Provided by: procps_3.2.6-2ubuntu4_i386 bug

NAME

SYNOPSIS

ps [options]

DESCRIPTION

ps displays information about a selection of the active processes. If you want
a repetitive update of the selection and the displayed information, use top(1)
instead.

This version of ps accepts several kinds of options:
the many standards and ps implementations that this ps is compatible with.

Note that "ps -aux" is distinct from "ps aux". The POSIX and UNIX standards
require that "ps -aux" print all processes owned by a user named "x", as well
as printing all processes that would be selected by the -a option. If the user
named "x" does not exist, this ps may interpret the command as "ps aux"
By default, ps selects all processes with the same effective user ID
(euid=EUID) as the current user and associated with the same terminal as the
(time=TIME), and the executable name (ucmd=CMD). Output is unsorted by
default.
name. You can override this with the PS_FORMAT environment variable. The use
below, so -M will be considered identical to Z and so on.

EXAMPLES

   ps -e
   ps -ef
   ps -eF
   ps -ely
   ps ax
   ps axu
   ps -ejH
   ps axjf
   ps -eLf
   ps axms
   ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
   ps axZ
   ps -eM
   ps -U root -u root u
   ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
   ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
   ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan
   ps -C syslogd -o pid=
   ps -p 42 -o comm=

SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION

-A              Select all processes. Identical to -e.

-N              Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified
                conditions. (negates the selection) Identical to --deselect.

T               Select all processes associated with this terminal. Identical
                to the t option without any argument.

-a              Select all processes except session leaders (see getsid(2))
                and processes not associated with a terminal.

a               Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which is
                imposed upon the set of all processes when some BSD-style
                (without "-") options are used or when the ps personality
                setting is BSD-like. The set of processes selected in this
                manner is in addition to the set of processes selected by
                other means. An alternate description is that this option
                causes ps to list all processes with a terminal (tty), or to
                list all processes when used together with the x option.

-d              Select all processes except session leaders.

-e              Select all processes. Identical to -A.

g               Really all, even session leaders. This flag is obsolete and
                may be discontinued in a future release. It is normally
                implied by the a flag, and is only useful when operating in
                the sunos4 personality.

r               Restrict the selection to only running processes.

x               Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which is
                imposed upon the set of all processes when some BSD-style
                (without "-") options are used or when the ps personality
                setting is BSD-like. The set of processes selected in this
                manner is in addition to the set of processes selected by
                other means. An alternate description is that this option
                causes ps to list all processes owned by you (same EUID as
                ps), or to list all processes when used together with the a
                option.

--deselect      Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified
                conditions. (negates the selection) Identical to -N.

PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST

For example: ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4

-C cmdlist      Select by command name.
                This selects the processes whose executable name is given in
                cmdlist.

-G grplist      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.
                This selects the processes whose real group name or ID is in
                the grplist list. The real group ID identifies the group of
                the user who created the process, see getgid(2).

U userlist      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
                This selects the processes whose effective user name or ID is
                in userlist. The effective user ID describes the user whose
                file access permissions are used by the process
                (see geteuid(2)). Identical to -u and --user.

-U userlist     select by real user ID (RUID) or name.
                It selects the processes whose real user name or ID is in the
                userlist list. The real user ID identifies the user who
                created the process, see getuid(2).

-g grplist      Select by session OR by effective group name.
                Selection by session is specified by many standards, but
                selection by effective group is the logical behavior that
                several other operating systems use. This ps will select by
                session when the list is completely numeric (as sessions are).
                Group ID numbers will work only when some group names are also
                specified. See the -s and --group options.

p pidlist       Select by process ID. Identical to -p and --pid.

-p pidlist      Select by PID.
                This selects the processes whose process ID numbers appear in
                pidlist. Identical to p and --pid.

-s sesslist     Select by session ID.
                This selects the processes with a session ID specified
                in sesslist.

t ttylist       Select by tty. Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but can also
                be used with an empty ttylist to indicate the terminal
                associated with ps. Using the T option is considered cleaner
                than using T with an empty ttylist.

-t ttylist      Select by tty.
                This selects the processes associated with the terminals given
                in ttylist. Terminals (ttys, or screens for text output) can
                be specified in several forms: /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1. A plain
                "-" may be used to select processes not attached to any
                terminal.

-u userlist     Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
                This selects the processes whose effective user name or ID is
                in userlist. The effective user ID describes the user whose
                file access permissions are used by the process
                (see geteuid(2)). Identical to U and --user.

--Group grplist Select by real group ID (RGID) or name. Identical to -G.

--User userlist Select by real user ID (RUID) or name. Identical to -U.

--group grplist Select by effective group ID (EGID) or name.
                This selects the processes whose effective group name or ID is
                in grouplist. The effective group ID describes the group whose
                file access permissions are used by the process
                (see geteuid(2)). The -g option is often an alternative
                to --group.

--pid pidlist   Select by process ID. Identical to -p and p.

--ppid pidlist  Select by parent process ID. This selects the processes with a
                parent process ID in pidlist. That is, it selects processes
                that are children of those listed in pidlist.

--sid sesslist  Select by session ID. Identical to -s.

--tty ttylist   Select by terminal. Identical to -t and t.

--user userlist Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name. Identical to -u

                and U.

-123            Identical to --sid 123.

123             Identical to --pid 123.

OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL

These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps. The output
-F              extra full format. See the -f option, which -F implies.

-O format       is like -o, but preloaded with some default columns. Identical
                to -o pid,format,state,tname,time,command or
                -o pid,format,tname,time,cmd, see -o below.

O format        is preloaded o (overloaded).
                The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output format
                with some common fields predefined) or can be used to specify
                sort order. Heuristics are used to determine the behavior of
                this option. To ensure that the desired behavior is obtained
                (sorting or formatting), specify the option in some other way
                (e.g. with -O or --sort). When used as a formatting option, it
                is identical to -O, with the BSD personality.

-M              Add a column of security data. Identical to Z. (for SE Linux)

X               Register format.

Z               Add a column of security data. Identical to -M. (for SE Linux)

-c              Show different scheduler information for the -l option.

-f              does full-format listing. This option can be combined with
                many other UNIX-style options to add additional columns. It
                also causes the command arguments to be printed. When used
                with -L, the NLWP (number of threads) and LWP (thread ID)
                columns will be added. See the c option, the format keyword
                args, and the format keyword comm.

j               BSD job control format.

-j              jobs format

l               display BSD long format.

-l              long format. The -y option is often useful with this.

o format        specify user-defined format. Identical to -o and --format.

-o format       user-defined format.
                format is a single argument in the form of a blank-separated
                or comma-separated list, which offers a way to specify
                individual output columns. The recognized keywords are
                described in the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section below.
                Headers may be renamed
                (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command) as desired. If all
                column headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=) then the header
                line will not be output. Column width will increase as needed
                for wide headers; this may be used to widen up columns such as
                WCHAN (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-COLUMN -o comm). Explicit
                width control (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too. The
                behavior of ps -o pid=X,comm=Y varies with personality; output
                may be one column named "X,comm=Y" or two columns named "X"
                and "Y". Use multiple -o options when in doubt. Use the
                PS_FORMAT environment variable to specify a default as
                desired; DefSysV and DefBSD are macros that may be used to
                choose the default UNIX or BSD columns.

s               display signal format

u               display user-oriented format

v               display virtual memory format

-y              Do not show flags; show rss in place of addr. This option can
                only be used with -l.

--format format user-defined format. Identical to -o and o.

--context       Display security context format. (for SE Linux)

OUTPUT MODIFIERS

-H              show process hierarchy (forest)

N namelist      Specify namelist file. Identical to -n, see -n above.

O order         Sorting order. (overloaded)
                The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output format
                with some common fields predefined) or can be used to specify
                sort order. Heuristics are used to determine the behavior of
                this option. To ensure that the desired behavior is obtained
                (sorting or formatting), specify the option in some other way
                (e.g. with -O or --sort).

                For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is
                O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]]. It orders the processes listing
                according to the multilevel sort specified by the sequence of
                one-letter short keys k1, k2, ... described in the OBSOLETE
                SORT KEYS section below. The "+" is currently optional, merely
                re-iterating the default direction on a key, but may help to
                distinguish an O sort from an O format. The "-" reverses
                direction only on the key it precedes.

S               Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead child
                processes into their parent. This is useful for examining a
                system where a parent process repeatedly forks off short-lived
                children to do work.

c               Show the true command name. This is derived from the name of
                the executable file, rather than from the argv value. Command
                arguments and any modifications to them (see setproctitle(3))
                are thus not shown. This option effectively turns the args
                format keyword into the comm format keyword; it is useful with
                the -f format option and with the various BSD-style format
                options, which all normally display the command arguments. See
                the -f option, the format keyword args, and the format keyword
                comm.

e               Show the environment after the command.

f               ASCII-art process hierarchy (forest)

h               No header. (or, one header per screen in the BSD personality)
                The h option is problematic. Standard BSD ps uses this option
                to print a header on each page of output, but older Linux ps
                uses this option to totally disable the header. This version
                of ps follows the Linux usage of not printing the header
                unless the BSD personality has been selected, in which case it
                prints a header on each page of output. Regardless of the
                current personality, you can use the long options --headers
                and --no-headers to enable printing headers each page or
                disable headers entirely, respectively.

k spec          specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
                [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key from the
                STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is optional since
                default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic
                order. Identical to --sort. Examples:
                ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
                ps axk comm o comm,args
                ps kstart_time -ef

-n namelist     set namelist file. Identical to N.
                The namelist file is needed for a proper WCHAN display, and
                must match the current Linux kernel exactly for correct
                output. Without this option, the default search path for the
                namelist is:

                     $PS_SYSMAP
                     $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
                     /proc/*/wchan
                     /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
                     /boot/System.map
                     /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
                     /usr/src/linux/System.map
                     /System.map

n               Numeric output for WCHAN and USER. (including all types of UID
                and GID)

-w              Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.

w               Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.

--cols n        set screen width

--columns n     set screen width

--cumulative    include some dead child process data (as a sum with the
                parent)

--forest        ASCII art process tree

--headers       repeat header lines, one per page of output

--no-headers    print no header line at all

--lines n       set screen height

--rows n        set screen height

--sort spec     specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
                [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key from the
                STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is optional since
                default direction is increasing numerical or lexicographic
                order. Identical to k. For example:
                ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid

--width n       set screen width

THREAD DISPLAY

H               Show threads as if they were processes

-L              Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns

-T              Show threads, possibly with SPID column

m               Show threads after processes

-m              Show threads after processes

OTHER INFORMATION

L               List all format specifiers.

-V              Print the procps version.

V               Print the procps version.

--help          Print a help message.

--info          Print debugging info.

--version       Print the procps version.

NOTES

This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc. This ps does not need to
be setuid kmem or have any privileges to run. Do not give this ps any special
permissions.

This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display. For kernels
conform to the standards that ps otherwise conforms to. CPU usage is unlikely
will be destroyed by init(8) if the parent process exits.

PROCESS FLAGS

the flags output specifier.

PROCESS STATE CODES

Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output specifiers
(header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of a process.
For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional characters may
<    high-priority (not nice to other users)
+    is in the foreground process group

OBSOLETE SORT KEYS

These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting). The GNU
--sort option doesn’t use these keys, but the specifiers described below in
the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. Note that the values used in sorting
are the internal values ps uses and not the "cooked" values used in some of
not according to the terminal name displayed). Pipe ps output into the sort(1)

KEY LONG DESCRIPTION

AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS

This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the
formatting codes of printf(1) and printf(3). For example, the normal default
output can be produced with this:  ps -eo "%p %y %x %c". The NORMAL codes are

CODE NORMAL HEADER

%C     pcpu     %CPU
%G     group    GROUP
%P     ppid     PPID
%U     user     USER
%a     args     COMMAND
%c     comm     COMMAND
%g     rgroup   RGROUP
%n     nice     NI
%p     pid      PID
%r     pgid     PGID
%t     etime    ELAPSED
%u     ruser    RUSER
%x     time     TIME
%y     tty      TTY
%z     vsz      VSZ

STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS

(e.g. with option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the GNU-style
--sort option.

For example:  ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user

This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in other
implementations of ps.

The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces: args, cmd,
comm, command, fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.

CODE HEADER DESCRIPTION


%cpu       %CPU     cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format.
                    Currently, it is the CPU time used divided by the time the
                    process has been running (cputime/realtime ratio),
                    expressed as a percentage. It will not add up to 100%
                    unless you are lucky. (alias pcpu).

%mem       %MEM     ratio of the process’s resident set size  to the physical
                    memory on the machine, expressed as a percentage.
                    (alias pmem).

args       COMMAND  command with all its arguments as a string. Modifications
                    to the arguments may be shown. The output in this column
                    may contain spaces. A process marked <defunct> is partly
                    dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by its parent.
                    Sometimes the process args will be unavailable; when this
                    happens, ps will instead print the executable name in
                    brackets. (alias cmd, command). See also the comm format
                    keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
                    When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
                    of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
                    when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
                    command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
                    unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
                    COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
                    to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
                    option may be also be used to adjust width.

blocked    BLOCKED  mask of the blocked signals, see signal(7). According to
                    the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
                    hexadecimal format is displayed.
                    (alias sig_block, sigmask).

bsdstart   START    time the command started. If the process was started less
                    than 24 hours ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it
                    is "mmm dd" (where mmm is the three letters of the month).

bsdtime    TIME     accumulated cpu time, user + system. The display format is
                    usually "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the
                    process used more than 999 minutes of cpu time.

c          C        processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer
                    value of the percent usage over the lifetime of the
                    process. (see %cpu).

caught     CAUGHT   mask of the caught signals, see signal(7). According to
                    the width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in
                    hexadecimal format is displayed.
                    (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).

class      CLS      scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, cls).
                    Field’s possible values are:
                    -   not reported
                    TS  SCHED_OTHER
                    FF  SCHED_FIFO
                    RR  SCHED_RR
                    ?   unknown value

cls        CLS      scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, class).
                    Field’s possible values are:
                    -   not reported
                    TS  SCHED_OTHER
                    FF  SCHED_FIFO
                    RR  SCHED_RR
                    ?   unknown value

cmd        CMD      see args. (alias args, command).

comm       COMMAND  command name (only the executable name). Modifications to
                    the command name will not be shown. A process marked
                    <defunct> is partly dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by
                    its parent. The output in this column may contain spaces.
                    (alias ucmd, ucomm). See also the args format keyword, the
                    -f option, and the c option.
                    When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
                    of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
                    when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
                    command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
                    unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
                    COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
                    to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
                    option may be also be used to adjust width.

command    COMMAND  see args. (alias args, cmd).

cp         CP       per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage. (see %cpu).

cputime    TIME     cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format. (alias time).

egid       EGID     effective group ID number of the process as a decimal
                    integer. (alias gid).

egroup     EGROUP   effective group ID of the process. This will be the
                    textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field
                    width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
                    (alias group).

eip        EIP      instruction pointer.

esp        ESP      stack pointer.

etime      ELAPSED  elapsed time since the process was started, in the
                    form [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss.

euid       EUID     effective user ID. (alias uid).

euser      EUSER    effective user name. This will be the textual user ID,
                    if it can be obtained and the field width permits,
                    or a decimal representation otherwise. The n option can be
                    used to force the decimal representation.
                    (alias uname, user).

f F flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS

                    section. (alias flag, flags).

fgid       FGID     filesystem access group ID. (alias fsgid).

fgroup     FGROUP   filesystem access group ID. This will be the textual
                    user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
                    permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
                    (alias fsgroup).

flag       F        see f. (alias f, flags).

flags      F        see f. (alias f, flag).

fname      COMMAND  first 8 bytes of the base name of the process’s executable
                    file. The output in this column may contain spaces.

fuid       FUID     filesystem access user ID. (alias fsuid).

fuser      FUSER    filesystem access user ID. This will be the textual
                    user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
                    permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

gid        GID      see egid. (alias egid).

group      GROUP    see egroup. (alias egroup).

ignored    IGNORED  mask of the ignored signals, see signal(7). According to
                    the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
                    hexadecimal format is displayed. (alias sig_ignore,
                    sigignore).

label      LABEL    security label, most commonly used for SE Linux context
                    data. This is for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC")
                    found on high-security systems.

lstart     STARTED  time the command started.

lwp        LWP      lwp (light weight process, or thread) ID of the lwp being
                    reported. (alias spid, tid).

ni         NI       nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice
                    to others), see nice(1). (alias nice).

nice       NI       see ni. (alias ni).

nlwp       NLWP     number of lwps (threads) in the process. (alias thcount).

nwchan     WCHAN    address of the kernel function where the process is
                    sleeping (use wchan if you want the kernel function name).
                    Running tasks will display a dash (’-’) in this column.

pcpu       %CPU     see %cpu. (alias %cpu).

pending    PENDING  mask of the pending signals. See signal(7). Signals
                    pending on the process are distinct from signals pending
                    on individual threads. Use the m option or the -m option
                    to see both. According to the width of the field, a 32-bit
                    or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
                    (alias sig).

pgid       PGID     process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
                    process group leader. (alias pgrp).

pgrp       PGRP     see pgid. (alias pgid).

pid        PID      process ID number of the process.

pmem       %MEM     see %mem. (alias %mem).

policy     POL      scheduling class of the process. (alias class, cls).
                    Possible values are:
                    -   not reported
                    TS  SCHED_OTHER
                    FF  SCHED_FIFO
                    RR  SCHED_RR
                    ?   unknown value

ppid       PPID     parent process ID.

psr        PSR      processor that process is currently assigned to.

rgid       RGID     real group ID.

rgroup     RGROUP   real group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it
                    can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                    representation otherwise.

rss        RSS      resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a
                    task has used (in kiloBytes). (alias rssize, rsz).

rssize     RSS      see rss. (alias rss, rsz).

rsz        RSZ      see rss. (alias rss, rssize).

rtprio     RTPRIO   realtime priority.

ruid       RUID     real user ID.

ruser      RUSER    real user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can
                    be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                    representation otherwise.

s S minimal state display (one character). See section PROCESS

                    STATE CODES for the different values. See also stat if you
                    want additional information displayed. (alias state).

sched      SCH      scheduling policy of the process. The policies
                    sched_other, sched_fifo, and sched_rr are respectively
                    displayed as 0, 1, and 2.

sess       SESS     session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
                    session leader. (alias session, sid).

sgi_p      P        processor that the process is currently executing on.
                    Displays "*" if the process is not currently running or
                    runnable.

sgid       SGID     saved group ID. (alias svgid).

sgroup     SGROUP   saved group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it
                    can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                    representation otherwise.

sid        SID      see sess. (alias sess, session).

sig        PENDING  see pending. (alias pending, sig_pend).

sigcatch   CAUGHT   see caught. (alias caught, sig_catch).

sigignore  IGNORED  see ignored. (alias ignored, sig_ignore).

sigmask    BLOCKED  see blocked. (alias blocked, sig_block).

size       SZ       approximate amount of swap space that would be required if
                    the process were to dirty all writable pages and then be
                    swapped out. This number is very rough!

spid       SPID     see lwp. (alias lwp, tid).

stackp     STACKP   address of the bottom (start) of stack for the process.

start      STARTED  time the command started. If the process was started less
                    than 24 hours ago, the output format is "HH:MM:SS", else
                    it is "  mmm dd" (where mmm is a three-letter month name).

start_time START    starting time or date of the process. Only the year will
                    be displayed if the process was not started the same year
                    ps was invoked, or "mmmdd" if it was not started the same
                    day, or "HH:MM" otherwise.

stat STAT multi-character process state. See section PROCESS STATE

                    CODES for the different values meaning. See also s and
                    state if you just want the first character displayed.

state      S        see s. (alias s).

suid       SUID     saved user ID. (alias svuid).

suser      SUSER    saved user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it
                    can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                    representation otherwise. (alias svuser).

svgid      SVGID    see sgid. (alias sgid).

svuid      SVUID    see suid. (alias suid).

sz         SZ       size in physical pages of the core image of the process.
                    This includes text, data, and stack space. Device mappings
                    are currently excluded; this is subject to change. See vsz
                    and rss.

thcount    THCNT    see nlwp. (alias nlwp). number of kernel threads owned by
                    the process.

tid        TID      see lwp. (alias lwp).

time       TIME     cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format.
                    (alias cputime).

tname      TTY      controlling tty (terminal). (alias tt, tty).

tpgid      TPGID    ID of the foreground process group on the tty (terminal)
                    that the process is connected to, or -1 if the process is
                    not connected to a tty.

tt         TT       controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tty).

tty        TT       controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tt).

ucmd       CMD      see comm. (alias comm, ucomm).

ucomm      COMMAND  see comm. (alias comm, ucmd).

uid        UID      see euid. (alias euid).

uname      USER     see euser. (alias euser, user).

user       USER     see euser. (alias euser, uname).

vsize      VSZ      see vsz. (alias vsz).

vsz        VSZ      virtual memory size of the process in KiB
                    (1024-byte units). Device mappings are currently excluded;
                    this is subject to change. (alias vsize).

wchan      WCHAN    name of the kernel function in which the process is
                    sleeping, a "-" if the process is running, or a "*" if the
                    process is multi-threaded and ps is not displaying
                    threads.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

The following environment variables could affect ps:

COLUMNS

   Override default display width.

LINES

   Override default display height.

PS_PERSONALITY

   Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
   (see section PERSONALITY below).

CMD_ENV

   Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
   (see section PERSONALITY below).

I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS

   Force obsolete command line interpretation.

LC_TIME

   Date format.

PS_COLORS

   Not currently supported.

PS_FORMAT

   Default output format override. You may set this to a format string of the
   type used for the -o option. The DefSysV and DefBSD values are particularly
   useful.

PS_SYSMAP

   Default namelist (System.map) location.

PS_SYSTEM_MAP

   Default namelist (System.map) location.

POSIXLY_CORRECT

   Don’t find excuses to ignore bad "features".

POSIX2

   When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.

UNIX95

   Don’t find excuses to ignore bad "features".

_XPG

   Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.
CMD_ENV or PS_PERSONALITY, which could be set to Linux for normal systems.
Without that setting, ps follows the useless and bad parts of the Unix98
standard.

PERSONALITY

390        like the S/390 OpenEdition ps
aix        like AIX ps
bsd        like FreeBSD ps (totally non-standard)
compaq     like Digital Unix ps
debian     like the old Debian ps
digital    like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
gnu        like the old Debian ps
hp         like HP-UX ps
hpux       like HP-UX ps
irix       like Irix ps
old        like the original Linux ps (totally non-standard)
os390      like OS/390 Open Edition ps
s390       like OS/390 Open Edition ps
sco        like SCO ps
sgi        like Irix ps
solaris2   like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
sunos4     like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
tru64      like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps

SEE ALSO

top(1), pgrep(1), pstree(1), proc(5).

STANDARDS

This ps conforms to:

AUTHOR

ps was originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>. Michael
<mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list feature. Charles Blake
<cblake@bbn.com> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style library, the
<albert@users.sf.net> rewrote ps for full Unix98 and BSD support, along with