Provided by: srecord_1.23-1_i386 bug

NAME

       srec_intel - Intel Hexadecimal object file format specification

DESCRIPTION

       This format is also known as the Intel MCS-86 Object format.

       This  document  describes  the  hexadecimal  object file format for the
       Intel 8-bit,  16-bit,  and  32-bit  microprocessors.   The  hexadecimal
       format  is suitable as input to PROM programmers or hardware emulators.

       Hexadecimal object file format is a way  of  representing  an  absolute
       binary  object  file in ASCII.  Because the file is in ASCII instead of
       binary, it is possible to store the file is non-binary medium  such  as
       paper-tape,  punch  cards,  etc.; and the file can also be displayed on
       CRT terminals, line printers, etc..  The 8-bit hexadecimal object  file
       format  allows  for  the  placement  of code and data within the 16-bit
       linear address  space  of  the  Intel  8-bit  processors.   The  16-bit
       hexadecimal format allows for the 20-bit segmented address space of the
       Intel 16-bit processors.  And the 32-bit format allows for  the  32-bit
       linear address space of the Intel 32-bit processors.

       The hexadecimal representation of binary is coded in ASCII alphanumeric
       characters.  For example, the 8-bit binary value  0011-1111  is  3F  in
       hexadecimal.   To  code  this  in  ASCII, one 8-bit byte containing the
       ASCII code for the character ’3’ (0011-0011 or 0x33) and one 8-bit byte
       containing  the)  ASCII  code for the character ’F’ (0100-0110 or 0x46)
       are required.  For each byte value, the high-order hexadecimal digit is
       always  the  first  digit  of  the  pair  of  hexadecimal digits.  This
       representation (ASCII hexadecimal) requires twice as many bytes as  the
       binary representation.

       A  hexadecimal  object  file  is  blocked  into  records, each of which
       contains the record type, length, memory load address and  checksum  in
       addition  to  the data.  There are currently six (6) different types of
       records that are defined, not all combinations  of  these  records  are
       meaningful, however.  The record are:

       · Data Record (8-, 16-, or 32-bit formats)

       · End of File Record (8-, 16-, or 32-bit formats)

       · Extended Segment Address Record (16- or 32-bit formats)

       · Start Segment Address Record (16- or 32-bit formats)

       · Extended Linear Address Record (32-bit format only)

       · Start Linear Address Record (32-bit format only)

   General Record Format
       +-------+--------+--------+--------+------+----------+
       |Record | Record | Load   | Record | Data | Checksum |
       |Mark   | Length | Offset | Type   |      |          |
       +-------+--------+--------+--------+------+----------+
       Record Mark.
               Each  record  begins  with a Record Mark field containing 0x3A,
               the ASCII code for the colon (‘‘:’’) character.

       Record Length
               Each record has a  Record  Length  field  which  specifies  the
               number of bytes of information or data which follows the Record
               Type field of the record.  This field is one byte,  represented
               as two hexadecimal characters.  The maximum value of the Record
               Length field is hexadecimal ’FF’ or 255.

       Load Offset
               Each record has a Load Offset field which specifies the  16-bit
               starting load offset of the data bytes, therefore this field is
               only used for Data Records.  In other records where this  field
               is  not  used, it should be coded as four ASCII zero characters
               (‘‘0000’’ or 0x30303030).  This field is two byte,  represented
               as four hexadecimal characters.

       Record Type
               Each  record has a Record Type field which specifies the record
               type of  this  record.   The  Record  Type  field  is  used  to
               interpret  the  remaining  information within the record.  This
               field is one byte, represented as two  hexadecimal  characters.
               The encoding for all the current record types are:

               0  Data Record

               1  End of File Record

               2  Extended Segment Address Record

               3  Start Segment Address Record

               4  Extended Linear Address Record

               5  Start Linear Address Record

       Data    Each  record  has  a variable length Data field, it consists of
               zero or more bytes encoded as pairs of hexadecimal digits.  The
               interpretation  of this field depends on the Record Type field.

       Checksum
               Each record ends with a Checksum field that contains the  ASCII
               hexadecimal  representation  of  the  two’s  complement of  the
               8-bit bytes that result from  converting  each  pair  of  ASCII
               hexadecimal  digits  to  one byte of binary, from and including
               the Record Length field to and including the last byte  of  the
               Data  field.   Therefore,  the  sum of all the ASCII pairs in a
               record after converting to binary, from the Record Length field
               to and including the Checksum field, is zero.

   Extended Linear Address Record
       (32-bit format only)

       +--------+--------+--------+--------+-----------+----------+
       |Record  | Record | Load   | Record | ULBA      | Checksum |
       |Mark    | Length | Offset | Type   | (2 bytes) |          |
       |(‘‘:’’) | (2)    | (0)    | (4)    |           |          |
       The-32-bit-Extended-Linear-Address-Record-is-used-to-specify bits 16-31
       of  the Linear Base Address (LBA), where bits 0-15 of the LBA are zero.
       Bits 16-31 of the LBA are referred to as the Upper Linear Base  Address
       (ULBA).   The absolute memory address of a content byte in a subsequent
       Data Record is) obtained by adding the LBA to an offset  calculated  by
       adding the Load Offset field of the containing Data Record to the index
       of the byte in the Data Record (0, 1, 2, ... n).  This offset  addition
       is done) modulo 4G (i.e. 32-bits from 0xFFFFFFFF to 0x00000000) results
       in wrapping around from the end to  the  beginning  of  the  4G  linear
       address  defined  by the LBA.  The linear address at which a particular
       byte is loaded is calculated as:
              (LBA + DRLO + DRI) MOD 4G
       where:

              DRLO is the Load Offset field of a Data Record.

              DRI  is the data byte index within the Data Record.
       When an Extended Linear Address Record defines the value of LBA, it may
       appear  anywhere  within  a  32-bit hexadecimal object file. This value
       remains in effect until  another  Extended  Linear  Address  Record  is
       encountered.  The LBA defaults to zero until an Extended Linear Address
       Record is encountered.  The contents of the  individual  fields  within
       the record are:

       Record Mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (‘‘:’’) character.

       Record Length
               The field contains 0x3032,  the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the
               ASCII  characters ‘‘02’’, which is the length, in bytes, of the
               ULBA data information within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII  characters  ‘‘0000’’,  since  this field is not used for
               this record.

       Record Type
               This field contains 0x3034, the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the
               ASCII  character  ‘‘04’’, which specifies the record type to be
               an Extended Linear Address Record.

       ULBA    This field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits that  specify
               the  16-bit  Upper  Linear  Base  Address  value.  The value is
               encoded big-endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This field contains the check sum on the  Record  Length,  Load
               Offset, Record Type, and ULBA fields.

   Extended Segment Address Record
       (16- or 32-bit formats)

       +--------+--------+--------+--------+-----------+----------+
       |Record  | Record | Load   | Record | USBA      | Checksum |
       |Mark    | Length | Offset | Type   | (2 bytes) |          |
       |(‘‘:’’) | (2)    | (0)    | (2)    |           |          |
       The-16-bit-Extended-Segment+Address-Record-is-used-to-specify bits 4-19
       of  the Segment Base Address (SBA), where bits 0-3 of the SBA are zero.
       Bits 4-19 of the SBA are referred to as the Upper Segment Base  Address
       (USBA).   The absolute memory address of a content byte in a subsequent
       Data Record is) obtained by adding the SBA to an offset  calculated  by
       adding the Load Offset field of the containing Data Record to the index
       of the byte in the Data Record (0, 1, 2, ... n).  This offset  addition
       is  done  modulo  64K  (i.e.  16-bits  from 0xFFFF to 0x0000 results in
       wrapping around from the end  to  the  beginning  of  the  64K  segment
       defined  by  the SBA.  The address at which a particular byte is loaded
       is calculated as:
              SBA + ((DRLO + DRI) MOD 64K)
       where:

              DRLO is the LOAD OFFSET field of a Data Record.

              DRI  is the data byte index within the Data Record.

       When an Extended Segment Address Record defines the value  of  SBA,  it
       may  appear  anywhere  within  a  16-bit hexadecimal object file.  This
       value remains in effect until another Extended Segment  Address  Record
       is  encountered.   The  SBA  defaults to zero until an Extended Segment
       Address Record is encountered.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record Mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (‘‘:’’) character.

       Record Length
               The  field  contains  0x3032,  the  hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters ’02’, which is the length, in  bytes,  of  the
               USBA data information within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters ’0000’, since this field is not used for  this
               record.

       Record Type
               This  field  contains  0x3032,  the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII character ‘‘02’’, which specifies the record type  to  be
               an Extended Segment Address Record.

       USBA    This  field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify
               the 16-bit Upper Segment Base  Address  value.   The  field  is
               encoded big-endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This  field  contains  the check sum on the Record length, Load
               Offset, Record Type, and USBA fields.

   Data Record
       (8-, 16- or 32-bit formats)

       +--------+--------+--------+--------+------+----------+
       |Record  | Record | Load   | Record | Data | Checksum |
       |Mark    | Length | Offset | Type   |      |          |
       |(‘‘:’’) |        |        |        |      |          |
       The-Data-Record-provides-a-set-of-hexadecimal-digits-that represent the
       ASCII code for data bytes that make up a portion  of  a  memory  image.
       The  method  for  calculating the absolute address (linear in the 8-bit
       and 32-bit case and segmented in the 16-bit case) for each byte of data
       is  described  in the discussions of the Extended Linear Address Record
       and the Extended Segment Address Record.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record Mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (‘‘:’’) character.

       Record Length
               The  field  contains  two ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify
               the number of data bytes in the record.  The maximum  value  is
               255 decimal.

       Load Offset
               This  field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits representing
               the offset from the LBA (see Extended Linear Address Record see
               Extended Segment Address Record) defining the address which the
               first byte of the data is to be placed.

       Record Type
               This field contains 0x3030, the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the
               ASCII character ‘‘00’’, which specifies the record type to be a
               Data Record.

       Data    This field contains pairs of ASCII hexadecimal digits, one pair
               for each data byte.

       Checksum
               This  field  contains  the check sum on the Record Length, Load
               Offset, Record Type, and Data fields.

   Start Linear Address Record
       (32-bit format only)

       +--------+--------+--------+--------+-----------+----------+
       |Record  | Record | Load   | Record | EIP       | Checksum |
       |Mark    | Length | Offset | Type   | (4 bytes) |          |
       |(‘‘:’’) | (4)    | (0)    | (5)    |           |          |
       The-Start+Linear-Address-Record-is-used-to-specify-the-execution  start
       address  for  the  object  file.   The value given is the 32-bit linear
       address for the EIP register.  Note that this record only specifies the
       code  address  within the 32-bit linear address space of the 80386.  If
       the code is to start execution in the real mode of the 80386, then  the
       Start  Segment Address Record should be used instead, since that record
       specifies both the CS and IP register contents necessary for real mode.

       The  Start  Linear  Address  Record  can  appear  anywhere  in a 32-bit
       hexadecimal object file.   If  such  a  record  is  not  present  in  a
       hexadecimal  object  file,  a  loader is free to assign a default start
       address.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (‘‘:’’) character.

       Record length
               The  field  contains  0x3034,  the  hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters ‘‘04’’, which is the length, in bytes, of  the
               EIP register content within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters ‘‘0000’’, since this field  is  not  used  for
               this record.

       Record Type
               This  field  contains  0x3035,  the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII character ‘‘05’’, which specifies the record type to be a
               Start Linear Address Record.

       EIP     This field contains eight ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify
               the 32-bit EIP register contents.  The field  is  encoded  big-
               endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This  field  contains  the check sum on the Record length, Load
               Offset, Record Type, and EIP fields.

   Start Segment Address Record
       (16- or 32-bit formats)

       +--------+--------+--------+--------+------------+------------+----------+
       |Record  | Record | Load   | Record | CS      (2 | IP      (2 | Checksum |
       |Mark    | Length | Offset | Type   | bytes)     | bytes)     |          |
       |(‘‘:’’) | (4)    | (0)    | (3)    |            |            |          |
       The-Start+Segment-Address-Record-is-used-to-specify-the-execution-start--+
       address for the object file.  The value given  is  the  20-bit  segment
       address  for  the  CS  and  IP  registers.   Note that this record only
       specifies the code address within the 20-bit segmented address space of
       the  8086/80186.   The Start Segment Address Record can appear anywhere
       in a 16-bit hexadecimal object file.   If such a record is not  present
       in  a  hexadecimal  object  file,  a loader is free to assign a default
       start address.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record Mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (‘‘:’’) character.

       Record Length
               The  field  contains  0x3034,  the  hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters ‘‘04’’, which is the length, in bytes, of  the
               CS and IP register contents within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters ‘‘0000’’, since this field  is  not  used  for
               this record.

       Record Type
               This  field  contains  0x3033,  the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII character ’03’, which specifies the record type to  be  a
               Start Segment Address Record.

       CS      This  field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify
               the 16-bit CS register contents.  The  field  is  encoded  big-
               endian (most significant digit first).

       IP      This  field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify
               the 16-bit IP register contents.  The  field  is  encoded  big-
               endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This  field  contains  the check sum on the Record length, Load
               Offset, Record Type, CS, and IP fields.

   End of File Record
       (8-, 16-, or 32-bit formats)

       +--------+--------+--------+--------+----------+
       |Record  | Record | Load   | Record | Checksum |
       |Mark    | Length | Offset | Type   | (0xFF)   |
       |(‘‘:’’) | (0)    | (0)    | (1)    |          |
       The-End-of-File-Record-specifies-the+-end--of--the  hexadecimal  object
       file.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (‘‘:’’) character.

       Record Length
               The field contains 0x3030,  the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the
               ASCII  characters  ‘‘00’’.   Since this record does not contain
               any Data bytes, the length is zero.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII  characters  ‘‘0000’’,  since  this field is not used for
               this record.

       Record Type
               This field contains 0x3031, the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the
               ASCII  character  ‘‘01’’, which specifies the record type to be
               an End of File Record.

       Checksum
               This field contains the check sum an the  Record  Length,  Load
               Offset,  and  Record  Type  fields.   Since  all the fields are
               static, the check sum can also be  calculated  statically,  and
               the  value  is  0x4646,  the  hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               characters ‘‘FF’’.

   Size Multiplier
       In general, binary data will expand in sized by approximately 2.3 times
       when represented with this format.

EXAMPLE

       Here  is  an  example  Intel  hex  file.  It contains the data ‘‘Hello,
       World’’ to be loaded at address 0.
              :0D00000048656C6C6F2C20576F726C640AA1
              :00000001FF

REFERENCE

       This information  comes  (very  indirectly)  from  Microprocessors  and
       Programmed  Logic,  Second  Edition,  Kenneth L. Short, 1987, Prentice-
       Hall, ISBN 0-13-580606-2.

COPYRIGHT

       srec_cat version 1.23
       Copyright (C) 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001,  2002,  2003,  2004,  2005  Peter
       Miller;
       All rights reserved.

       The srec_cat program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details use
       the ’srec_cat -VERSion License’ command.  This is free software and you
       are  welcome  to  redistribute it under certain conditions; for details
       use the ’srec_cat -VERSion License’ command.

AUTHOR

       Peter Miller   E-Mail:   millerp@canb.auug.org.au
       /\/\*             WWW:   http://www.canb.auug.org.au/~millerp/

   Derivation
       This manual page is derived from a file marked as follows:

       Intel Hexadecimal Object File Format Specification; Revision A, 1/6/88

       Disclaimer: Intel makes no representation or warranties with respect to
       the  contents  hereof and specifically disclaims any implied warranties
       of merchantability or fitness for  any  particular  purpose.   Further,
       Intel  reserves  the right to revise this publication from time to time
       in the content hereof without obligation of Intel to notify any  person
       of  such  revision  or  changes.  The publication of this specification
       should not be construed as a commitment on Intel’s  part  to  implement
       any product.