Provided by: smake_1.2a23-1_i386 bug

NAME

       makefiles - users guide for compiling projects on different platforms

SYNOPSIS

       make [target]
       gmake [target]
       smake [target]

       Target may be one of:

       .help     to get a list of possible targets and a short description.

       all       to make the default targets

       install   to  make  and  install  the default targets (see INS_BASE and
                 INS_KBASE to learn how to modify the installation path).

       ibins     to make and install a target in SRCROOT/bins

       depend    to re-make dependency rules for all default  targets.   Note:
                 All  dependency  files  will automatically remade on the next
                 run of make before they are included.

       clean     to remove core files and all intermediate object files.

       clobber   to remove the targets from clean, all  dependency  files  and
                 all final targets

       distclean to  remove  the  targets  from clean and clobber and all made
                 files for all architectures.

       tags      to make vi(1) compatible tags

       TAGS      to make emacs(1) compatible tags

       config    reserved for future use.

       rmtarget  to remove the default target

       relink    to remove the default target and remake it immediately.  This
                 can be used to change .e.g LD_RUN_PATH in the executable.

DESCRIPTION

       Makefiles  is  a  set  of  rules  that  allows  compiling of structured
       projects with small and uniformly structured makefiles.  All rules  are
       located  in  a  central directory.  Compiling the projects on different
       platforms can be done simultaneously without the need to modify any  of
       the makefiles that are located in the projects directories.

       Makefiles is a set of high level portability tools superior to autoconf
       and easier to use.

       Three make programs are supported: Sunpro make, GNU make and smake.

       BSDmake could be  supported  if  it  supports  pattern  matching  rules
       correctly.

       The  main  design  goal  was  to  have  a set of small and easy to read
       makefiles, each located in the project’s leaf directory  and  therefore
       called leaf-makefile.

       Each  of  these  leaf-makefiles,  in  fact  contains no rule at all. It
       simply defines some macros for the make-program and includes two  files
       from  a central make rule depository.  The included files and the files
       that are recursively included define  the  rules  that  are  needed  to
       compile the project.

       Each leaf-makefile is formed in a really simple way:

       ·      It first defines two macros that define the relative location of
              the project’s root directory and the name of the directory  that
              contains the complete set of of rules and then includes the rule
              file rules.top from the directory that forms  the  central  rule
              depository.   You only have to edit the macro SRCROOT to reflect
              the relative location of the project’s root directory.

       ·      The next part of a leaf-makefile defines  macros  that  describe
              the  target  and  the  source.  You can only have one target per
              leaf-makefile.  Of course, there may be many source files,  that
              are needed to create that target.  If you want to make more than
              one target in a specific directory, you have to  put  more  than
              one  makefile  into  that  directory.   This  is  the  part of a
              makefile that describes a unique  target.   Edit  this  part  to
              contain  all  source  files, all local include files and all non
              global compile time flags that are needed for your target.   For
              a typical target this is as simple as filling in a form.

       ·      Each  leaf-makefile  finally  includes  a  file  from  the rules
              directory that contains rules for the appropriate type of target
              that is to be made from this leaf-makefile.

       The  makefile in each directory has to be called Makefile.  If you want
       to have more than one makefile in a specific  directory,  you  have  to
       choose different names for the other makefiles.

       There are rules for the following type of targets:

       commands            The make rules for user level commands like cat, ls
                           etc. are located in the file rules.cmd

       drivers             The make rules for device drivers  are  located  in
                           the file rules.drv

       libraries           The make rules for non shared libraries are located
                           in the file rules.lib

       shared libraries    The make rules for shared libraries are located  in
                           the file rules.shl

       localized files     The  make  rules for localized files are located in
                           the file rules.loc

       nonlocalized files  The make rules for non localized files are  located
                           in the file rules.aux

       shell scripts       The  make  rules  for  shell  scripts (a variant of
                           localized files) are located in the file rules.scr

       manual pages        The make rules  for  manual  pages  (a  variant  of
                           localized files) are located in the file rules.man

       diverted makefiles  The  make rules for projects that need to have more
                           than one  makefile  in  a  specific  directory  are
                           located  in  the  file rules.mks It contains a rule
                           that diverts to the listed sub makefiles.  Each sub
                           makefile may be of any type.

       directories         The  make  rules for sub directories are located in
                           the file rules.dir

Macros/Variables Used In Rules

       The following is a description of the most important macros used within
       the  make  rules.  NOTE: not all of them might be changed in a specific
       makefile.  Carefully read the description and change only those  macros
       that are intended to be used to change the behavior of the compilation.

       ARCHDIR      contains the location where object files and make  targets
                    will    be    placed.     A   typical   name   would   be:
                    OBJ/sparc-sunos5-cc
                    Do not change this macro.

       ASFLAGS      The flags that are used with the assembler.
                    Do not change this macro.

       ASMFILES     a list of assembler source files, to  be  specified  in  a
                    leaf makefile.

       ASOPTS       The  internal  macro  that  contains  the  flags  for  the
                    assembler.  Change this macro if you want  to  change  the
                    behavior.   Use: ASOPTS= value If you want to override the
                    default  value.  If  you  want  to  override  the  default
                    assembler   flags   from   the  command  line  call:  makeASOPTS=value’ Use: ASOPTS += value If  you  want  to  add
                    flags to the default value from within a makefile.

       ASOPTX       may  be  used  if  you  want to add flags to the assembler
                    flags from the command line. Use: makeASOPTX=value’

       C_ARCH       this macro contains the c-compiler architecture name.
                    Do not change this macro.

       CCOM         This macro may be used from the  command  line  to  use  a
                    different   c-compiler   than   the  default.   Use:  makeCCOM=gcc’ to use gcc for the next run.  Note:  The  value
                    of CCOM must not necessarily be identical to the real name
                    of the c-compiler.  It refers to a filename which contains
                    the  definition  for that c-compiler. This hint applies as
                    well to all other macros that deal with the name of the c-
                    compiler.    The   only  macro,  that  contains  the  real
                    invocation name of the  c-compiler,  is  CC.   CC  is  set
                    inside  the  machine  dependent  configuration file in the
                    central  rules  depository  and  must   not   be   changed
                    elsewhere.

       CFILES       a  list  of  C  source  files,  to  be specified in a leaf
                    makefile.

       CFLAGS       The flags that are used with the c-compiler.  Do  not  use
                    flags  that  belong  to the c-preprocessor in the COPTOPT,
                    COPTS and COPTX macros.
                    Do not change this macro.

       CLEAN_FILES  A list of files ( besides the object files ) that will  be
                    removed with make clean.
                    Do not change this macro.

       CLEAN_FILEX  this  macro  may  be  used to define additional files that
                    should be removed with make clean.

       CLOBBER_FILEX
                    this macro may be used to  define  additional  files  that
                    should be removed with make clobber.

       COPTOPT      The c-compiler optimization flag. This flag is intended to
                    be overridden either from a makefile or from command line.

       COPTS        The  internal  macro  that  contains  the flags for the c-
                    compiler.  Change this macro if you  want  to  change  the
                    behavior.   Use:  COPTS= value If you want to override the
                    default value. If you want  to  override  the  default  c-
                    compiler   flags   from   the   command  line  call:  makeCOPTS=value’ Use: COPTS += value If you want to add flags
                    to the default value from within a makefile.

       COPTX        may  be  used  if  you want to add flags to the c-compiler
                    flags from the command line. Use: makeCOPTX=value’

       CPPFLAGS     The flags that are used  with  the  c-preprocessor.   This
                    macro  as  well as: CPPOPTS and CPPOPTX are also used when
                    compiling  c-programs.   They  should  contain  only   the
                    following  flags:  -Dname=value , -Uname , -Idirectory and
                    -Ydirectory.
                    Do not change this macro.

       CPPOPTS      The internal macro that contains  the  flags  for  the  c-
                    preprocessor.  Change this macro if you want to change the
                    behavior.  Use: CPPOPTS= value If you want to override the
                    default  value.  If  you  want  to override the default c-
                    preprocessor  flags  from  the  command  line  call:  makeCPPOPTS=value’  Use:  CPPOPTS += value If you want to add
                    flags to the default value from within a makefile.

       CPPOPTX      may be used if you want to add flags to the c-preprocessor
                    flags from the command line. Use: makeCPPOPTX=value’

       CURDIR       This  macro contains the name of the sub directory that is
                    currently processed.
                    Do not change this macro.

       CWARNOPTS    This       macro        may        be        set        in
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults                     or
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH) to overwrite
                    the default c-compiler warn options.

       CWOPTS       This   macro   is   set   inside   the  machine  dependent
                    configuration file in the  central  rules  depository  and
                    must not be changed elsewhere.  It contains the flags that
                    set the default warning level for the c-compiler.

       DEFINSGRP    this macro may be set in the projects defaults file to set
                    up the default group id for installation

       DEFINSMODE   this macro may be set in the projects defaults file to set
                    up the default file permission for installation

       DEFINSUSR    this macro may be set in the projects defaults file to set
                    up the default user id for installation

       DEFUMASK     this macro may be set in the projects defaults file to set
                    up the default umask value for creating sub directories

       DEFAULTSDIR  this macro may be set from command line or from the  shell
                    environment  if  the  user wants to use a different set of
                    Defaults files  that  is  not  located  in  the  directory
                    DEFAULTS  in  the source root directory.  This may be used
                    to hold two or more set of defaults that  differ  e.g.  in
                    the installation path or the C-compiler.

       DEFAULTSROOT this macro may be set in a leaf makefile, if that makefile
                    wants to use a  Defaults  file  that  is  not  located  in
                    $(DEFAULTSDIR) in the source root.  This may be used, if a
                    sub tree in a big project needs a different setup.

       DEFLTSDIR    This  is  an  internally  used  macro  that  is  set  from
                    $(DEFAULTSDIR) or from the internal defaults.
                    Do not change this macro.

       DEFLTSROOT   This  is  an  internally  used  macro  that  is  set  from
                    $(DEFAULTSROOT) or from the internal defaults.
                    Do not change this macro.

       DEFCCOM      the default name of the c-compiler. This is usually set in
                    the     file     $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults    or
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).

       DEFINCDIRS   a list of directories that  are  searched  by  default  in
                    addition  to the system include directories. If this macro
                    is not set, $(SRCROOT)/include is used.

       DIRNAME      this macro needs to be set in the makefile that is located
                    in  the  $(SRCROOT) directory.  The value should be either
                    set to the name of the directory  where  the  makefile  is
                    located or to SRCROOT.  The value of this macro is updated
                    automatically to follow the directory hierarchy.   Do  not
                    change  this macro in a make file other than the make file
                    in the source root.

       DIRS         this macro needs to be set in a makefile that  is  located
                    in  a  directory  that contains diversion directories.  It
                    must  contain  a  list  of  directory  names   where   the
                    diversions go to e.g.  DIRS= libfoo libbar libgarbage.

       HFILES       for  normal  operation,  makefiles will automatically find
                    which include files are needed for compilation.   However,
                    if  you  want  to create a tag file that includes tags for
                    definitions that occur within include  files,  you  should
                    set  HFILES  to be a list of include files containing such
                    definitions.

       INCDIRS      this macro will normally be a copy from  DEFINCDIRS.   You
                    may  however  specify a different value in a leaf makefile
                    or from command line. This  will  overwrite  the  defaults
                    value.

       INS_BASE     this   macro   has   to   be   specified   in   the   file
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults                     or
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).    It  must
                    contain the path name of the root for  installing  general
                    targets of the project.  See INSDIR.

       INS_KBASE    this   macro   has   to   be   specified   in   the   file
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults                     or
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).    It  must
                    contain the path name of the root  for  installing  kernel
                    modules from the project.  See INSDIR.

       INSDIR       this  macro  has to be specified in the leaf makefile.  It
                    must contain the path name  of  a  directory  relative  to
                    INS_BASE  or INS_KBASE.  The target will be installed into
                    $(INS_BASE)/$(INSDIR) .

       INSGRP       this macro may be set in a leaf makefile  to  set  up  the
                    group id for installation

       INSMODE      this  macro  may  be  set in a leaf makefile to set up the
                    file permission for installation

       INSUSR       this macro may be set in a leaf makefile  to  set  up  the
                    user id for installation

       K_ARCH       this  macro  contains  the kernel/machine architecture for
                    the target machine (e.g.  sun3 sun4c sun4m sun4u  9000-725
                    aviion).  It is set to the output of uname -m converted to
                    lower case.
                    Do not change this macro.

       KARCH        this macro contains the  kernel/machine  architecture  for
                    the  target machine (e.g.  sun3 sun4c sun4m sun4u 9000-725
                    aviion).  It is set to the output of uname -m converted to
                    lower case.
                    Do  not  change  this  macro unless you want to do a cross
                    compilation.

       LDFLAGS      The flags that are used with the linker.
                    Do not change this macro.

       LDLIBS       The internal macro that holds the libraries that are  used
                    while linking the target.
                    Do not change this macro.

       LDOPTS       The internal macro that contains the flags for the linker.
                    Change this macro if you  want  to  change  the  behavior.
                    Use:  LDOPTS=  value  If  you want to override the default
                    value. If you want to override the  default  linker  flags
                    from  the  command  line  call:  makeLDOPTS=value’ Use:
                    LDOPTS += value If you want to add flags  to  the  default
                    value from within a makefile.

       LDOPTX       may  be  used if you want to add flags to the linker flags
                    from the command line. Use: makeLDOPTX=value’

       LDPATH       the default library search path for the linker.   This  is
                    usually          set          in          the         file
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults                     or
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).

       LIB_KVM      a  predefined  macro  that  contains  the operating system
                    dependent name of a library that  is  needed  by  programs
                    that  read/write kernel virtual memory.  Add $(LIB_KVM) to
                    your list of libraries (e.g.  LIBS= -lintl $(LIB_KVM)), if
                    your target uses kvm.

       LIB_MATH     a  predefined  macro  that  contains  the operating system
                    dependent name of a library that  is  needed  by  programs
                    that use routines of the math library.  Add $(LIB_MATH) to
                    your list of libraries (e.g.  LIBS=  -lintl  $(LIB_MATH)),
                    if your target uses math subroutines.

       LIB_SOCKET   a  predefined  macro  that  contains  the operating system
                    dependent name of a library that  is  needed  by  programs
                    that  use socket calls.  Add $(LIB_SOCKET) to your list of
                    libraries (e.g.   LIBS=  -lintl  $(LIB_SOCKET)),  if  your
                    target  uses  sockets.  Note: this should (for portability
                    reasons) even be done on  systems  that  don’t  require  a
                    socket  library  because  they  have  the socket interface
                    inside libc.

       LIBS_PATH    this macro contains the path to a  directory  where  those
                    libraries  are located, that have been build during a make
                    run inside the current project.
                    Do not change this macro.

       M_ARCH       this macro  contains  the  machine  architecture  for  the
                    target  machine  (e.g.  sun3 sun4 ip22 i86pc i586 9000-725
                    aviion).  It is set to the output  of  arch  converted  to
                    lower case.  On systems, where M_ARCH is not available, it
                    is set to the content of K_ARCH.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MK_FILES     makefiles that divert  into  sub  makes  within  the  same
                    directory must set MK_FILES to be a list of makefile names
                    for the sub makes.  Makefile names for  sub  makes  should
                    have  a  name that is build by adding .mk to the base name
                    of  the  target  that  is  defined  inside  the   specific
                    makefile.

       MAKEPROG     Set this macro to the name of your make program if it does
                    not support the macro MAKE_NAME.  The make  program  smake
                    is  able  to  identify  itself.  If you want to use a make
                    program that is not able to identify itself and it’s  name
                    is not make, set MAKEPROG to the name of the make program.
                    Currently only gmake is supported as alternate  value  for
                    MAKEPROG.   If you want to use an unsupported make program
                    you have to check if it supports the needed  features  for
                    makefiles.   You  must  write your own rule files for that
                    make program.  If you want to use  gmake,  you  should  do
                    setenv  MAKEPROG  gmake  before  you  start gmake or use a
                    shell script that does this job for you.

       MAKE         This macro is set up by the make program.  It  contains  a
                    path  name that is sufficient to recursively call the same
                    make program again (either that last path component or the
                    full path name of the make program).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKEFLAGS    This macro is set up by the make program.  It contains the
                    command line flags, make is called with.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_ARCH    This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the  processor  architecture  of  the target machine (e.g.
                    mc68020, sparc, pentium).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_BRAND   This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the     brand     of     the    target    machine    (e.g.
                    Sun_Microsystems(e.g. ).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_HOST    This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the host name of the target machine (e.g. duffy, sherwood,
                    ghost).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_MACH    This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the  kernel architecture of the target machine (e.g. sun3,
                    sun4c, sun4m, sun4u).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_MODEL   This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the    model    name   of   the   target   machine   (e.g.
                    SUNW,SPARCstation-20).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_M_ARCH  This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the machine architecture of the target machine (e.g. sun3,
                    sun4).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_NAME    This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the  official  name of the make program (e.g. make, smake,
                    gmake).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_OS      This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the  operating  system  name  of  the target machine (e.g.
                    sunos, linux, dgux).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_OSDEFS  This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    operating  system  specific defines for the compiler (e.g.
                    -D__SVR4).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_OSREL   This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the  operating  system  release name of the target machine
                    (e.g. 5.5, 4.1.1).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_OSVERSION
                    This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the  operating  system version of the target machine (e.g.
                    generic).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_SERIAL  This macro is currently set up by smake only.  It contains
                    the serial number of the target machine (e.g. 1920098175).
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANDIR       all makefiles for manual pages must set this macro to  the
                    path  name relative to INS_BASE where the manual page root
                    dir for  the  project  should  be.   Possible  values  for
                    english manual pages are man or share/man, possible values
                    for german manual pages are man/de or share/man/de.

       MANFILE      makefiles for manual pages set this macro to the  name  of
                    the troff source file for the manual page

       MANSECT      makefiles  for  manual  pages  set this macro to the macro
                    name that contains the real section name for  this  manual
                    page.  This  is  necessary  because  bsd based system have
                    different naming conventions than system V based  systems.
                    See below for a valid list of manual section macros.

       MANSECT_ADMIN
                    This  macro  contains  the  name  of the sub directory for
                    administrative commands and maintenance procedures.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_CMD  This macro contains the name  of  the  sub  directory  for
                    general user commands.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_DEMOS
                    This macro contains the name of the sub directory for demo
                    commands.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_DEVICE
                    This macro contains the name of the sub directory for user
                    level device interfaces.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_DRIVER
                    This  macro  contains  the  name  of the sub directory for
                    kernel level device driver interfaces.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_FILEFORM
                    This macro contains the name of the sub directory for file
                    formats.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_GAMES
                    This  macro  contains  the  name  of the sub directory for
                    games.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_HDR  This macro contains the name  of  the  sub  directory  for
                    header files.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_LIB  This  macro  contains  the  name  of the sub directory for
                    library function interfaces.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_MACROS
                    This macro contains the name  of  the  sub  directory  for
                    troff macros.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_NETWORK
                    This macro contains the name of the sub directory for user
                    level network interfaces.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_SYSCALL
                    This macro contains the name  of  the  sub  directory  for
                    system call interfaces.  Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_TABLES
                    This  macro  contains  the  name  of the sub directory for
                    tables.  Do not change this macro.

       MANSTYLE     This macro contains the name that  is  used  to  find  the
                    right  ordering  conventions  for  manual  pages.   Do not
                    change this macro.

       MANSUFFIX    makefiles for manual pages set this  macro  to  the  macro
                    name  that  contains the real suffix for this manual page.
                    This is necessary because bsd based system have  different
                    naming  conventions than system V based systems. See below
                    for a valid list of manual suffix macros.

       MANSUFF_ADMIN
                    This macro contains  the  name  of  the  file  suffix  for
                    administrative commands and maintenance procedures.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_CMD  This  macro  contains  the  name  of  the  file suffix for
                    general user commands.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_DEMOS
                    This macro contains the name of the file suffix  for  demo
                    commands.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_DEVICE
                    This  macro  contains the name of the file suffix for user
                    level device interfaces.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_DRIVER
                    This macro contains the name of the file suffix for kernel
                    level device driver interfaces.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_FILEFORM
                    This  macro  contains the name of the file suffix for file
                    formats.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_GAMES
                    This macro contains the name of the file suffix for games.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_HDR  This macro contains the name of the file suffix for header
                    files.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_LIB  This macro contains  the  name  of  the  file  suffix  for
                    library function interfaces.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_MACROS
                    This  macro contains the name of the file suffix for troff
                    macros.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_NETWORK
                    This macro contains the name of the file suffix  for  user
                    level network interfaces.
                    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_SYSCALL
                    This macro contains the name of the file suffix for system
                    call interfaces.  Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_TABLES
                    This macro contains  the  name  of  the  file  suffix  for
                    tables.  Do not change this macro.

       MARCH        this  macro  contains  the  machine  architecture  for the
                    target machine (e.g.  sun3 sun4 ip22 i86pc  i586  9000-725
                    aviion).   It  is  set  to the output of arch converted to
                    lower case.  On systems, where M_ARCH is not available, it
                    is set to the content of K_ARCH.
                    Do  not  change  this  macro unless you want to do a cross
                    compilation.

       O_ARCH       this macro contains  the  name  of  the  operating  system
                    converted  to  lower  case.   It is usually the output of:
                    uname  -s.   It  may  contain  a  modified  name  if   the
                    compilation  rules  for different version of the operating
                    system differ (e.g.  on SunOS and  Solaris,  the  official
                    operation system name in both cases is SunOS).
                    Do not change this macro.

       OARCH        this  macro  contains the object architecture that is used
                    for architecture dependent sub directories.  It is set to:
                    $(PARCH)-$(O_ARCH)-$(C_ARCH).
                    Do not change this macro.

       OARCHDIR     this   macro   contains  the  concatenation  of  OBJ/  and
                    $(OARCH).
                    Do not change this macro.

       OFILES       this macro contains the list of objects that are  the  the
                    dependency  list  for  the target.  It is constructed from
                    the list of assembler source files, c  source  files,  lex
                    source files and yacc source files.
                    Do not change this macro.

       OINCSDIR     this  macro contains the concatenation of $(SRCROOT)/incs/
                    and $(OARCH).  It is the location where include files that
                    are  made within a make run and subject to global use will
                    be placed.
                    Do not change this macro.

       OLIBSDIR     this macro contains the concatenation of  $(SRCROOT)/libs/
                    and $(OARCH).  It is the location where libraries that are
                    made within a make run will be placed.
                    Do not change this macro.

       OSDEFS       this  macro  contains   operating   system   specific   c-
                    preprocessor definitions.
                    Do not change this macro.

       OSNAME       the  unmodified  name of the operating system converted to
                    lower case.  See O_ARCH.
                    Do not change this macro.

       OSREL        the release of the operating system.
                    Do not change this macro.

       P_ARCH       this macro contains the  processor  architecture  for  the
                    target  machine (e.g.  mc68020 mc88200 sparc pentium).  It
                    is set to the output of uname -p converted to lower  case.
                    On  systems,  where  P_ARCH is not available, it is set to
                    the content of K_ARCH.
                    Do not change this macro.

       PARCH        this macro contains the  processor  architecture  for  the
                    target  machine (e.g.  mc68020 mc88200 sparc pentium).  It
                    is set to the output of uname -p converted to lower  case.
                    On  systems,  where  P_ARCH is not available, it is set to
                    the content of K_ARCH.
                    Do not change this macro unless you want  to  do  a  cross
                    compilation.

       RULESDIR     the  value of this macro must be set before the rules file
                    $(SRCROOT)/$(RULESDIR/rules.top is included.  If you  want
                    to  test  the  behavior  of  a  modified  version  of  the
                    makefiles in  RULESDIR,  put  a  copy  into  an  alternate
                    directory,  modify  one  or  more files in it and then use
                    make with a different value of RULESDIR,  that  points  to
                    the alternate directory.

       RUNPATH      is  evaluated  on systems, where LD_RUN_PATH is supported.
                    It contains the default library search  path  for  dynamic
                    linked  targets  on  runtime.   This  search  path will be
                    stored inside the target.  This is usually set in the file
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults                     or
                    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).  Note  that
                    older  systems  will  use LD_LIBRARY_PATH for this purpose
                    too.

       SCRFILE      this macro must be  set  in  a  leaf  makefile  for  shell
                    scripts to define the source for that script file.

       SRCFILE      this  macro  must  be set in a leaf makefile for localized
                    files to define the source for that file.

       SRCROOT      this macro contains the relative position to the project’s
                    source  root  directory.   The value of this macro must be
                    set before the rules file  $(SRCROOT)/$(RULESDIR/rules.top
                    is  included.   SRCROOT  should  be  set  to ../..  if the
                    appropriate leaf makefile is located two directory  levels
                    below the source route.

       SUBARCHDIR   may  be  set to put the object files and the target into a
                    different directory than usual.   SUBARCHDIR  will  modify
                    the  value  of ARCHDIR.  If you want to make a target that
                    is  compiled  for  dbx  you   may   use:   make   COPTX=-g
                    SUBARCHDIR=-dbx.

       TARGET       all  makefiles,  that are not referring to library targets
                    or sub makes / sub dir makes, must define TARGET to be the
                    output file name of the final link operation.

       TARGETLIB    all  makefiles that are used to make libraries must define
                    TARGETLIB to be the central part of  the  target  library.
                    If  you  want  to make e.g.  libfoo define TARGETLIB= foo.
                    This  is  needed  to  allow  operating  systems  to   have
                    different  naming  conventions  for libraries.  If you are
                    making a non  shared  library,  the  example  above  would
                    result in a filename: libfoo.a for the real target.

       TARGETMAN    this macro must be set in a leaf makefile for manual pages
                    to  define  the  base  name  for  that  manual  page  (not
                    including the suffix).

       XMK_FILE     makefiles  that  want  to  install manual pages should set
                    XMK_FILE to Makefile.man to  avoid  having  to  install  a
                    diversion make file.  The make file found in XMK_FILE will
                    be processed only  if  make  is  called  with  the  target
                    install.

GETTING STARTED

       To set up a new project, first copy the RULES and TEMPLATES directories
       and all its content into the project’s root directory.

       Then  copy  a   top   level   makefile,   a   Defaults   file   and   a
       Targetdirs.archname file into the project’s root directory.

       Then create the following directories: cmd, lib, include.

       Now  start  creating  target  directories e.g below cmd and lib.  Don’t
       forget to create a makefile and an appropriate Targetdirs.archname file
       on each node directory.

EXAMPLES

       If  you want to set up a private copy of parts of a project, you should
       choose a directory inside your directory  tree  that  will  become  the
       shadow  projects  source  root  directory.   Then create symbolic links
       named RULES and TEMPLATES to the real source root.  If you  don’t  want
       to  modify  the  global  include  files,  create a symbolic link to the
       include directory too, else copy the include directory and its content.
       copy   the   top   level   makefile,   the   Defaults   file   and  the
       Targetdirs.archname file.

       Finally copy the desired sub tree together with all makefiles  and  the
       Targetdirs.archname  files  that  are  located in the directories above
       your part of the project that you want to have separately.

FILES

       .../RULES/*
       .../DEFAULTS/*
       .../TARGETS/*
       .../TEMPLATES/*

SEE ALSO

       makerules(4), make(1), gmake(1), smake(1).

       If you want to know, how to add new rules or how to add support for new
       operating systems or compilers look into makerules(4).

DIAGNOSTICS

       Diagnostic  messages  depend  on  the make program.  Have a look at the
       appropriate man page.

NOTES

       The scope of this manual is only the usage of leaf makefiles.   If  you
       want to make changes to the make rules have a look at makerules(4).

       makefiles  can  be used with Sunpro make, Gnu make and smake.  Although
       Gnu make runs on many platforms, it has no useful debug output.

       Use Sunpro make or smake if you have problems with a makefile.   Sunpro
       make  and  smake,  both  have  a  -D flag, that allows you to watch the
       makefiles after the first expansion. Use this option,  if  you  are  in
       doubt  if  your  makefile  gets expanded the right way and if the right
       rules are included.  There is also a -d  option  that  gives  debugging
       output  while  make  is running. If you want more output, use -dd, -ddd
       and so on.

       Smake has an option -xM that shows you the include dependency for  make
       rules.

       The  following  is a list of all macros that are used in makefiles.  Do
       not use them unless their meaning has been explained before.

       -O_ARCH, .OBJDIR, .SEARCHLIST, ALLTARGETS, AR, ARCH, ARCHDIR, ARCHDIRX,
       ARCH_DONE,  ARFLAGS,  AS,  ASFLAGS, ASMFILES, ASOPTS, ASOPTX, CC, CCOM,
       CCOM_DEF,   CFILES,   CFLAGS,   CHGRP,   CHMOD,   CHOWN,   CLEAN_FILES,
       CLEAN_FILEX,  CLOBBER_FILEX, COPTDYN, COPTGPROF, COPTOPT, COPTS, COPTX,
       CPP, CPPFLAGS, CPPOPTS,  CPPOPTX,  CTAGS,  CURDIR,  CWARNOPTS,  CWOPTS,
       C_ARCH,  DEFAULTSDIR,  DEFAULTSROOT,  DEFCCOM, DEFCCOM_DEF, DEFINCDIRS,
       DEFINCDIRS_DEF, DEFINSGRP, DEFINSMODE, DEFINSUSR,  DEFUMASK,  DEF_ROOT,
       DEP_DEP,   DEP_FILE,   DEP_SUFFIX,   DIRNAME,   DIRS,   DYNLD,   ETAGS,
       FLOAT_OPTIONS, HFILES, HOSTNAME, INCDIRS, INSDIR,  INSGRP,  INSGRP_DEF,
       INSMODE, INSMODE_DEF, INSTALL, INSUSR, INSUSR_DEF, INS_BASE, INS_KBASE,
       KARCH,  KARCH_DEF,  KDEFINES,  K_ARCH,  LD,  LDCC,   LDFLAGS,   LDLIBS,
       LDOPTDYN,  LDOPTS,  LDOPTX,  LDPATH,  LIBS,  LIBS_PATH,  LIBX, LIB_KVM,
       LIB_MATH, LIB_PREFIX, LIB_SOCKET, LIB_SUFFIX, LN,  LNDYNLIB,  LOCALIZE,
       LORDER,  MAKE,  MK_FILES,  MAKEPROG,  MAKE_ARCH,  MAKE_HOST, MAKE_MACH,
       MAKE_M_ARCH,  MAKE_NAME,  MAKE_OS,  MAKE_OSDEFS,  MAKE_OSREL,   MANDIR,
       MANFILE,    MANSECT,    MANSECT_ADMIN,    MANSECT_CMD,   MANSECT_DEMOS,
       MANSECT_DEVICE,   MANSECT_DRIVER,   MANSECT_FILEFORM,    MANSECT_GAMES,
       MANSECT_HDR,      MANSECT_LIB,     MANSECT_MACROS,     MANSECT_NETWORK,
       MANSECT_SYSCALL, MANSECT_TABLES,  MANSTYLE,  MANSUFFIX,  MANSUFF_ADMIN,
       MANSUFF_CMD,     MANSUFF_DEMOS,     MANSUFF_DEVICE,     MANSUFF_DRIVER,
       MANSUFF_FILEFORM,     MANSUFF_GAMES,     MANSUFF_HDR,      MANSUFF_LIB,
       MANSUFF_MACROS,   MANSUFF_NETWORK,   MANSUFF_SYSCALL,   MANSUFF_TABLES,
       MARCH, MARCH_DEF, MKDEP, MKDEP_OUT, MKDIR, MV, M_ARCH, OARCH, OARCHDIR,
       OFILES,    OINCSDIR,   OLIBSDIR,   OSDEFS,   OSNAME,   OSREL,   O_ARCH,
       PALLDEP_FILE,  PARCH,  PARCH_DEF,   PASMFILES,   PDEP_FILE,   PLOFILES,
       POFILES,  PTARGET,  PTARGET_BASE,  PYOFILES, P_ARCH, RANLIB, RM, RMDEP,
       RMTARGET,  RM_FORCE,  RM_RECURS,  RM_RF,  RULESDIR,  RUNPATH,  SCRFILE,
       SHELL,  SHL_SUFFIX,  SRCFILE,  SRCLIBS,  SRCROOT,  SUBARCH, SUBARCHDIR,
       SYMLINK, TAGS, TARGET, TARGETLIB, TARGETMAN, TARGET_BASE,  TARGET_PATH,
       TSORT,   UMASK,   UMASK_DEF,   UMASK_VAL,   XARCH,  XK_ARCH,  XMK_FILE,
       XMAKEPROG, XM_ARCH, XP_ARCH, _CCOM, _DEFAULTSDIR, _DEFCCOM, _DEFINSGRP,
       _DEFINSMODE,  _DEFINSUSR,  _DEFUMASK,  _DIRNAME,  _INCDIRS,  _MAKEPROG,
       _MARCH,   _M_ARCH,   _O_ARCH,   _PARCH,   _P_ARCH,    _UNIQ,    __CCOM,
       __DEFAULTSDIR,   __DEFCCOM,   __DEFINSGRP,  __DEFINSMODE,  __DEFINSUSR,
       __DEFUMASK,  __DIRNAME,  __INCDIRS,  __MAKEPROG,   __MARCH,   __M_ARCH,
       __PARCH, __P_ARCH,

BUGS

Source Tree Hierarchy

       The  following  outline  gives  a  quick  tour through a typical source
       hierarchy:

       .../   root directory of the source tree
              Makefile
                     the top Makefile
              Targetdirs
                     a file containing a list of directories that are needed
                     for that project.  If the system needs different target
                     lists depending on the target system architecture , use
                     target specific files in .../TARGETS/
              ...
       .../RULES/
              the location of makefiles (included rules)
              rules.top
                     the mandatory include rules (needed to setup basic rules)
              rules.aux
                     rules needed to install a non localized auxiliary file
              rules.cmd
                     rules needed to make an ordinary command (like /bin/sh)
              rules.drv
                     rules needed to make a device driver
              rules.lib
                     rules needed to make a standard (nonshared) library
              rules.loc
                     rules needed to install a localized auxiliary file
              rules.man
                     rules needed to install a localized manual page
              rules.scr
                     rules needed to install a localized shell script
              rules.shl
                     rules needed to make a shared library
              rules.mks
                     rules needed to make more than one target in a specific
                     directory
              rules.dir
                     rules needed to make targets that are located in sub
                     directories to the current directory
              ...
       .../DEFAULTS/
              default definitions for various target architectures are located
              in this directory. Templates for some architectures can be found
              in the .../TEMPLATES/ directory.
              Defaults
                     default definitions for that source tree. System
                     dependent definitions are in .../DEFAULTS/Defaults.*
       .../TARGETS/
              target list definitions for various target architectures are
              located in this directory.
       .../TEMPLATES/
              templates that should be used inside the project (rename to
              Makefile, if it is the only makefile in that directory, rename
              to target.mk, if there is more than one target in that
              directory)
              Defaults
                     Defaults file for the source root directory
              Defaults.linux
                     Defaults file for linux.  This should be installed in the
                     .../DEFAULTS/ directory.
              Makefile.root
                     Makefile for the source root directory
              Makefile.aux
                     Makefile for a non localized auxiliary file
              Makefile.cmd
                     Makefile for an ordinary command (like /bin/sh)
              Makefile.lib
                     Makefile for a standard (nonshared) library
              Makefile.loc
                     Makefile for a localized auxiliary file
              Makefile.man
                     Makefile for a localized manual page
              Makefile_de.man
                     Makefile for a localized manual page in the german locale
              Makefile.scr
                     Makefile for a localized shell script
              Makefile.shl
                     Makefile for a shared library
              Makefile.drv
                     Makefile for a device driver
              Makefile.mks
                     Makefile for more than one target in a specific directory
              Makefile.dir
                     Makefile for targets that are located in sub directories
                     to the current directory
              ...
       .../cmd/
              source tree for normal commands
              Makefile
                     the makefile for the cmd sub directory
              Targetdirs.sun4m
                     a file containing a list of directories like myprog (see
                     below) that are needed for that specific architecture.
              myprog/
                     directory where the sources for a specific command are
                     located
                     Makefile
                             makefile for myprog
                     Makefile.man
                             makefile for the manual page of myprog
                     mprog.c
                             source for myprog
                     mprog.tr
                             troff source for the manual page of myprog
                      OBJ/   directory where system specific sub directories
                             are located
                             sparc-sunos5-cc/
                                    directory for binaries that belong to a
                                    specific system
                             ...
                      ...
              ...
       .../lib/
              directory where the sources for a libraries are located
              Makefile
                     the makefile for the lib sub directory
              Targetdirs.sun4m
                     a file containing a list of directories like libfoo (see
                     below) that are needed for that specific architecture.
              libfoo/
                     directory where all source files for libfoo are located
              ...
       .../kernel
              directory for kernel modules
              Makefile
                     the makefile for the kernel sub directory
              Targetdirs.sun4m
                     a file containing a list of directories like drv (see
                     below) that are needed for that specific architecture.
              drv/   directory where drivers are located
                     Makefile
                             the makefile for the drv sub directory
                     Targetdirs.sun4m
                             a file containing a list of directories like
                             mydrv (see below) that are needed for that
                             specific architecture.
                      mydrv/ source for a specific driver
                      ...
              ...
       .../include
              directory for global include files that are used in that project
       .../bins
              directory for binary programs that are created/needed while
              compiling the project
              sparc-sunos5-cc/
                     directory for binaries that belong to a specific system
              ...
       .../libs
              directory for libraries that are created/needed while compiling
              the project
              sparc-sunos5-cc/
                     directory for libraries that belong to a specific system
              ...
       .../incs
              directory for include files that are created/needed while
              compiling the project
              sparc-sunos5-cc/
                     directory for include files that belong to a specific
                     system
              ...
       ...

AUTHOR

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Mail bugs and suggestions to:

       joerg@schily.isdn.cs.tu-berlin.de     or     js@cs.tu-berlin.de      or
       jes@fokus.gmd.de