       readline(3), tex(1), xdvi(1)


       This program is  free  software;  you   can   redistribute   it  and/or
       modify   it  under  the  terms  of  the  GNU  General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it  will  be  useful,  but
       WITHOUT   ANY   WARRANTY;   without   even   the  implied  warranty  of
       General Public License for more details.

       You  should  have  received a copy of the  GNU  General  Public License
       along   with  this  program;  if  not,  write  to  the  Free   Software
       Foundation,  Inc.,  675  Mass  Ave,  Cambridge,  MA 02139, USA.

                                 25 June 1999                            GP(1)