**NAME**

gp - PARI calculator

**SYNOPSIS**

gp[-emacs] [-f] [-test] [-q] [-sstacksize] [-pprimelimit]

**DESCRIPTION**

Invokes the PARI-GP calculator. This is an advanced programmable calculator, which computes symbolically as long as possible, numerically where needed, and contains a wealth of number-theoretic functions (elliptic curves, class field theory...). Its basic data types are numbers integers, real numbers, exact rational numbers, algebraic numbers,p-adic numbers, complex numbers, modular integers integers modulon, polynomials and rational functions, power series, binary quadratic forms, matrices, vectors, and lists, character strings, and recursive combinations of these.

**OPTIONS**

A numeric argument to the following options can be followed by akor aMat the userâ€™s convenience. In that case the argument is multiplied by 1000 or 1000000 respectively. The following command line options are available:-emacsGP can be run in anEmacsshell (see GP Userâ€™s manual for details). This flag is then required for smooth interaction with the relevantEmacspackage (pari.el). It is set automatically by the pari.el package, and will produce nice display oddities if you set it outside of anEmacssession.-fFast start (or factory settings). Do not read.gprc(see below) upon startup.-qQuiet mode. Donâ€™t print headers or history numbers, donâ€™t say goodbye.-pprimelimitUpon startup, GP computes a table of small primes used in most number-theoretic applications. Ifprimelimitis set here, include primes up to that bound instead of the default. Unreasonably high values will considerably increase startup time. Exceedingly small values will cause some number-theoretic functions to fail with the message "not enough precomputed primes".-sstacksizeSize of GP internal stack. The stack is increased from within GP in case of need but might interrupt an important computation. If your machine can stand it, start with a bigger stack (especially if you make heavy use of linear algebra). Not that computations with asmallerstack may be more efficient due to better data locality. Sensible computations should need less than 20MB.-testrun GP in test mode: suppress printing of history numbers and wrap long output lines (to get readable diff output). For benches only.

**USE**

?to get online help.??to get extended online help (more precisely, to call the external help program,gphelpby default)quit(or \q), orEOF(Ctrl-D) to quitgp. The following works only when gp was linked with GNUreadlinelibrary: arrow keys for editing and viewing the input history.TABfor automatic completion

**MANUALS**

The following material is included in the standard distribution (originally in TeX format):ThePARI/GPUsersâ€™sManual(users.dvi)PARI/GP,atutorial(tutorial.dvi): not yet completed but still useful.PARI/GPreferencecard(refcard.ps): 4 pages, based on an earlier version by Joseph H. Silverman.pariemacs.txtexplains the use of the pari.el package, and how to customize it (prompt, colors).

**FILES**

gpmain executable$HOME/.gprc(or $GPRC if set) read at beginning of execution by eachgpshell. A default gprcgprc.dftis provided with the distribution. If this file cannot be found,/etc/gprcis checked instead.pari.logdefault logfile (can be changed in.gprcor interactively usingdefault())pari.psdefault psfile used for postscript output (as above)/usr/bin/gphelpdefault external help program (as above)/usr/share/doc/pari-gp/emacs/pari.elelisp package to run pari in anEmacsshell. Must be loaded from your.emacsfile.*.gpgp programs

**ENVIRONMENT**

$GPRCplace to look for the userâ€™s gprc file (before $HOME/.gprc, ./gprc, and /etc/gprc in this order).

**PRIMARY** **FTP** **SITE**

The most recent distributions can be found atftp://megrez.math.u-bordeaux.fr/pub/pariTips, development info, nice icons and bad jokes can be found at PARI home page, set up by Gerhard Niklasch athttp://www.parigp-home.de/

**MAILING** **LISTS**

There are three mailing lists devoted to the PARI/GP package (run courtesy of Dan Bernstein), and most feedback should be directed to those. They are: -pari-announce(moderated): for us to announce major version changes. -pari-dev:for everything related to the development of PARI, including suggestions, technical questions, bug reports or patch submissions. -pari-users:for everything else. To subscribe, send empty messages respectively to pari-announce-subscribe@list.cr.yp.to pari-users-subscribe@list.cr.yp.to pari-dev-subscribe@list.cr.yp.to

**BUG** **REPORTS**

If you find a bug, you should report it. But first make sure that it really is a bug and that it appears in the latest version ofgpthat you have. Then you can actually mail your bug report (make it short and easily reproducible if possible), including the headergpdisplays on startup, to thepari-devmailing list (preferably) or topari@math.u-bordeaux.fr. Fixes are welcome too !

**TRIVIA**

Despite the leading G, GP has nothing to do with GNU. The first version was originally called GPC, for Great Programmable Calculator. For some reason, the trailing C was eventually dropped. PARI has nothing to do with the French capital. The name is a pun about the projectâ€™s early stages when the authors started to implement a library for "Pascal ARIthmetic" in the PASCAL programming language (they quickly switched to C). For the benefit of non-native French speakers, hereâ€™s a slightly expanded explanation:BlaisePascal(1623-1662) was a famous French mathematician and philosopher who was one of the founders of probability and devised one of the first "arithmetic machines". He once proposed the following "proof" of the existence of God for the unbelievers: whether He exists or not I lose nothing by believing in Him, whereas if He does and I misbehave... This is the so-called "pari de Pascal" (Pascalâ€™s bet). Note that PARI also means "fairy" in Persian.

**AUTHORS**

PARI was originally written by Christian Batut, Dominique Bernardi, Henri Cohen, and Michel Olivier in Laboratoire A2X (Universite Bordeaux I, France), and was maintained by Henri Cohen up to version 1.39.15, and by Karim Belabas since then. A great number of people have contributed to the successive improvements which eventually resulted in the present version. See the AUTHORS file in the distribution.

**SEE** **ALSO**

dvips(1),emacs(1),gap(1),ghostview(1),gphelp(1),maple(1),perl(1),readline(3),tex(1),xdvi(1)

**COPYING**

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. 25 June 1999 GP(1)