Provided by: groff_1.18.1.1-11_i386 bug


       refer - preprocess bibliographic references for groff


       refer [ -benvCPRS ] [ -an ] [ -cfields ] [ -fn ] [ -ifields ]
             [ -kfield ] [ -lm,n ] [ -pfilename ] [ -sfields ] [ -tn ]
             [ -Bfield.macro ] [ filename... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its


       This file documents the GNU version of refer,  which  is  part  of  the
       groff  document  formatting  system.   refer  copies  the  contents  of
       filename...  to the standard output, except that lines between  .[  and
       .]   are  interpreted  as  citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are
       interpreted as commands about how citations are to be processed.

       Each citation specifies  a  reference.   The  citation  can  specify  a
       reference that is contained in a bibliographic database by giving a set
       of keywords that only that reference contains.   Alternatively  it  can
       specify  a reference by supplying a database record in the citation.  A
       combination of these alternatives is also possible.

       For each citation, refer can produce a mark in  the  text.   This  mark
       consists  of  some  label which can be separated from the text and from
       other labels in various ways.  For each reference it also outputs groff
       commands  that  can  be  used by a macro package to produce a formatted
       reference for each citation.  The output of  refer  must  therefore  be
       processed  using  a suitable macro package.  The -ms and -me macros are
       both suitable.  The commands to format a citation’s  reference  can  be
       output  immediately  after  the  citation,  or  the  references  may be
       accumulated, and the commands output  at  some  later  point.   If  the
       references  are  accumulated,  then  multiple  citations  of  the  same
       reference will produce a single formatted reference.

       The interpretation of lines between .R1 and .R2 as commands  is  a  new
       feature  of  GNU refer.  Documents making use of this feature can still
       be processed by Unix refer just by adding the lines

              .de R1
              .ig R2
       to the beginning of the document.  This  will  cause  troff  to  ignore
       everything  between  .R1 and .R2.  The effect of some commands can also
       be achieved  by  options.   These  options  are  supported  mainly  for
       compatibility  with  Unix  refer.  It is usually more convenient to use

       refer generates .lf  lines  so  that  filenames  and  line  numbers  in
       messages  produced  by commands that read refer output will be correct;
       it also interprets lines beginning with .lf so that filenames and  line
       numbers in the messages and .lf lines that it produces will be accurate
       even if the input has been preprocessed by a command such as soelim(1).


       Most  options  are  equivalent  to commands (for a description of these
       commands see the Commands subsection):

       -b     no-label-in-text; no-label-in-reference

       -e     accumulate

       -n     no-default-database

       -C     compatible

       -P     move-punctuation

       -S     label "(A.n|Q) â€â€™, â€â€™ (D.y|D)"; bracket-label " (" ) "; "

       -an    reverse An

              capitalize fields

       -fn    label %n

              search-ignore fields

       -k     label Lâˆâˆ¼%a

              label fieldâˆâˆ¼%a

       -l     label A.nD.y%a

       -lm    label A.n+mD.y%a

       -l,n   label A.nD.y-n%a

       -lm,n  label A.n+mD.y-n%a

              database filename

       -sspec sort spec

       -tn    search-truncate n

       These options  are  equivalent  to  the  following  commands  with  the
       addition that the filenames specified on the command line are processed
       as if they were arguments to the bibliography command instead of in the
       normal way:

       -B     annotate X AP; no-label-in-reference

              annotate field macro; no-label-in-reference

       The following options have no equivalent commands:

       -v     Print the version number.

       -R     Don’t recognize lines beginning with .R1/.R2.


   Bibliographic databases
       The  bibliographic  database  is  a  text  file  consisting  of records
       separated by one or more blank lines.  Within each record fields  start
       with  a  %  at the beginning of a line.  Each field has a one character
       name that immediately follows the %.  It is best to use only upper  and
       lower  case  letters  for  the  names of fields.  The name of the field
       should be followed by exactly one space, and then by  the  contents  of
       the field.  Empty fields are ignored.  The conventional meaning of each
       field is as follows:

       A      The name of an author.  If the name contains a title such as Jr.
              at  the  end,  it  should  be  separated from the last name by a
              comma.  There can be multiple occurrences of the A  field.   The
              order  is  significant.  It is a good idea always to supply an A
              field or a Q field.

       B      For an article that is part of a book, the title of the book

       C      The place (city) of publication.

       D      The date of publication.  The year should be specified in  full.
              If  the  month  is specified, the name rather than the number of
              the month should be used, but only the first three  letters  are
              required.   It is a good idea always to supply a D field; if the
              date is unknown, a value such as in  press  or  unknown  can  be

       E      For  an article that is part of a book, the name of an editor of
              the book.  Where the work has editors and no authors, the  names
              of the editors should be given as A fields and , (ed) or , (eds)
              should be appended to the last author.

       G      US Government ordering number.

       I      The publisher (issuer).

       J      For an article in a journal, the name of the journal.

       K      Keywords to be used for searching.

       L      Label.

       N      Journal issue number.

       O      Other information.  This is usually printed at the  end  of  the

       P      Page number.  A range of pages can be specified as m-n.

       Q      The  name  of  the  author, if the author is not a person.  This
              will only be used if there are no A fields.  There can  only  be
              one Q field.

       R      Technical report number.

       S      Series name.

       T      Title.   For an article in a book or journal, this should be the
              title of the article.

       V      Volume number of the journal or book.

       X      Annotation.

       For all fields except A and E, if there is more than one occurrence  of
       a  particular field in a record, only the last such field will be used.

       If accent strings are used, they should  follow  the  character  to  be
       accented.   This  means  that  the  AM  macro must be used with the -ms
       macros.  Accent strings should not be quoted: use  one  \  rather  than

       The format of a citation is
              flags keywords

       The opening-text, closing-text and flags components are optional.  Only
       one of the keywords and fields components need be specified.

       The keywords component says to search the bibliographic databases for a
       reference  that  contains all the words in keywords.  It is an error if
       more than one reference if found.

       The  fields  components  specifies  additional  fields  to  replace  or
       supplement those specified in the reference.  When references are being
       accumulated and the keywords component is  non-empty,  then  additional
       fields should be specified only on the first occasion that a particular
       reference is cited, and will apply to all citations of that  reference.

       The  opening-text  and  closing-text  component specifies strings to be
       used to bracket the label instead  of  the  strings  specified  in  the
       bracket-label command.  If either of these components is non-empty, the
       strings specified in the bracket-label command will not be  used;  this
       behaviour  can  be  altered using the [ and ] flags.  Note that leading
       and trailing spaces are significant for these components.

       The flags component is a list of non-alphanumeric  characters  each  of
       which  modifies  the treatment of this particular citation.  Unix refer
       will treat these flags as part of the keywords and so will ignore  them
       since  they  are  non-alphanumeric.   The following flags are currently

       #      This says to use the label specified by the short-label command,
              instead  of  that  specified  by the label command.  If no short
              label has  been  specified,  the  normal  label  will  be  used.
              Typically  the  short  label is used with author-date labels and
              consists of only the date and possibly a disambiguating  letter;
              the # is supposed to be suggestive of a numeric type of label.

       [      Precede  opening-text  with  the  first  string specified in the
              bracket-label command.

       ]      Follow closing-text with the  second  string  specified  in  the
              bracket-label command.

       One  advantages  of  using  the [ and ] flags rather than including the
       brackets in opening-text and closing-text is that you  can  change  the
       style  of  bracket  used  in the document just by changing the bracket-
       label command.  Another  advantage  is  that  sorting  and  merging  of
       citations will not necessarily be inhibited if the flags are used.

       If  a label is to be inserted into the text, it will be attached to the
       line preceding the .[ line.  If there is no such line,  then  an  extra
       line will be inserted before the .[ line and a warning will be given.

       There  is  no  special  notation  for  making  a  citation  to multiple
       references.  Just use a sequence of citations, one for each  reference.
       Don’t  put  anything  between  the  citations.   The labels for all the
       citations will be attached to the line preceding  the  first  citation.
       The labels may also be sorted or merged.  See the description of the <>
       label expression, and of the sort-adjacent-labels and abbreviate-label-
       ranges  command.  A label will not be merged if its citation has a non-
       empty opening-text or closing-text.  However, the labels for a citation
       using the ] flag and without any closing-text immediately followed by a
       citation using the [ flag and without any opening-text  may  be  sorted
       and  merged even though the first citation’s opening-text or the second
       citation’s closing-text is non-empty.  (If you  wish  to  prevent  this
       just make the first citation’s closing-text \&.)

       Commands  are  contained  between  lines  starting  with  .R1  and .R2.
       Recognition of these lines can be prevented by the -R option.   When  a
       .R1  line  is  recognized  any  accumulated references are flushed out.
       Neither .R1 nor .R2 lines, nor anything between them is output.

       Commands are separated by newlines or ;s.  # introduces a comment  that
       extends  to  the  end  of  the line (but does not conceal the newline).
       Each command is broken up into words.  Words are separated by spaces or
       tabs.   A  word  that  begins  with " extends to the next " that is not
       followed by another ".  If there is no such " the word extends  to  the
       end  of  the line.  Pairs of " in a word beginning with " collapse to a
       single ".  Neither # nor ; are recognized inside "s.   A  line  can  be
       continued  by ending it with \; this works everywhere except after a #.

       Each command name that is marked with  *  has  an  associated  negative
       command  no-name  that undoes the effect of name.  For example, the no-
       sort command specifies that  references  should  not  be  sorted.   The
       negative commands take no arguments.

       In the following description each argument must be a single word; field
       is used for a single upper or lower case letter naming a field;  fields
       is  used  for  a  sequence of such letters; m and n are used for a non-
       negative numbers; string is used for an arbitrary string;  filename  is
       used for the name of a file.

       abbreviate* fields string1 string2 string3 string4
                                Abbreviate  the  first  names  of  fields.  An
                                initial letter will be separated from  another
                                initial  letter by string1, from the last name
                                by string2, and from anything else (such as  a
                                von  or  de)  by  string3.  These default to a
                                period followed by a space.  In  a  hyphenated
                                first  name,  the initial of the first part of
                                the name will be separated from the hyphen  by
                                string4;   this  defaults  to  a  period.   No
                                attempt is made to handle any ambiguities that
                                might  result  from  abbreviation.   Names are
                                abbreviated before sorting  and  before  label

       abbreviate-label-ranges* string
                                Three  or  more  adjacent labels that refer to
                                consecutive references will be abbreviated  to
                                a   label   consisting  of  the  first  label,
                                followed by string followed by the last label.
                                This is mainly useful with numeric labels.  If
                                string is omitted it defaults to -.

       accumulate*              Accumulate references instead of  writing  out
                                each   reference   as   it   is   encountered.
                                Accumulated references  will  be  written  out
                                whenever a reference of the form


                                is encountered, after all input files hve been
                                processed,   and   whenever   .R1   line    is

       annotate* field string   field is an annotation; print it at the end of
                                the reference as a paragraph preceded  by  the


                                If  macro is omitted it will default to AP; if
                                field is also omitted it will  default  to  X.
                                Only one field can be an annotation.

       articles string...       string...     are   definite   or   indefinite
                                articles,  and  should  be  ignored   at   the
                                beginning    of   T   fields   when   sorting.
                                Initially, the, a and  an  are  recognized  as

       bibliography filename... Write  out all the references contained in the
                                bibliographic databases filename...

       bracket-label string1 string2 string3
                                In the text, bracket each label  with  string1
                                and   string2.    An   occurrence  of  string2
                                immediately followed by string1 will be turned
                                into string3.  The default behaviour is

                                       bracket-label \*([. \*(.] ", "

       capitalize fields        Convert fields to caps and small caps.

       compatible*              Recognize  .R1 and .R2 even when followed by a
                                character other than space or newline.

       database filename...     Search the bibliographic databases filename...
                                For  each  filename  if  an  index  filename.i
                                created by indxbib(1) exists, then it will  be
                                searched   instead;   each   index  can  cover
                                multiple databases.

       date-as-label* string    string is a label expression that specifies  a
                                string with which to replace the D field after
                                constructing  the  label.    See   the   Label
                                expressions  subsection  for  a description of
                                label expressions.  This command is useful  if
                                you   do  not  want  explicit  labels  in  the
                                reference list, but instead want to handle any
                                necessary  disambiguation  by  qualifying  the
                                date in some way.  The label used in the  text
                                would  typically  be  some  combination of the
                                author and date.  In  most  cases  you  should
                                also  use  the  no-label-in-reference command.
                                For example,

                                       date-as-label D.+yD.y%a*D.-y

                                would attach a disambiguating  letter  to  the
                                year part of the D field in the reference.

       default-database*        The default database should be searched.  This
                                is the  default  behaviour,  so  the  negative
                                version of this command is more useful.  refer
                                determines whether the default database should
                                be  searched  on  the  first  occasion that it
                                needs to do  a  search.   Thus  a  no-default-
                                database command must be given before then, in
                                order to be effective.

       discard* fields          When the reference is read, fields  should  be
                                discarded;  no  string  definitions for fields
                                will be output.  Initially, fields are XYZ.

       et-al* string m n        Control use of et al in the  evaluation  of  @
                                expressions  in  label  expressions.   If  the
                                number of authors needed to  make  the  author
                                sequence unambiguous is u and the total number
                                of authors is t then the last t-u authors will
                                be replaced by string provided that t-u is not
                                less than m and t is not  less  than  n.   The
                                default behaviour is

                                       et-al " et al" 2 3

       include filename         Include filename and interpret the contents as

       join-authors string1 string2 string3
                                This  says  how  authors  should   be   joined
                                together.  When there are exactly two authors,
                                they will be joined with string1.  When  there
                                are  more  than  two authors, all but the last
                                two will be joined with string2, and the  last
                                two  authors  will be joined with string3.  If
                                string3  is  omitted,  it  will   default   to
                                string1;  if  string2  is also omitted it will
                                also default to string1.  For example,

                                       join-authors " and " ", " ", and "

                                will restore the default  method  for  joining

       label-in-reference*      When  outputting  the  reference,  define  the
                                string [F to be the reference’s  label.   This
                                is  the  default  behaviour;  so  the negative
                                version of this command is more useful.

       label-in-text*           For each reference output a label in the text.
                                The   label   will   be   separated  from  the
                                surrounding text as described in the  bracket-
                                label command.  This is the default behaviour;
                                so the negative version  of  this  command  is
                                more useful.

       label string             string is a label expression describing how to
                                label each reference.

       separate-label-second-parts string
                                When merging  two-part  labels,  separate  the
                                second part of the second label from the first
                                label with string.  See the description of the
                                <> label expression.

       move-punctuation*        In  the  text, move any punctuation at the end
                                of line past the label.  It is usually a  good
                                idea to give this command unless you are using
                                superscripted numbers as labels.

       reverse* string          Reverse the fields whose names are in  string.
                                Each  field  name  can be followed by a number
                                which says how  many  such  fields  should  be
                                reversed.   If no number is given for a field,
                                all such fields will be reversed.

       search-ignore* fields    While searching  for  keys  in  databases  for
                                which  no index exists, ignore the contents of
                                fields.  Initially, fields XYZ are ignored.

       search-truncate* n       Only require the first n characters of keys to
                                be  given.   In  effect  when  searching for a
                                given key words in the database are  truncated
                                to the maximum of n and the length of the key.
                                Initially n is 6.

       short-label* string      string is a label expression that specifies an
                                alternative  (usually shorter) style of label.
                                This is used when the # flag is given  in  the
                                citation.    When   using   author-date  style
                                labels, the identity of the author or  authors
                                is sometimes clear from the context, and so it
                                may be desirable to omit the author or authors
                                from  the label.  The short-label command will
                                typically  be  used   to   specify   a   label
                                containing   just   a   date  and  possibly  a
                                disambiguating letter.

       sort* string             Sort   references   according    to    string.
                                References  will automatically be accumulated.
                                string should be a list of field  names,  each
                                followed  by  a  number,  indicating  how many
                                fields  with  the  name  should  be  used  for
                                sorting.   +  can be used to indicate that all
                                the fields with the name should be used.  Also
                                .   can  be  used  to  indicate the references
                                should be sorted using the (tentative)  label.
                                (The  Label  expressions  subsection describes
                                the concept of a tentative label.)

       sort-adjacent-labels*    Sort labels that  are  adjacent  in  the  text
                                according  to  their position in the reference
                                list.  This command should usually be given if
                                the  abbreviate-label-ranges  command has been
                                given, or if the label expression  contains  a
                                <>  expression.   This  will  have  no  effect
                                unless references are being accumulated.

   Label expressions
       Label expressions can be evaluated both normally and tentatively.   The
       result  of  normal  evaluation  is  used  for  output.   The  result of
       tentative evaluation, called the tentative label, is used to gather the
       information  that  normal  evaluation  needs to disambiguate the label.
       Label  expressions  specified  by  the  date-as-label  and  short-label
       commands   are   not   evaluated  tentatively.   Normal  and  tentative
       evaluation are the same for all types of expression other  than  @,  *,
       and % expressions.  The description below applies to normal evaluation,
       except where otherwise specified.

       field n
              The n-th part of field.  If n is omitted, it defaults to 1.

              The characters in string literally.

       @      All the authors joined as specified by the join-authors command.
              The  whole  of each author’s name will be used.  However, if the
              references are sorted by author (that is the sort  specification
              starts  with A+), then authors’ last names will be used instead,
              provided that this does not introduce  ambiguity,  and  also  an
              initial  subsequence  of  the authors may be used instead of all
              the  authors,  again  provided  that  this  does  not  introduce
              ambiguity.  The use of only the last name for the i-th author of
              some reference is considered to be ambiguous if  there  is  some
              other  reference,  such  that  the  first  i-1  authors  of  the
              references are the same, the i-th authors are not the same,  but
              the  i-th  authors’  last  names are the same.  A proper initial
              subsequence of the sequence of authors  for  some  reference  is
              considered  to  be  ambiguous  if there is a reference with some
              other sequence of authors which also has that subsequence  as  a
              proper  initial  subsequence.   When  an  initial subsequence of
              authors is used, the  remaining  authors  are  replaced  by  the
              string  specified  by  the  et-al command; this command may also
              specify additional requirements  that  must  be  met  before  an
              initial  subsequence  can be used.  @ tentatively evaluates to a
              canonical representation of the authors, such that authors  that
              compare   equally   for  sorting  purpose  will  have  the  same

       %I     The serial number of the reference formatted  according  to  the
              character  following the %.  The serial number of a reference is
              1 plus the number of  earlier  references  with  same  tentative
              label as this reference.  These expressions tentatively evaluate
              to an empty string.

       expr*  If there is another reference with the same tentative  label  as
              this  reference,  then  expr,  otherwise  an  empty  string.  It
              tentatively evaluates to an empty string.

       expr-n The first (+) or last (-) n  upper  or  lower  case  letters  or
              digits  of  expr.  Troff special characters (such as \(â€â€™a) count
              as a single letter.  Accent strings  are  retained  but  do  not
              count towards the total.

       expr.l expr converted to lowercase.

       expr.u expr converted to uppercase.

       expr.c expr converted to caps and small caps.

       expr.r expr reversed so that the last name is first.

       expr.a expr  with  first names abbreviated.  Note that fields specified
              in the abbreviate command are abbreviated before any labels  are
              evaluated.   Thus  .a is useful only when you want a field to be
              abbreviated in a label but not in a reference.

       expr.y The year part of expr.

              The part of expr before the year, or the whole  of  expr  if  it
              does not contain a year.

              The part of expr after the year, or an empty string if expr does
              not contain a year.

       expr.n The last name part of expr.

              expr1 except that if the last character of expr1 is  -  then  it
              will be replaced by expr2.

       expr1 expr2
              The concatenation of expr1 and expr2.

              If expr1 is non-empty then expr1 otherwise expr2.

              If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise an empty string.

              If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise expr3.

       <expr> The  label  is  in  two parts, which are separated by expr.  Two
              adjacent two-part labels which have the same first part will  be
              merged by appending the second part of the second label onto the
              first label separated by the string specified in  the  separate-
              label-second-parts  command  (initially,  a  comma followed by a
              space); the resulting label will also be a two-part  label  with
              the  same first part as before merging, and so additional labels
              can be merged into it.  Note that  it  is  permissible  for  the
              first  part  to  be  empty; this maybe desirable for expressions
              used in the short-label command.

       (expr) The same as expr.  Used for grouping.

       The above expressions  are  listed  in  order  of  precedence  (highest
       first); & and | have the same precedence.

   Macro interface
       Each  reference starts with a call to the macro ]-.  The string [F will
       be defined to be the label for this reference, unless the  no-label-in-
       reference  command  has  been  given.   There  then follows a series of
       string definitions, one for each field: string [X corresponds to  field
       X.   The number register [P is set to 1 if the P field contains a range
       of pages.  The [T, [A and [O number registers are set to 1 according as
       the  T,  A  and  O  fields  end with one of the characters .?!.  The [E
       number register will be set to 1 if the [E string  contains  more  than
       one  name.   The  reference is followed by a call to the ][ macro.  The
       first argument to this macro gives a number representing  the  type  of
       the  reference.   If  a  reference  contains  a  J  field,  it  will be
       classified as type 1, otherwise if it contains a B field, it will  type
       3, otherwise if it contains a G or R field it will be type 4, otherwise
       if contains a I field it will be type 2, otherwise it will be  type  0.
       The  second  argument  is a symbolic name for the type: other, journal-
       article, book, article-in-book or tech-report.   Groups  of  references
       that  have been accumulated or are produced by the bibliography command
       are preceded by a call to the ]< macro and followed by a call to the ]>


       /usr/dict/papers/Ind  Default database.

       file.i                Index files.


       indxbib(1), lookbib(1), lkbib(1)


       In   label   expressions,  <>  expressions  are  ignored  inside  .char