Provided by: mdadm_1.12.0-1ubuntu5_i386 bug


       md - Multiple Device driver aka Linux Software Raid




       The  md  driver  provides  virtual devices that are created from one or
       more independent underlying  devices.   This  array  of  devices  often
       contains  redundancy,  and  hence  the  acronym RAID which stands for a
       Redundant Array of Independent Devices.

       md supports RAID levels 1 (mirroring)  4  (striped  array  with  parity
       device),  5  (striped  array with distributed parity information) and 6
       (striped array with distributed dual redundancy information.)  If  some
       number of underlying devices fails while using one of these levels, the
       array will continue to function; this number is one for RAID  levels  4
       and 5, two for RAID level 6, and all but one (N-1) for RAID level 1.

       md also supports a number of pseudo RAID (non-redundant) configurations
       including RAID0 (striped array), LINEAR (catenated array), MULTIPATH (a
       set  of  different  interfaces to the same device), and FAULTY (a layer
       over a single device that sythesises errors).

       Though it is possible to  create  an  array  without  using  per-device
       superblocks  (see below), each device in an MD array will normally have
       a super block written towards the end of the device.   This  superblock
       records  information about the structure and state of the array so that
       the array can be reliably re-assembled after a shutdown.

       The superblock is 4K long and is written into a 64K aligned block  that
       starts at least 64K and less than 128K from the end of the device (i.e.
       to get the address of the superblock round the size of the device  down
       to  a  multiple  of  64K and then subtract 64K).  The available size of
       each device is the amount of space before the super block,  so  between
       64K and 128K is lost when a device in incorporated into an MD array.

       The superblock contains, among other things:

       LEVEL  The  manner  in  which  the  devices are arranged into the array
              (linear, raid0, raid1, raid4, raid5, multipath).

       UUID   a 128 bit Universally  Unique  Identifier  that  identifies  the
              array that this device is part of.

       It  is  possible for some md arrays to be created without a superblock.
       This allows the whole of each device to participate in the  array,  but
       requires  some  external  mechanism to determine what devices should be
       arranged into which arrays.

       FAULTY arrays are an obvious candidate for not having a  superblock  as
       there  is  nothing useful to go in the superblock.  MUTIPATH arrays can
       also be usefully made without superblocks as there  are  likely  to  be
       other ways to detect that two paths connect to the same real devices.

       Other  array  type  can  work without superblocks are RAID1, RAID0, and
       LINEAR.  However these should only be made without a superblock if  you
       are sure that you know what you are doing.

       A  linear  array  simply  catenates  the  available space on each drive
       together to form one large virtual drive.

       One  advantage  of  this  arrangement  over  the  more   common   RAID0
       arrangement  is that the array may be reconfigured at a later time with
       an extra drive and so the array is made bigger without  disturbing  the
       data  that  is on the array.  However this cannot yet be done on a live

       A RAID0 array (which has zero redundancy) is also known  as  a  striped
       array.  A RAID0 array is configured at creation with a Chunk Size which
       must be a power of two, and at least 4 kibibytes.

       The RAID0 driver assigns the first chunk of  the  array  to  the  first
       device,  the  second  chunk  to  the second device, and so on until all
       drives have been assigned one chunk.  This collection of chunks forms a
       stripe.  Further chunks are gathered into stripes in the same way which
       are assigned to the remaining space in the drives.

       If devices in the array are not  all  the  same  size,  then  once  the
       smallest  device has been exhausted, the RAID0 driver starts collecting
       chunks into smaller stripes that only span the drives which still  have
       remaining space.

       A  RAID1  array is also known as a mirrored set (though mirrors tend to
       provide reflected images, which RAID1 does not) or a plex.

       Once initialised, each device in a RAID1  array  contains  exactly  the
       same  data.   Changes  are written to all devices in parallel.  Data is
       read from any one device.   The  driver  attempts  to  distribute  read
       requests across all devices to maximise performance.

       All devices in a RAID1 array should be the same size.  If they are not,
       then only the amount of space available on the smallest device is used.
       Any extra space on other devices is wasted.

       A  RAID4  array  is like a RAID0 array with an extra device for storing
       parity. This device is the last of the active  devices  in  the  array.
       Unlike  RAID0, RAID4 also requires that all stripes span all drives, so
       extra space on devices that are larger than the smallest is wasted.

       When any block in a RAID4 array is modified the parity block  for  that
       stripe  (i.e.  the block in the parity device at the same device offset
       as the stripe) is  also  modified  so  that  the  parity  block  always
       contains  the  "parity"  for  the  whole  stripe.  i.e. its contents is
       equivalent to  the  result  of  performing  an  exclusive-or  operation
       between all the data blocks in the stripe.

       This allows the array to continue to function if one device fails.  The
       data that was on that device can  be  calculated  as  needed  from  the
       parity block and the other data blocks.

       RAID5  is  very  similar  to  RAID4.  The difference is that the parity
       blocks for each stripe, instead  of  being  on  a  single  device,  are
       distributed  across  all  devices.   This  allows more parallelism when
       writing as two different  block  updates  will  quite  possibly  affect
       parity blocks on different devices so there is less contention.

       This  also  allows  more  parallelism when reading as read requests are
       distributed over all the devices in the array instead of all but one.

       RAID6 is similar to RAID5, but can handle the loss of any  two  devices
       without  data  loss.   Accordingly,  it  requires N+2 drives to store N
       drives worth of data.

       The performance for RAID6 is slightly lower but comparable to RAID5  in
       normal mode and single disk failure mode.  It is very slow in dual disk
       failure mode, however.

       MULTIPATH is not really a RAID at all as there is only one real  device
       in  a  MULTIPATH  md  array.   However there are multiple access points
       (paths) to this device, and one of these paths might fail, so there are
       some similarities.

       A  MULTIPATH  array  is  composed  of  a  number of logically different
       devices, often fibre channel interfaces, that all refer  the  the  same
       real  device.  If  one  of  these  interfaces  fails (e.g. due to cable
       problems), the multipath driver will attempt to  redirect  requests  to
       another interface.

       The  FAULTY md module is provided for testing purposes.  A faulty array
       has exactly one component device and is normally  assembled  without  a
       superblock,  so  the  md array created provides direct access to all of
       the data in the component device.

       The FAULTY module may be requested to simulate faults to allow  testing
       of  other md levels or of filesystems.  Faults can be chosen to trigger
       on read requests or write requests, and can be transient (a  subsequent
       read/write   at  the  address  will  probably  succeed)  or  persistant
       (subsequent read/write of the same address will fail).   Further,  read
       faults can be "fixable" meaning that they persist until a write request
       at the same address.

       Fault types can be requested with a period.  In  this  case  the  fault
       will  recur  repeatedly  after  the  given  number  of  requests of the
       relevant type.  For example if persistent read faults have a period  of
       100,  then  every  100th  read  request would generate a fault, and the
       faulty sector would be recorded so that subsequent reads on that sector
       would also fail.

       There  is  a limit to the number of faulty sectors that are remembered.
       Faults  generated  after  this  limit  is  exhausted  are  treated   as

       The  list  of  faulty  sectors  can  be flushed, and the active list of
       failure modes can be cleared.

       When changes are made to a RAID1, RAID4, RAID5 or RAID6 array there  is
       a possibility of inconsistency for short periods of time as each update
       requires are least two block to be written to  different  devices,  and
       these writes probably won’t happen at exactly the same time.  Thus if a
       system with one of these arrays is shutdown in the middle  of  a  write
       operation (e.g. due to power failure), the array may not be consistent.

       To handle this situation, the md  driver  marks  an  array  as  "dirty"
       before  writing  any data to it, and marks it as "clean" when the array
       is being disabled, e.g. at shutdown.  If the md driver finds  an  array
       to   be   dirty  at  startup,  it  proceeds  to  correct  any  possibly
       inconsistency.  For RAID1, this involves copying the  contents  of  the
       first  drive  onto  all  other drives.  For RAID4, RAID5 and RAID6 this
       involves recalculating the parity for each stripe and making sure  that
       the  parity  block  has  the  correct  data.   This  process,  known as
       "resynchronising" or "resync" is  performed  in  the  background.   The
       array can still be used, though possibly with reduced performance.

       In  2.6 Linux kernels, an md array is marked clean after a short period
       (around 20 milliseconds) of no write activity, and  then  marked  dirty
       before  any  subsequent  write  is  attempted.  This means that unclean
       shutdowns are much less likely with a 2.6 kernel.

       If a RAID4, RAID5 or RAID6 array is  degraded  (missing  at  least  one
       drive)  when  it  is  restarted  after  an  unclean shutdown, it cannot
       recalculate  parity,  and  so  it  is  possible  that  data  might   be
       undetectably  corrupted.  The 2.4 md driver does not alert the operator
       to this condition.  The 2.5 md driver will fail to start  an  array  in
       this condition without manual intervention.

       If the md driver detects any error on a device in a RAID1, RAID4, RAID5
       or RAID6 array, it immediately disables  that  device  (marking  it  as
       faulty)  and continues operation on the remaining devices.  If there is
       a spare drive, the driver will start recreating on  one  of  the  spare
       drives  the  data  what  was  on that failed drive, either by copying a
       working drive in a RAID1 configuration, or by doing  calculations  with
       the parity block on RAID4, RAID5 or RAID6.

       While  this  recovery  process is happening, the md driver will monitor
       accesses to the array and will slow down the rate of recovery if  other
       activity  is  happening, so that normal access to the array will not be
       unduly affected.  When no other activity  is  happening,  the  recovery
       process  proceeds  at full speed.  The actual speed targets for the two
       different situations can  be  controlled  by  the  speed_limit_min  and
       speed_limit_max control files mentioned below.

       The md driver recognised three different kernel parameters.

              This will disable the normal detection of md arrays that happens
              at boot time.  If a  drive  is  partitioned  with  MS-DOS  style
              partitions, then if any of the 4 main partitions has a partition
              type of 0xFD, then that partition will normally be inspected  to
              see  if  it  is  part of an MD array, and if any full arrays are
              found, they are started.  This kernel paramenter  disables  this


              These  are  available  in  2.6  and  later  kernels  only.  They
              indicate that  autodetected  MD  arrays  should  be  created  as
              partitionable  arrays,  with  a different major device number to
              the original non-partitionable md arrays.  The device number  is
              listed as mdp in /proc/devices.


              This  tells  the md driver to assemble /dev/md n from the listed
              devices.  It is only necessary to start the device  holding  the
              root  filesystem  this  way.  Other arrays are best started once
              the system is booted.

              In 2.6 kernels, the d immediately after the = indicates  that  a
              partitionable device (e.g.  /dev/md/d0) should be created rather
              than the original non-partitionable device.

              This tells the md driver to assemble a legacy  RAID0  or  LINEAR
              array  without  a  superblock.   n gives the md device number, l
              gives the level, 0 for RAID0 or -1 for LINEAR, c gives the chunk
              size  as  a  base-2 logarithm offset by twelve, so 0 means 4K, 1
              means 8K.  i is ignored (legacy support).


              Contains information  about  the  status  of  currently  running

              A  readable  and  writable  file  that reflects the current goal
              rebuild speed for times when non-rebuild activity is current  on
              an  array.   The speed is in Kibibytes per second, and is a per-
              device rate, not a per-array rate (which  means  that  an  array
              with  more disc will shuffle more data for a given speed).   The
              default is 100.

              A readable and writable file  that  reflects  the  current  goal
              rebuild  speed for times when no non-rebuild activity is current
              on an array.  The default is 100,000.


       mdadm(8), mkraid(8).