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       mount, umount - mount and unmount filesystems


       #include <sys/mount.h>

       int   mount(const   char   *source,  const  char  *target,  const  char
       *filesystemtype, unsigned long mountflags, const void *data);

       int umount(const char *target);

       int umount2(const char *target, int flags);


       mount() attaches the filesystem specified by source (which is  often  a
       device  name,  but  can  also  be  a  directory name or a dummy) to the
       directory specified by target.

       umount()  and  umount2()  remove  the  attachment  of   the   (topmost)
       filesystem mounted on target.

       Appropriate privilege (Linux: the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability) is required
       to mount and unmount filesystems.

       Since Linux 2.4 a single filesystem can be visible  at  multiple  mount
       points, and multiple mounts can be stacked on the same mount point.

       Values  for  the  filesystemtype  argument  supported by the kernel are
       listed in /proc/filesystems (like  "minix",  "ext2",  "msdos",  "proc",
       "nfs",  "iso9660"  etc.).   Further types may become available when the
       appropriate modules are loaded.

       The mountflags argument may have the magic number  0xC0ED  (MS_MGC_VAL)
       in  the top 16 bits (this was required in kernel versions prior to 2.4,
       but is no longer required and ignored if specified), and various  mount
       flags   (as  defined  in  <linux/fs.h>  for  libc4  and  libc5  and  in
       <sys/mount.h> for glibc2) in the low order 16 bits:

              (Linux 2.4 onwards) Perform a bind mount, making  a  file  or  a
              directory subtree visible at another point within a file system.
              Bind mounts may cross file system boundaries and span  chroot(2)
              jails.   The  filesystemtype, mountflags, and data arguments are

       MS_DIRSYNC (since Linux 2.5.19)
              Make directory changes on this file system  synchronous.   (This
              property  can be obtained for individual directories or subtrees
              using chattr(8).)

              Permit  mandatory  locking  on  files  in  this   file   system.
              (Mandatory locking must still be enabled on a per-file basis, as
              described in fcntl(2).)

              Move a subtree.  source specifies an existing  mount  point  and
              target  specifies  the  new location.  The move is atomic: at no
              point is the subtree unmounted.  The filesystemtype, mountflags,
              and data arguments are ignored.

              Do not update access times for (all types of) files on this file

              Do not allow access to devices  (special  files)  on  this  file

              Do  not update access times for directories on this file system.

              Do not allow programs to be executed from this file system.

              Do not honour set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits  when  executing
              programs from this file system.

              Mount file system read-only.

              Remount  an  existing  mount.   This is allows you to change the
              mountflags and data of  an  existing  mount  without  having  to
              unmount  and  remount the file system.  source and target should
              be the same  values  specified  in  the  initial  mount()  call;
              filesystemtype is ignored.

              Make  writes  on  this  file  system  synchronous (as though the
              O_SYNC flag to open(2) was specified for all file opens to  this
              file system).

       From  Linux  2.4  onwards, the MS_NODEV, MS_NOEXEC, and MS_NOSUID flags
       are settable on a per-mount point basis.

       The data  argument  is  interpreted  by  the  different  file  systems.
       Typically  it is a string of comma-separated options understood by this
       file system.  See mount(8) for details of  the  options  available  for
       each filesystem type.

       Linux  2.1.116  added  the umount2() system call, which, like umount(),
       unmounts  a  target,  but  allows  additional  flags  controlling   the
       behaviour of the operation:

       MNT_FORCE (since Linux 2.1.116)
              Force unmount even if busy.  (Only for NFS mounts.)

       MNT_DETACH (since Linux 2.4.11)
              Perform a lazy unmount: make the mount point unavailable for new
              accesses, and actually perform the unmount when the mount  point
              ceases to be busy.

       MNT_EXPIRE (since Linux 2.6.8)
              Mark  the  mount  point  as  expired.   If  a mount point is not
              currently in use, then an initial call to  umount2()  with  this
              flag  fails  with the error EAGAIN, but marks the mount point as
              expired.  The mount point remains expired as long  as  it  isn’t
              accessed  by  any  process.   A second umount2() call specifying
              MNT_EXPIRE unmounts an expired mount point.  This flag cannot be
              specified with either MNT_FORCE or MNT_DETACH.


       On  success,  zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is
       set appropriately.


       The error values given below result from  filesystem  type  independent
       errors.  Each  filesystem  type may have its own special errors and its
       own special behavior.  See the kernel source code for details.

       EACCES A  component  of  a  path  was   not   searchable.   (See   also
              path_resolution(2).)   Or,  mounting  a read-only filesystem was
              attempted without giving the  MS_RDONLY  flag.   Or,  the  block
              device  source  is  located  on  a  filesystem  mounted with the
              MS_NODEV option.

       EAGAIN A call to umount2() specifying MNT_EXPIRE successfully marked an
              unbusy file system as expired.

       EBUSY  source is already mounted. Or, it cannot be remounted read-only,
              because it still holds files open for writing.  Or, it cannot be
              mounted  on  target  because  target  is  still  busy (it is the
              working directory of some  task,  the  mount  point  of  another
              device,  has  open  files, etc.).  Or, it could not be unmounted
              because it is busy.

       EFAULT One of the pointer arguments points  outside  the  user  address

       EINVAL source  had  an  invalid superblock.  Or, a remount (MS_REMOUNT)
              was attempted, but source was not  already  mounted  on  target.
              Or,  a  move (MS_MOVE) was attempted, but source was not a mount
              point, or was ’/’.  Or, an unmount was attempted, but target was
              not  a mount point.  Or, umount2() was called with MNT_FORCE and
              either MNT_DETACH or MNT_FORCE.

       ELOOP  Too many link encountered during  pathname  resolution.   Or,  a
              move was attempted, while target is a descendant of source.

       EMFILE (In case no block device is required:) Table of dummy devices is

              A pathname was longer than MAXPATHLEN.

       ENODEV Filesystemtype not configured in the kernel.

       ENOENT A pathname was empty or had a nonexistent component.

       ENOMEM The kernel could not allocate a free page to copy  filenames  or
              data into.

              source is not a block device (and a device was required).

              The second argument, or a prefix of the first argument, is not a

       ENXIO  The major number of the block device source is out of range.

       EPERM  The caller does not have the required privileges.


       These functions are Linux-specific and should not be used  in  programs
       intended to be portable.


       The  original  umount() function was called as umount(device) and would
       return ENOTBLK when called with something other than  a  block  device.
       In  Linux  0.98p4  a  call  umount(dir)  was added, in order to support
       anonymous devices.  In Linux 2.3.99-pre7 the  call  umount(device)  was
       removed,  leaving only umount(dir) (since now devices can be mounted in
       more than one place, so specifying the device does not suffice).

       The original MS_SYNC flag was renamed MS_SYNCHRONOUS in 1.1.69  when  a
       different MS_SYNC was added to <mman.h>.

       Before  Linux  2.4  an attempt to execute a set-user-ID or set-group-ID
       program on a filesystem mounted with MS_NOSUID would fail  with  EPERM.
       Since Linux 2.4 the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits are just silently
       ignored in this case.


       path_resolution(2), mount(8), umount(8)