Provided by: manpages-dev_2.17-1_all
chmod, fchmod - change permissions of a file
int chmod(const char *path, mode_t mode);
int fchmod(int fildes, mode_t mode);
The mode of the file given by path or referenced by fildes is changed.
Modes are specified by orâ€™ing the following:
S_ISUID 04000 set user ID on execution
S_ISGID 02000 set group ID on execution
S_ISVTX 01000 sticky bit
00400 read by owner
00200 write by owner
00100 execute/search by owner
S_IRGRP 00040 read by group
S_IWGRP 00020 write by group
S_IXGRP 00010 execute/search by group
S_IROTH 00004 read by others
S_IWOTH 00002 write by others
S_IXOTH 00001 execute/search by others
The effective UID of the calling process must match the owner of the
file, or the process must be privileged (Linux: it must have the
If the calling process is not privileged (Linux: does not have the
CAP_FSETID capability), and the group of the file does not match the
effective group ID of the process or one of its supplementary group
IDs, the S_ISGID bit will be turned off, but this will not cause an
error to be returned.
As a security measure, depending on the file system, the set-user-ID
and set-group-ID execution bits may be turned off if a file is written.
(On Linux this occurs if the writing process does not have the
CAP_FSETID capability.) On some file systems, only the superuser can
set the sticky bit, which may have a special meaning. For the sticky
bit, and for set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits on directories, see
On NFS file systems, restricting the permissions will immediately
influence already open files, because the access control is done on the
server, but open files are maintained by the client. Widening the
permissions may be delayed for other clients if attribute caching is
enabled on them.
On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is
Depending on the file system, other errors can be returned. The more
general errors for chmod() are listed below:
EACCES Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix.
(See also path_resolution(2).)
EFAULT path points outside your accessible address space.
EIO An I/O error occurred.
ELOOP Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving path.
path is too long.
ENOENT The file does not exist.
ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.
A component of the path prefix is not a directory.
EPERM The effective UID does not match the owner of the file, and the
process is not privileged (Linux: it does not have the
EROFS The named file resides on a read-only file system.
The general errors for fchmod() are listed below:
EBADF The file descriptor fildes is not valid.
EIO See above.
EPERM See above.
EROFS See above.
The chmod() call conforms to SVr4, SVID, POSIX, X/OPEN, 4.4BSD. SVr4
documents EINTR, ENOLINK and EMULTIHOP returns, but no ENOMEM. POSIX.1
does not document EFAULT, ENOMEM, ELOOP or EIO error conditions, or the
macros S_IREAD, S_IWRITE and S_IEXEC.
The fchmod() call conforms to 4.4BSD and SVr4. SVr4 documents
additional EINTR and ENOLINK error conditions. POSIX requires the
fchmod() function if at least one of _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES and
_POSIX_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS is defined, and documents additional
ENOSYS and EINVAL error conditions, but does not document EIO.
chown(2), execve(2), open(2), path_resolution(2), stat(2)