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NAME

       getcwd, get_current_dir_name, getwd - Get current working directory

SYNOPSIS

       #include <unistd.h>

       char *getcwd(char *buf, size_t size);
       char *get_current_dir_name(void);
       char *getwd(char *buf);

DESCRIPTION

       The  getcwd()  function  copies  an  absolute  pathname  of the current
       working directory to the array pointed to by buf, which  is  of  length
       size.

       If  the  current  absolute path name would require a buffer longer than
       size elements, NULL is  returned,  and  errno  is  set  to  ERANGE;  an
       application  should  check for this error, and allocate a larger buffer
       if necessary.

       If buf is NULL, the behaviour of getcwd() is undefined.

       As an extension to the POSIX.1 standard, Linux  (libc4,  libc5,  glibc)
       getcwd() allocates the buffer dynamically using malloc() if buf is NULL
       on call.  In this case, the allocated buffer has the length size unless
       size  is  zero,  when  buf  is  allocated  as  big as necessary.  It is
       possible (and, indeed, advisable) to free() the buffers  if  they  have
       been obtained this way.

       get_current_dir_name(),  which  is  only  prototyped  if _GNU_SOURCE is
       defined, will malloc(3)  an  array  big  enough  to  hold  the  current
       directory  name.  If the environment variable PWD is set, and its value
       is correct, then that value will be returned.

       getwd(),   which    is    only    prototyped    if    _BSD_SOURCE    or
       _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED  is  defined, will not malloc(3) any memory. The
       buf argument should be a pointer to an array at  least  PATH_MAX  bytes
       long.   getwd() does only return the first PATH_MAX bytes of the actual
       pathname.  Note that PATH_MAX need not be a compile-time  constant;  it
       may depend on the filesystem and may even be unlimited. For portability
       and security reasons, use of getwd() is deprecated.

RETURN VALUE

       NULL on failure with errno set accordingly, and  buf  on  success.  The
       contents of the array pointed to by buf is undefined on error.

ERRORS

       EACCES Permission  to  read  or search a component of the file name was
              denied.

       EFAULT buf points to a bad address.

       EINVAL The size argument is zero and buf is not a null pointer.

       ENOENT The current working directory has been unlinked.

       ERANGE The size argument  is  less  than  the  length  of  the  working
              directory  name.   You  need  to allocate a bigger array and try
              again.

NOTES

       Under Linux, the function getcwd() is a system call (since 2.1.92).  On
       older  systems  it would query /proc/self/cwd.  If both system call and
       proc file system are missing, a generic implementation is called.  Only
       in that case can these calls fail under Linux with EACCES.

       These  functions  are  often  used  to save the location of the current
       working directory for the purpose of returning to it later. Opening the
       current  directory  (".")  and calling fchdir(2) to return is usually a
       faster and  more  reliable  alternative  when  sufficiently  many  file
       descriptors are available, especially on platforms other than Linux.

CONFORMING TO

       POSIX.1

SEE ALSO

       chdir(2), fchdir(2), open(2), unlink(2), free(3), malloc(3)