Provided by: xboard_4.2.7-3ubuntu1_i386 bug

NAME

       xboard - X graphical user interface for chess

SYNOPSIS

       xboard [options]
       xboard -ics -icshost hostname [options]
       xboard -ncp [options]
       |pxboard
       cmail [options]

DESCRIPTION

       XBoard  is a graphical chessboard that can serve as a user interface to
       chess  engines  (such  as  GNU  Chess),  the  Internet  Chess  Servers,
       electronic  mail  correspondence chess, or your own collection of saved
       games.

       This manual documents version 4.2.7 of XBoard.

MAJOR MODES

       XBoard always runs in one of four major modes.  You  select  the  major
       mode from the command line when you start up XBoard.

       xboard [options]
              As  an interface to GNU Chess or another chess engine running on
              your machine, XBoard lets you play a game against  the  machine,
              set  up  arbitrary  positions,  force  variations,  watch a game
              between two chess engines,  interactively  analyze  your  stored
              games or set up and analyze arbitrary positions.  (Note: Not all
              chess engines support analysis.)

       xboard -ics -icshost hostname [options]
              As Internet Chess Server (ICS) interface, XBoard lets  you  play
              against  other  ICS  users,  observe  games they are playing, or
              review games that have  recently  finished.   Most  of  the  ICS
              "wild" chess variants are supported, including bughouse.

       xboard -ncp [options]
              XBoard  can  also  be used simply as an electronic chessboard to
              play through games. It will read and write game files and  allow
              you  to  play  through  variations  manually.  You can use it to
              browse games off the net or review games you have saved.   These
              features are also available in the other modes.

       |pxboard
              If  you  want  to pipe games into XBoard, use the supplied shell
              script ‘pxboard’.  For example, from the news reader ‘xrn’, find
              a  message  with one or more games in it, click the Save button,
              and type ‘|pxboard’ as the file name.

       cmail [options]
              As an interface to electronic mail correspondence chess,  XBoard
              works  with the cmail program. See CMail below for instructions.

MENUS, BUTTONS, AND KEYS

       To move a piece, you can drag it with the left mouse button, or you can
       click  the  left  mouse button once on the piece, then once more on the
       destination square.  To drop a new piece on a square (when applicable),
       press  the  middle or the right mouse button over the square and select
       from the popup menu.  In cases where you can drop  either  a  white  or
       black  piece,  use the middle button (or shift+right) for white and the
       right button (or shift+middle) for  black.   When  you  are  playing  a
       bughouse  game  on  an  Internet  Chess  Server, a list of the offboard
       pieces that each player has available is  shown  in  the  window  title
       after  the  player’s name; in addition, the piece menus show the number
       of pieces available of each type.

       All other XBoard commands are available from the  menu  bar.  The  most
       frequently  used commands also have shortcut keys or on-screen buttons.

       When XBoard is iconized, its graphical icon is a white knight if it  is
       White’s  turn  to  move,  a  black  knight  if it is Black’s turn.  See
       Iconize in Keys below if you have  problems  getting  this  feature  to
       work.

   File Menu
       Reset  Resets  XBoard  and  the  chess engine to the beginning of a new
              chess game. The ‘r’ key is a keyboard  equivalent.  In  Internet
              Chess  Server  mode,  clears  the  current state of XBoard, then
              resynchronizes with the ICS by sending a refresh command. If you
              want  to  stop playing, observing, or examining an ICS game, use
              an appropriate command from the Action menu, not  ‘Reset’.   See
              Action Menu.

       Load Game
              Plays  a  game  from  a  record  file. The ‘g’ key is a keyboard
              equivalent.  A popup dialog prompts you for the  file  name.  If
              the  file  contains  more  than  one game, a second popup dialog
              displays a list of games (with information drawn from their  PGN
              tags,   if   any),   and  you  can  select  the  one  you  want.
              Alternatively, you can load the Nth game in the  file  directly,
              by  typing  the  number  ‘N’ after the file name, separated by a
              space.

              The game file parser will accept PGN (portable  game  notation),
              or  in  fact  almost  any  file that contains moves in algebraic
              notation.  Notation of the form ‘P@f7’ is  accepted  for  piece-
              drops in bughouse games; this is a nonstandard extension to PGN.
              If the file includes a PGN position (FEN tag), or  an  old-style
              XBoard  position diagram bracketed by ‘[--’ and ‘--]’ before the
              first move, the game starts from that position. Text enclosed in
              parentheses,  square  brackets, or curly braces is assumed to be
              commentary and is displayed in a pop-up window. Any  other  text
              in the file is ignored. PGN variations (enclosed in parentheses)
              are treated as comments; XBoard is not able  to  walk  variation
              trees.   The  nonstandard  PGN tag [Variant "varname"] functions
              similarly to  the  -variant  command-line  option  (see  below),
              allowing games in certain chess variants to be loaded.  There is
              also a heuristic to recognize chess variants from the Event tag,
              by  looking  for the strings that the Internet Chess Servers put
              there when saving variant ("wild") games.

       Load Next Game
              Loads the next game from the last game record file  you  loaded.
              The shifted ‘N’ key is a keyboard equivalent.

       Load Previous Game
              Loads  the  previous  game  from  the  last game record file you
              loaded.  The shifted ‘P’ key  is  a  keyboard  equivalent.   Not
              available if the last game was loaded from a pipe.

       Reload Same Game
              Reloads  the  last  game  you loaded.  Not available if the last
              game was loaded from a pipe.

       Save Game
              Appends a record of the current game to a file.  A popup  dialog
              prompts  you  for  the file name. If the game did not begin with
              the standard starting  position,  the  game  file  includes  the
              starting  position  used.  Games  are saved in the PGN (portable
              game notation) format, unless the oldSaveStyle option  is  true,
              in which case they are saved in an older format that is specific
              to XBoard. Both formats are human-readable, and both can be read
              back by the ‘Load Game’ command.  Notation of the form ‘P@f7’ is
              accepted  for  piece-drops  in  bughouse  games;   this   is   a
              nonstandard extension to PGN.

       Copy Game
              Copies  a record of the current game to an internal clipboard in
              PGN format and sets the X selection to the game text.  The  game
              can  be  pasted to another application (such as a text editor or
              another copy of XBoard) using that application’s paste  command.
              In  many  X  applications,  such  as xterm and emacs, the middle
              mouse button can be used for pasting; in XBoard,  you  must  use
              the Paste Game command.

       Paste Game
              Interprets  the  current  X selection as a game record and loads
              it, as with Load Game.

       Load Position
              Sets up a position from a position file.  A popup dialog prompts
              you  for the file name. If the file contains more than one saved
              position, and you want to load the Nth one, type  the  number  N
              after  the  file name, separated by a space. Position files must
              be in FEN (Forsythe-Edwards notation), or in the format that the
              Save Position command writes when oldSaveStyle is turned on.

       Load Next Position
              Loads  the next position from the last position file you loaded.

       Load Previous Position
              Loads the previous position from  the  last  position  file  you
              loaded.   Not  available  if the last position was loaded from a
              pipe.

       Reload Same Position
              Reloads the last position you loaded.  Not available if the last
              position was loaded from a pipe.

       Save Position
              Appends  a  diagram  of the current position to a file.  A popup
              dialog prompts you for the file name. Positions are saved in FEN
              (Forsythe-Edwards  notation)  format  unless  the ‘oldSaveStyle’
              option is true, in which case they are saved in an older, human-
              readable  format that is specific to XBoard. Both formats can be
              read back by the ‘Load Position’ command.

       Copy Position
              Copies the current position to  an  internal  clipboard  in  FEN
              format  and  sets  the  X  selection  to the position text.  The
              position can be pasted to another application (such  as  a  text
              editor or another copy of XBoard) using that application’s paste
              command.  In many X applications, such as xterm and  emacs,  the
              middle mouse button can be used for pasting; in XBoard, you must
              use the Paste Position command.

       Paste Position
              Interprets the current X selection as a FEN position  and  loads
              it, as with Load Position.

       Mail Move
       Reload CMail Message
              See CMail.

       Exit   Exits from XBoard. The shifted ‘Q’ key is a keyboard equivalent.

   Mode Menu
       Machine White
              Tells the chess engine to play White.

       Machine Black
              Tells the chess engine to play Black.

       Two Machines
              Plays a game between two chess engines.

       Analysis Mode
              XBoard tells the chess engine to  start  analyzing  the  current
              game/position  and  shows  you  the  analysis as you move pieces
              around.  Note: Some chess engines do not support Analysis  mode.

              To set up a position to analyze, you do the following:

              1. Select Edit Position from the Mode Menu

              2.  Set  up  the  position.  Use the middle and right buttons to
              bring up the white and black piece menus.

              3. When you are finished, click on either  the  Black  or  White
              clock to tell XBoard which side moves first.

              4.  Select  Analysis  Mode  from  the  Mode  Menu  to  start the
              analysis.

       Analyze File
              This option lets you load  a  game  from  a  file  (PGN,  XBoard
              format, etc.)  and analyze it. When you select this menu item, a
              popup window appears and asks for a filename to  load.   If  the
              file  contains  multiple  games, another popup appears that lets
              you select which game you wish to  analyze.   After  a  game  is
              loaded,  use the XBoard arrow buttons to step forwards/backwards
              through the game and  watch  the  analysis.   Note:  Some  chess
              engines do not support Analysis mode.

       ICS Client
              This  is  the  normal  mode  when XBoard is connected to a chess
              server.  If you have moved into Edit Game or Edit Position mode,
              you can select this option to get out.

              To  use  xboard  in  ICS mode, run it in the foreground with the
              -ics option, and use the terminal you started it  from  to  type
              commands  and receive text responses from the chess server.  See
              Chess Servers below for more information.

              XBoard activates some  special  position/game  editing  features
              when  you  use the ‘examine’ or ‘bsetup’ commands on ICS and you
              have ‘ICS Client’ selected on the Mode  menu.   First,  you  can
              issue  the  ICS  position-editing commands with the mouse.  Move
              pieces by dragging with mouse button 1.  To drop a new piece  on
              a  square,  press  mouse  button  2  or 3 over the square.  This
              brings up a menu of white pieces  (button  2)  or  black  pieces
              (button 3).  Additional menu choices let you empty the square or
              clear the board.  Click on the White or Black clock to  set  the
              side to play.  You cannot set the side to play or drag pieces to
              arbitrary squares while examining on ICC, but you can do  so  in
              ‘bsetup’   mode   on  FICS.   In  addition,  the  menu  commands
              ‘Forward’,  ‘Backward’,  ‘Pause’,  and  ‘Stop  Examining’   have
              special functions in this mode; see below.

       Edit Game
              Allows you to make moves for both Black and White, and to change
              moves after backing up with the ‘Backward’ command.  The  clocks
              do not run.

              In  chess engine mode, the chess engine continues to check moves
              for legality but does not participate in the game. You can bring
              the  chess  engine  into  the game by selecting ‘Machine White’,
              ‘Machine Black’, or ‘Two Machines’.

              In ICS mode, the moves are not sent  to  the  ICS:  ‘Edit  Game’
              takes  XBoard  out  of  ICS  Client mode and lets you edit games
              locally.  If you want to edit games on ICS in a way  that  other
              ICS users can see, use the ICS ‘examine’ command or start an ICS
              match against yourself.

       Edit Position
              Lets you set up an arbitrary board position.  Use mouse button 1
              to  drag pieces to new squares, or to delete a piece by dragging
              it off the board or dragging an empty square on top of  it.   To
              drop a new piece on a square, press mouse button 2 or 3 over the
              square. This brings up a menu of  white  pieces  (button  2)  or
              black  pieces  (button 3). Additional menu choices let you empty
              the square or clear the board. You can set the side to play next
              by clicking on the word White or Black at the top of the screen.
              Selecting  ‘Edit  Position’  causes  XBoard   to   discard   all
              remembered moves in the current game.

              In ICS mode, changes made to the position by ‘Edit Position’ are
              not sent to the ICS: ‘Edit Position’ takes XBoard  out  of  ‘ICS
              Client’ mode and lets you edit positions locally. If you want to
              edit positions on ICS in a way that other ICS users can see, use
              the  ICS  ‘examine’  command,  or  start  an  ICS  match against
              yourself.  (See also the ICS Client topic above.)

       Training
              Training mode lets you interactively guess the moves of  a  game
              for  one  of the players. You guess the next move of the game by
              playing the move on the board. If the move  played  matches  the
              next  move  of the game, the move is accepted and the opponent’s
              response is autoplayed.  If the move  played  is  incorrect,  an
              error message is displayed.  You can select this mode only while
              loading a game (that is, after selecting ‘Load  Game’  from  the
              File  menu).  While XBoard is in ‘Training’ mode, the navigation
              buttons are disabled.

       Show Game List
              Shows or hides the list of games generated  by  the  last  ‘Load
              Game’ command.

       Edit Tags
              Lets  you  edit  the  PGN  (portable game notation) tags for the
              current game. After editing, the tags must still conform to  the
              PGN tag syntax:

                  <tag-section> ::= <tag-pair> <tag-section>
                                          <empty>
                  <tag-pair> ::= [ <tag-name> <tag-value> ]
                  <tag-name> ::= <identifier>
                  <tag-value> ::= <string>

              See the PGN Standard for full details. Here is an example:

                  [Event "Portoroz Interzonal"]
                  [Site "Portoroz, Yugoslavia"]
                  [Date "1958.08.16"]
                  [Round "8"]
                  [White "Robert J. Fischer"]
                  [Black "Bent Larsen"]
                  [Result "1-0"]

              Any  characters  that  do  not  match  this  syntax are silently
              ignored. Note that the PGN standard requires all games  to  have
              at  least  the seven tags shown above. Any that you omit will be
              filled  in  by  XBoard  with  ‘?’  (unknown   value),   or   ‘-’
              (inapplicable value).

       Edit Comment
              Adds or modifies a comment on the current position. Comments are
              saved  by  ‘Save  Game’  and  are  displayed  by  ‘Load   Game’,
              ‘Forward’, and ‘Backward’.

       ICS Input Box
              If  this  option  is  set  in  ICS mode, XBoard creates an extra
              window that you can use for typing in ICS commands.   The  input
              box  is  especially useful if you want to type in something long
              or do some editing  on  your  input,  because  output  from  ICS
              doesn’t  get  mixed  in with your typing as it would in the main
              terminal window.

       Pause  Pauses updates to the board, and if you are  playing  against  a
              chess  engine,  also  pauses  your  clock.  To  continue, select
              ‘Pause’ again, and the display will automatically update to  the
              latest  position.   The  ‘P’  button  and  keyboard  ‘p’ key are
              equivalents.

              If you select Pause when you are playing against a chess  engine
              and  it is not your move, the chess engine’s clock will continue
              to run and it will eventually make a move, at which  point  both
              clocks  will  stop. Since board updates are paused, however, you
              will not see the move until you exit from Pause mode (or  select
              Forward).  This behavior is meant to simulate adjournment with a
              sealed move.

              If you select Pause while you are observing or examining a  game
              on  a  chess  server,  you  can step backward and forward in the
              current history of the examined game without affecting the other
              observers  and  examiners,  and without having your display jump
              forward to the latest position each time a move is made.  Select
              Pause  again  to  reconnect yourself to the current state of the
              game on ICS.

              If you select ‘Pause’ while you are loading  a  game,  the  game
              stops  loading.  You  can  load more moves manually by selecting
              ‘Forward’, or resume  automatic  loading  by  selecting  ‘Pause’
              again.

   Action Menu
       Accept Accepts  a  pending match offer. If there is more than one offer
              pending, you will have  to  type  in  a  more  specific  command
              instead of using this menu choice.

       Decline
              Declines  a pending offer (match, draw, adjourn, etc.). If there
              is more than one offer pending, you will have to type in a  more
              specific command instead of using this menu choice.

       Call Flag
              Calls  your opponent’s flag, claiming a win on time, or claiming
              a draw if you are both out of  time.  You  can  also  call  your
              opponent’s  flag  by  clicking  on  his clock or by pressing the
              keyboard ‘t’ key.

       Draw   Offers a draw to your opponent, accepts  a  pending  draw  offer
              from  your  opponent,  or  claims  a  draw  by repetition or the
              50-move  rule,  as  appropriate.  The  ‘d’  key  is  a  keyboard
              equivalent.

       Adjourn
              Asks  your  opponent to agree to adjourning the current game, or
              agrees to a pending adjournment offer from your opponent.

       Abort  Asks your opponent to agree to aborting  the  current  game,  or
              agrees  to  a pending abort offer from your opponent. An aborted
              game ends immediately without affecting either player’s  rating.

       Resign Resigns  the  game  to  your  opponent. The shifted ‘R’ key is a
              keyboard equivalent.

       Stop Observing
              Ends your participation in observing a game, by issuing the  ICS
              observe command with no arguments. ICS mode only.

       Stop Examining
              Ends  your participation in examining a game, by issuing the ICS
              unexamine command. ICS mode only.

   Step Menu
       Backward
              Steps backward through a series of remembered moves.  The  ‘[<]’
              button  and  the ‘b’ key are equivalents.  In addition, pressing
              the Control key steps back one  move,  and  releasing  it  steps
              forward again.

              In  most  modes,  ‘Backward’  only  lets  you  look  back at old
              positions; it does not retract moves. This is the  case  if  you
              are  playing against a chess engine, playing or observing a game
              on an ICS, or loading a game.  If you select ‘Backward’  in  any
              of these situations, you will not be allowed to make a different
              move. Use ‘Retract Move’ or ‘Edit Game’ if you  want  to  change
              past moves.

              If  you  are  examining  an ICS game, the behavior of ‘Backward’
              depends on whether XBoard is in Pause mode.  If  Pause  mode  is
              off,  ‘Backward’ issues the ICS backward command, which backs up
              everyone’s view of the game and allows you to make  a  different
              move.  If  Pause mode is on, ‘Backward’ only backs up your local
              view.

       Forward
              Steps forward through a series of remembered moves (undoing  the
              effect  of ‘Backward’) or forward through a game file. The ‘[>]’
              button and the ‘f’ key are equivalents.

              If you are examining  an  ICS  game,  the  behavior  of  Forward
              depends  on  whether  XBoard  is in Pause mode. If Pause mode is
              off, ‘Forward’ issues  the  ICS  forward  command,  which  moves
              everyone’s  view  of the game forward along the current line. If
              Pause mode is on, ‘Forward’ only moves your local view  forward,
              and  it  will not go past the position that the game was in when
              you paused.

       Back to Start
              Jumps backward to the first remembered  position  in  the  game.
              The ‘[<<]’ button and the shifted ‘B’ key are equivalents.

              In  most  modes,  Back  to  Start only lets you look back at old
              positions; it does not retract moves. This is the  case  if  you
              are playing against a local chess engine, playing or observing a
              game on a chess server, or loading a game. If you  select  ‘Back
              to Start’ in any of these situations, you will not be allowed to
              make different moves. Use ‘Retract Move’ or ‘Edit Game’  if  you
              want to change past moves; or use Reset to start a new game.

              If  you are examining an ICS game, the behavior of @samp{Back to
              Start} depends on whether XBoard is in Pause mode. If Pause mode
              is  off,  ‘Back  to  Start’  issues  the  ICS  ‘backward 999999’
              command, which backs up everyone’s view of the game to the start
              and  allows  you  to  make different moves. If Pause mode is on,
              @samp{Back to Start} only backs up your local view.

       Forward to End
              Jumps forward to the last remembered position in the  game.  The
              ‘[>>]’ button and the shifted ‘F’ key are equivalents.

              If  you are examining an ICS game, the behavior of @samp{Forward
              to End} depends on whether XBoard is in  Pause  mode.  If  Pause
              mode  is  off,  ‘Forward to End’ issues the ICS ‘forward 999999’
              command, which moves everyone’s view of the game forward to  the
              end  of  the current line. If Pause mode is on, ‘Forward to End’
              only moves your local view forward, and it will not go past  the
              position that the game was in when you paused.

       Revert If  you  are examining an ICS game and Pause mode is off, issues
              the ICS command ‘revert’.

       Truncate Game
              Discards all remembered moves of the  game  beyond  the  current
              position.  Puts XBoard into ‘Edit Game’ mode if it was not there
              already.

       Move Now
              Forces the chess engine to move immediately. Chess  engine  mode
              only.

       Retract Move
              Retracts  your  last move. In chess engine mode, you can do this
              only after the chess engine has replied to  your  move;  if  the
              chess  engine  is  still  thinking, use ‘Move Now’ first. In ICS
              mode,  ‘Retract  Move’  issues  the  command  ‘takeback  1’   or
              ‘takeback  2’ depending on whether it is your opponent’s move or
              yours.

   Options Menu
       Always Queen
              If this option is off, XBoard brings up a  dialog  box  whenever
              you  move a pawn to the last rank, asking what piece you want to
              promote it to. If the option is  true,  your  pawns  are  always
              promoted to queens. Your opponent can still underpromote.

       Animate Dragging
              If  Animate  Dragging is on, while you are dragging a piece with
              the mouse, an image of the piece follows the mouse  cursor.   If
              Animate  Dragging  is off, there is no visual feedback while you
              are dragging a piece, but if Animate Moving is on, the move will
              be animated when it is complete.

       Animate Moving
              If Animate Moving is on, all piece moves are animated.  An image
              of the piece is shown moving from the  old  square  to  the  new
              square  when  the move is completed (unless the move was already
              animated by Animate Dragging).  If  Animate  Moving  is  off,  a
              moved  piece  instantly  disappears  from  its  old  square  and
              reappears on its new square when the move is complete.

       Auto Comment
              If this option is on, any remarks made  on  ICS  while  you  are
              observing  or  playing  a  game are recorded as a comment on the
              current move.  This includes remarks made with the ICS  commands
              ‘say’,  ‘tell’,  ‘whisper’,  and  ‘kibitz’.  Limitation: remarks
              that you type yourself are not recognized; XBoard scans only the
              output from ICS, not the input you type to it.

       Auto Flag
              If  this option is on and one player runs out of time before the
              other, XBoard will automatically call his flag, claiming  a  win
              on  time.  In ICS mode, Auto Flag will only call your opponent’s
              flag, not yours, and the ICS may award you a draw instead  of  a
              win  if  you  have insufficient mating material.  In local chess
              engine mode, XBoard may call either player’s flag and  will  not
              take material into account.

       Auto Flip View
              If  the  Auto  Flip View option is on when you start a game, the
              board will be automatically oriented so  that  your  pawns  move
              from the bottom of the window towards the top.

       Auto Observe
              If this option is on and you add a player to your ‘gnotify’ list
              on ICS, XBoard will automatically observe all of  that  player’s
              games, unless you are doing something else (such as observing or
              playing a game of your own) when  one  starts.   The  games  are
              displayed  from  the point of view of the player on your gnotify
              list; that is, his pawns move from  the  bottom  of  the  window
              towards  the top.  Exceptions:  If both players in a game are on
              your gnotify list, if your ICS ‘highlight’ variable is set to 0,
              or  if the ICS you are using does not properly support observing
              from Black’s point of view, you will see the game  from  White’s
              point of view.

       Auto Raise Board
              If this option is on, whenever a new game begins, the chessboard
              window is deiconized (if necessary) and raised to the top of the
              stack of windows.

       Auto Save
              If  this option is true, at the end of every game XBoard prompts
              you for a file name and appends a record of the game to the file
              you specify.  Disabled if the ‘saveGameFile’ command-line option
              is set, as in that case all games are  saved  to  the  specified
              file.  See Load and Save options.

       Blindfold
              If  this  option  is  on, XBoard displays the board as usual but
              does not display pieces or move highlights.  You can still  move
              in  the  usual  way  (with  the  mouse or by typing moves in ICS
              mode), even though the pieces are invisible.

       Flash Moves
              If this option is on, whenever a move is  completed,  the  moved
              piece  flashes.   The  number  of  times  to flash is set by the
              flashCount command-line option; it defaults to 3 if Flash  Moves
              is first turned on from the menu.

       Flip View
              Inverts  your  view  of  the chess board for the duration of the
              current game. Starting a new game returns the board  to  normal.
              The ‘v’ key is a keyboard equivalent.

              If  you  are  playing  a  game  on  an  ICS, the board is always
              oriented at the start of the game so that your pawns  move  from
              the  bottom  of  the  window  towards  the  top.  Otherwise, the
              starting orientation is determined  by  the  ‘flipView’  command
              line  option;  if  it is false (the default), White’s pawns move
              from bottom to top at the start of each game;  if  it  is  true,
              Black’s  pawns  move  from  bottom  to  top.  See User interface
              options.

       Get Move List
              If this option is on, whenever XBoard receives the  first  board
              of  a  new  ICS  game  (or  a  different game from the one it is
              currently displaying), it retrieves the list of past moves  from
              the  ICS.   You can then review the moves with the ‘Forward’ and
              ‘Backward’ commands or save them with ‘Save  Game’.   You  might
              want  to turn off this option if you are observing several blitz
              games at once, to keep from wasting time and  network  bandwidth
              fetching  the  move  lists  over  and  over.  When you turn this
              option on from the menu, XBoard  immediately  fetches  the  move
              list of the current game (if any).

       Highlight Last Move
              If Highlight Last Move is on, after a move is made, the starting
              and ending squares remain highlighted. In  addition,  after  you
              use  Backward  or Back to Start, the starting and ending squares
              of the last move to be unmade are highlighted.

       Move Sound
              If this option is on, XBoard alerts you by playing a sound after
              each  of  your  opponent’s moves (or after every move if you are
              observing a game on the Internet Chess Server).   The  sound  is
              not  played after moves you make or moves read from a saved game
              file. By default, the sound is the terminal bell,  but  on  some
              systems  you  can  change it to a sound file using the soundMove
              option; see below.

              If you turn on this option when using XBoard with  the  Internet
              Chess  Server,  you  will probably want to give the ‘set bell 0’
              command to the ICS,  since  otherwise  the  ICS  will  ring  the
              terminal  bell  after every move (not just yours). (The ‘.icsrc’
              file is a good place for this; see ICS options.)

       ICS Alarm
              When this option is on, an alarm sound is played when your clock
              counts  down  to  the icsAlarmTime (by default, 5 seconds) in an
              ICS  game.   For  games  with  time  controls  that  include  an
              increment,  the alarm will sound each time the clock counts down
              to the  icsAlarmTime.   By  default,  the  alarm  sound  is  the
              terminal  bell, but on some systems you can change it to a sound
              file using the soundIcsAlarm option; see below.

       Old Save Style
              If this option is off, XBoard saves games in PGN (portable  game
              notation)  and positions in FEN (Forsythe-Edwards notation).  If
              the option is on, a save style that  is  compatible  with  older
              versions  of  XBoard is used instead.  The old position style is
              more  human-readable  than  FEN;  the  old  game  style  has  no
              particular advantages.

       Periodic Updates
              If  this  option is off (or if you are using a chess engine that
              does not support periodic updates),  the  analysis  window  will
              only be updated when the analysis changes. If this option is on,
              the Analysis Window will be updated every two seconds.

       Ponder Next Move
              If this option is off, the chess engine will think only when  it
              is  on  move.   If  the option is on, the engine will also think
              while waiting for you to make your move.

       Popup Exit Message
              If this option is on, when XBoard wants  to  display  a  message
              just  before  exiting, it brings up a modal dialog box and waits
              for you to click OK before  exiting.   If  the  option  is  off,
              XBoard  prints  the message to standard error (the terminal) and
              exits immediately.

       Popup Move Errors
              If this option is off, when you make an error in moving (such as
              attempting an illegal move or moving the wrong color piece), the
              error message is displayed in the message area.  If  the  option
              is  on,  move  errors  are displayed in small popup windows like
              other errors.  You can dismiss an error popup either by clicking
              its  OK  button  or by clicking anywhere on the board, including
              downclicking to start a move.

       Premove
              If this option is on while playing a game on  an  ICS,  you  can
              register  your  next  planned move before it is your turn.  Move
              the piece with the mouse in the ordinary way, and  the  starting
              and ending squares will be highlighted with a special color (red
              by default).  When it is your turn, if your registered  move  is
              legal,  XBoard  will send it to ICS immediately; if not, it will
              be ignored and you can make a different  move.   If  you  change
              your  mind  about your premove, either make a different move, or
              double-click on any piece to cancel the move entirely.

       Quiet Play
              If this option is on, XBoard will  automatically  issue  an  ICS
              ‘set shout 0’ command whenever you start a game and a ‘set shout
              1’ command whenever you finish  one.   Thus,  you  will  not  be
              distracted by shouts from other ICS users while playing.

       Show Coords
              If  this  option  is  on,  XBoard displays algebraic coordinates
              along the board’s left and bottom edges.

       Show Thinking
              If this option is set, the chess engine’s notion  of  the  score
              and  best line of play from the current position is displayed as
              it is thinking. The score indicates how many pawns ahead (or  if
              negative,  behind)  the  chess  engine  thinks it is. In matches
              between two machines, the score is prefixed by  ‘W’  or  ‘B’  to
              indicate  whether it is showing White’s thinking or Black’s, and
              only the thinking of the engine that is on move is shown.

       Test Legality
              If this option is on, XBoard tests whether the moves you try  to
              make  with  the  mouse  are legal and refuses to let you make an
              illegal move.  Moves loaded from a file  with  ‘Load  Game’  are
              also checked.  If the option is off, all moves are accepted, but
              if a local chess engine or the ICS is active,  they  will  still
              reject  illegal moves.  Turning off this option is useful if you
              are playing a chess variant with  rules  that  XBoard  does  not
              understand.   (Bughouse,  suicide,  and  wild variants where the
              king may castle after starting  on  the  d  file  are  generally
              supported with Test Legality on.)

   Help Menu
       Info XBoard
              Displays  the  XBoard  documentation  in  info format.  For this
              feature to work, you must have the GNU info program installed on
              your  system,  and the file ‘xboard.info’ must either be present
              in the current working directory, or have been installed by  the
              ‘make install’ command when you built XBoard.

       Man XBoard
              Displays  the XBoard documentation in man page format.  For this
              feature to work, the file ‘xboard.6’ must have been installed by
              the  ‘make  install’  command  when  you  built  XBoard, and the
              directory it was placed in must be on the search path  for  your
              system’s ‘man’ command.

       Hint   Displays a move hint from the chess engine.

       Book   Displays  a  list  of  possible  moves  from  the chess engine’s
              opening book.  The exact format depends on what chess engine you
              are  using.  With GNU Chess 4, the first column gives moves, the
              second column gives one possible response for each move, and the
              third  column shows the number of lines in the book that include
              the move from the first column. If you select  this  option  and
              nothing happens, the chess engine is out of its book or does not
              support this feature.

       About XBoard
              Shows the current XBoard version number.

   Other Shortcut Keys
       Iconize
              Pressing the ‘i’ or ‘c’ key iconizes XBoard. The graphical  icon
              displays a white knight if it is White’s move, or a black knight
              if it is Black’s move. If your X window  manager  displays  only
              text  icons,  not graphical ones, check its documentation; there
              is probably a way to enable graphical icons.  If you  get  black
              and white reversed, we would like to hear about it; see Problems
              below for instructions on how to report this problem.

       You  can  add  or  remove  shortcut  keys   using   the   X   resources
       ‘form.translations’.  Here  is  an  example  of  what  would go in your
       ‘.Xdefaults’ file:

           XBoard*form.translations: \
             Shift<Key>?: AboutGameProc() \n\
             <Key>y: AcceptProc() \n\
             <Key>n: DeclineProc() \n\
             <Key>i: NothingProc()

       Binding a key to ‘NothingProc’ makes it do nothing, thus removing it as
       a shortcut key. The XBoard commands that can be bound to keys are:

           AbortProc, AboutGameProc, AboutProc, AcceptProc, AdjournProc,
           AlwaysQueenProc, AnalysisModeProc, AnalyzeFileProc,
           AnimateDraggingProc, AnimateMovingProc, AutobsProc, AutoflagProc,
           AutoflipProc, AutoraiseProc, AutosaveProc, BackwardProc,
           BlindfoldProc, BookProc, CallFlagProc, CopyGameProc, CopyPositionProc,
           DebugProc, DeclineProc, DrawProc, EditCommentProc, EditGameProc,
           EditPositionProc, EditTagsProc, EnterKeyProc, FlashMovesProc,
           FlipViewProc, ForwardProc, GetMoveListProc, HighlightLastMoveProc,
           HintProc, Iconify, IcsAlarmProc, IcsClientProc, IcsInputBoxProc,
           InfoProc, LoadGameProc, LoadNextGameProc, LoadNextPositionProc,
           LoadPositionProc, LoadPrevGameProc, LoadPrevPositionProc,
           LoadSelectedProc, MachineBlackProc, MachineWhiteProc, MailMoveProc,
           ManProc, MoveNowProc, MoveSoundProc, NothingProc, OldSaveStyleProc,
           PasteGameProc, PastePositionProc, PauseProc, PeriodicUpdatesProc,
           PonderNextMoveProc, PopupExitMessageProc, PopupMoveErrorsProc,
           PremoveProc, QuietPlayProc, QuitProc, ReloadCmailMsgProc,
           ReloadGameProc, ReloadPositionProc, RematchProc, ResetProc,
           ResignProc, RetractMoveProc, RevertProc, SaveGameProc,
           SavePositionProc, ShowCoordsProc, ShowGameListProc, ShowThinkingProc,
           StopExaminingProc, StopObservingProc, TestLegalityProc, ToEndProc,
           ToStartProc, TrainingProc, TruncateGameProc, and TwoMachinesProc.

OPTIONS

       This section documents the command-line options to XBoard.  You can set
       these options in two ways: by typing them on the shell command line you
       use  to  start  XBoard, or by setting them as X resources (typically in
       your ‘.Xdefaults’ file).  Many of the options cannot be  changed  while
       XBoard  is  running;  others set the initial state of items that can be
       changed with the Options menu.

       Most of the options have both a long name and a short name. To  turn  a
       boolean  option  on  or off from the command line, either give its long
       name followed by the value true or false (‘-longOptionName  true’),  or
       give  just  the short name to turn the option on (‘-opt’), or the short
       name preceded by ‘x’ to turn the option off (‘-xopt’). For options that
       take strings or numbers as values, you can use the long or short option
       names interchangeably.

       Each option corresponds to an X resource with the same name, so if  you
       like,  you can set options in your ‘.Xdefaults’ file or in a file named
       ‘XBoard’ in your home directory.  For options that have two names,  the
       longer  one is the name of the corresponding X resource; the short name
       is not recognized.  To turn  a  boolean  option  on  or  off  as  an  X
       resource,  give  its  long  name  followed  by  the value true or false
       (‘XBoard*longOptionName: true’).

   Chess Engine Options
       -tc or -timeControl minutes[:seconds]
              Each player begins with  his  clock  set  to  the  ‘timeControl’
              period.    Default:   5   minutes.    The   additional   options
              ‘movesPerSession’ and ‘timeIncrement’ are mutually exclusive.

       -mps or -movesPerSession moves
              When both players  have  made  ‘movesPerSession’  moves,  a  new
              ‘timeControl’  period  is  added  to  both  clocks.  Default: 40
              moves.

       -inc or -timeIncrement seconds
              If this  option  is  specified,  ‘movesPerSession’  is  ignored.
              Instead,  after  each player’s move, ‘timeIncrement’ seconds are
              added to his clock.  Use ‘-inc 0’ if you  want  to  require  the
              entire  game  to  be played in one ‘timeControl’ period, with no
              increment.  Default: -1, which specifies ‘movesPerSession’ mode.

       -clock/-xclock or -clockMode true/false
              Determines  whether  or  not  to  display  the  chess clocks. If
              clockMode is false, the clocks are not shown, but the side  that
              is  to play next is still highlighted. Also, unless ‘searchTime’
              is set, the chess engine still keeps track of the clock time and
              uses it to determine how fast to make its moves.

       -st or -searchTime minutes[:seconds]
              Tells the chess engine to spend at most the given amount of time
              searching for each of its moves. Without this option, the  chess
              engine  chooses its search time based on the number of moves and
              amount of time remaining until the next time  control.   Setting
              this option also sets clockMode to false.

       -depth or -searchDepth number
              Tells the chess engine to look ahead at most the given number of
              moves when searching for a move to make.  Without  this  option,
              the chess engine chooses its search depth based on the number of
              moves and amount of time remaining until the next time  control.
              With  the option, the engine will cut off its search early if it
              reaches the specified depth.

       -thinking/-xthinking or -showThinking true/false
              Sets the Show Thinking option. See Options Menu. Default: false.

       -ponder/-xponder or -ponderNextMove true/false
              Sets  the  Ponder  Next  Move  menu  option.  See  Options Menu.
              Default: true.

       -mg or -matchGames n
              Automatically runs an n-game match between  two  chess  engines,
              with    alternating    colors.    If   the   ‘loadGameFile’   or
              ‘loadPositionFile’ option is set, XBoard starts each  game  with
              the  given  opening  moves or the given position; otherwise, the
              games start with the standard initial chess  position.   If  the
              ‘saveGameFile’  option  is  set,  a move record for the match is
              appended to the specified file. If the ‘savePositionFile’ option
              is  set, the final position reached in each game of the match is
              appended to the specified file. When the match is  over,  XBoard
              displays  the  match  score  and exits. Default: 0 (do not run a
              match).

       -mm/-xmm or -matchMode true/false
              Setting  ‘matchMode’  to   true   is   equivalent   to   setting
              ‘matchGames’ to 1.

       -fcp or -firstChessProgram program
              Name of first chess engine.  Default: ‘gnuchessx’.

       -scp or -secondChessProgram program
              Name  of  second chess engine, if needed.  A second chess engine
              is  started  only  in  Two  Machines  (match)  mode.    Default:
              ‘gnuchessx’.

       -fb/-xfb or -firstPlaysBlack true/false
              In  games  between two chess engines, firstChessProgram normally
              plays white.  If this option is  true,  firstChessProgram  plays
              black.   In  a  multi-game match, this option affects the colors
              only for the first game;  they  still  alternate  in  subsequent
              games.

       -fh or -firstHost host
       -sh or -secondHost host
              Hosts  on  which  the  chess engines are to run. The default for
              each is ‘localhost’. If you specify another  host,  XBoard  uses
              ‘rsh’  to  run  the  chess  engine  there. (You can substitute a
              different remote shell program for rsh using  the  ‘remoteShell’
              option described below.)

       -fd or -firstDirectory dir
       -sd or -secondDirectory dir
              Working  directories  in  which the chess engines are to be run.
              The default is "", which means to run the chess  engine  in  the
              same  working  directory  as  XBoard  itself.  (See the CHESSDIR
              environment variable.)  This option is effective only  when  the
              chess engine is being run on the local host; it does not work if
              the engine is run remotely using the -fh or -sh option.

       -initString string
       -secondInitString string
              The string that is sent to initialize each chess  engine  for  a
              new game.  Default:

                  new
                  random

              Setting this option from the command line is tricky, because you
              must type in real newline characters, including one at the  very
              end.  In most shells you can do this by entering a ‘\’ character
              followed by a newline. It is easier to set the option from  your
              ‘.Xdefaults’  file;  in  that case you can include the character
              sequence ‘\n’ in the string, and  it  will  be  converted  to  a
              newline.

              If you change this option, don’t remove the ‘new’ command; it is
              required by all chess engines to start a new game.

              You can remove the ‘random’ command if you  like;  including  it
              causes  GNU  Chess 4 to randomize its move selection slightly so
              that it doesn’t play the same moves in every game.  Even without
              ‘random’,  GNU  Chess  4 randomizes its choice of moves from its
              opening book.  Many other  chess  engines  ignore  this  command
              entirely and always (or never) randomize.

              You  can  also  try adding other commands to the initString; see
              the documentation of the chess engine you are using for details.

       -firstComputerString string
       -secondComputerString string
              The  string  that is sent to the chess engine if its opponent is
              another computer chess engine.   The  default  is  ‘computer\n’.
              Probably  the  only useful alternative is the empty string (‘’),
              which keeps the engine from knowing that it is  playing  another
              computer.

       -reuse/-xreuse or -reuseFirst true/false
       -reuse2/-xreuse2 or -reuseSecond true/false
              If  the option is false, XBoard kills off the chess engine after
              every game and starts it again for the next game.  If the option
              is  true (the default), XBoard starts the chess engine only once
              and uses it repeatedly to play multiple games.  Some  old  chess
              engines  may  not  work  properly  when  reuse is turned on, but
              otherwise games will start faster if it is left on.

       -firstProtocolVersion version-number
       -secondProtocolVersion version-number
              This  option  specifies  which  version  of  the  chess   engine
              communication protocol to use.  By default, version-number is 2.
              In version 1, the "protover" command is not sent to the  engine;
              since  version 1 is a subset of version 2, nothing else changes.
              Other values for version-number are not supported.

   Internet Chess Server Options
       -ics/-xics or -internetChessServerMode true/false
              Connect with an Internet Chess Server to play chess against  its
              other  users,  observe  games  they are playing, or review games
              that have recently finished. Default: false.

       -icshost or -internetChessServerHost host
              The Internet host name or address of the chess server to connect
              to  when in ICS mode. Default: ‘chessclub.com’.  Another popular
              chess server to try is ‘freechess.org’.  If  your  site  doesn’t
              have  a  working  Internet  name server, try specifying the host
              address in numeric form.  You  may  also  need  to  specify  the
              numeric  address  when using the icshelper option with timestamp
              or timeseal (see below).

       -icsport or -internetChessServerPort port-number
              The port number to use when connecting to a chess server in  ICS
              mode. Default: 5000.

       -icshelper or -internetChessServerHelper prog-name
              An  external  helper  program used to communicate with the chess
              server.  You would set it to "timestamp" for ICC (chessclub.com)
              or  "timeseal"  for  FICS  (freechess.org),  after obtaining the
              correct version of timestamp or timeseal for your computer.  See
              "help  timestamp"  on  ICC  and  "help  timeseal" on FICS.  This
              option is shorthand for ‘-useTelnet -telnetProgram program’.

       -telnet/-xtelnet or -useTelnet true/false
              This option is poorly named; it should be called useHelper.   If
              set  to  true, it instructs XBoard to run an external program to
              communicate with the Internet Chess Server.  The program to  use
              is  given  by  the telnetProgram option.  If the option is false
              (the default), XBoard opens  a  TCP  socket  and  uses  its  own
              internal  implementation  of  the telnet protocol to communicate
              with the ICS. See Firewalls.

       -telnetProgram prog-name
              This option is poorly named; it should be called  helperProgram.
              It  gives  the  name  of  the telnet program to be used with the
              ‘gateway’ and ‘useTelnet’ options.  The default is ‘telnet’. The
              telnet    program    is    invoked    with    the    value    of
              ‘internetChessServerHost’ as its first argument and the value of
              ‘internetChessServerPort’   as   its   second   argument.    See
              Firewalls.

       -gateway host-name
              If this option is set to a host name, XBoard  communicates  with
              the   Internet   Chess   Server   by  using  ‘rsh’  to  run  the
              ‘telnetProgram’ on the given host,  instead  of  using  its  own
              internal   implementation   of  the  telnet  protocol.  You  can
              substitute a different remote shell program for ‘rsh’ using  the
              ‘remoteShell’ option described below.  See Firewalls.

       -internetChessServerCommPort or -icscomm dev-name
              If  this option is set, XBoard communicates with the ICS through
              the  given  character  I/O  device  instead  of  opening  a  TCP
              connection.   Use  this  option if your system does not have any
              kind of Internet connection itself  (not  even  a  SLIP  or  PPP
              connection),  but  you  do  have  dialup  access (or a hardwired
              terminal line) to an Internet service provider  from  which  you
              can telnet to the ICS.

              The  support  for  this option in XBoard is minimal. You need to
              set all communication parameters and tty modes before you  enter
              XBoard.

              Use a script something like this:

                  stty raw -echo 9600 > /dev/tty00
                  xboard -ics -icscomm /dev/tty00

              Here  replace ‘/dev/tty00’ with the name of the device that your
              modem is connected to.  You  might  have  to  add  several  more
              options to these stty commands. See the man pages for ‘stty’ and
              ‘tty’ if you run into problems. Also, on many systems stty works
              on its standard input instead of standard output, so you have to
              use ‘<’ instead of ‘>’.

              If you are using linux, try  starting  with  the  script  below.
              Change it as necessary for your installation.

                  #!/bin/sh -f
                  # configure modem and fire up XBoard

                  # configure modem
                  (
                    stty 2400 ; stty raw ; stty hupcl ; stty -clocal
                    stty ignbrk ; stty ignpar ; stty ixon ; stty ixoff
                    stty -iexten ; stty -echo
                  ) < /dev/modem
                  xboard -ics -icscomm /dev/modem

              After  you  start XBoard in this way, type whatever commands are
              necessary to dial out to your  Internet  provider  and  log  in.
              Then  telnet  to ICS, using a command like ‘telnet chessclub.com
              5000’.  Important: See the paragraph below about  extra  echoes,
              in Limitations.

       -icslogon or -internetChessServerLogonScript file-name
              Whenever  XBoard  connects  to  the Internet Chess Server, if it
              finds a file with the name given in this option,  it  feeds  the
              file’s contents to the ICS as commands. The default file name is
              ‘.icsrc’.  Usually the first two lines of  the  file  should  be
              your  ICS  user  name  and  password.  The file can be either in
              $CHESSDIR, in XBoard’s working directory if CHESSDIR is not set,
              or in your home directory.

       -msLoginDelay delay
              If  you  experience  trouble logging on to an ICS when using the
              ‘-icslogon’ option, inserting some delay between  characters  of
              the logon script may help. This option adds ‘delay’ milliseconds
              of delay between characters. Good values to try are 100 and 250.

       -icsinput/-xicsinput or -internetChessServerInputBox true/false
              Sets  the  ICS  Input  Box  menu option. See Mode Menu. Default:
              false.

       -autocomm/-xautocomm or -autoComment true/false
              Sets the Auto Comment menu option. See  Options  Menu.  Default:
              false.

       -autoflag/-xautoflag or -autoCallFlag true/false
              Sets  the  Auto  Flag  menu  option.  See Options Menu. Default:
              false.

       -autobs/-xautobs or -autoObserve true/false
              Sets the Auto Observe menu option.  See Options  Menu.  Default:
              false.

       -moves/-xmoves or -getMoveList true/false
              Sets the Get Move List menu option.  See Options Menu.  Default:
              true.

       -alarm/-xalarm or -icsAlarm true/false
              Sets the ICS Alarm menu  option.   See  Options  Menu.  Default:
              true.

       -icsAlarmTime ms
              Sets  the  time  in  milliseconds for the ICS Alarm menu option.
              See Options Menu. Default: 5000.

       -pre/-xpre or -premove true/false
              Sets the Premove menu option. See Options Menu. Default: true.

       -quiet/-xquiet or -quietPlay true/false
              Sets the Quiet Play menu option.  See  Options  Menu.   Default:
              false.

       -colorizeMessages or -colorize
              Setting  colorizeMessages  to  true tells XBoard to colorize the
              messages received from the ICS.  Colorization works only if your
              xterm  supports  ISO  6429  escape  sequences  for changing text
              colors.

       -colorShout foreground,background,bold
       -colorSShout foreground,background,bold
       -colorChannel1 foreground,background,bold
       -colorChannel foreground,background,bold
       -colorKibitz foreground,background,bold
       -colorTell foreground,background,bold
       -colorChallege foreground,background,bold
       -colorRequest foreground,background,bold
       -colorSeek foreground,background,bold
       -colorNormal foreground,background,bold
              These options set the colors used when colorizing ICS  messages.
              All  ICS  messages  are  grouped  into  one of these categories:
              shout,  sshout,  channel  1,  other   channel,   kibitz,   tell,
              challenge,  request  (including abort, adjourn, draw, pause, and
              takeback), or normal (all other messages).

              Each foreground  or  background  argument  can  be  one  of  the
              following:  black,  red,  green,  yellow,  blue,  magenta, cyan,
              white,  or  default.   Here  ‘‘default’’   means   the   default
              foreground  or background color of your xterm.  Bold can be 1 or
              0.  If background is omitted, ‘‘default’’ is assumed; if bold is
              omitted, 0 is assumed.

              Here is an example of how to set the colors in your ‘.Xdefaults’
              file.  The colors shown here are the default  values;  you  will
              get  them if you turn ‘-colorize’ on without specifying your own
              colors.

                  xboard*colorizeMessages: true
                  xboard*colorShout: green
                  xboard*colorSShout: green, black, 1
                  xboard*colorChannel1: cyan
                  xboard*colorChannel: cyan, black, 1
                  xboard*colorKibitz: magenta, black, 1
                  xboard*colorTell: yellow, black, 1
                  xboard*colorChallenge: red, black, 1
                  xboard*colorRequest: red
                  xboard*colorSeek: blue
                  xboard*colorNormal: default

       -soundProgram progname
              If this option  is  set  to  a  sound-playing  program  that  is
              installed  and  working  on  your  system, XBoard can play sound
              files when certain events  occur,  listed  below.   The  default
              program  name  is "play".  If any of the sound options is set to
              "$", the event rings the terminal bell by sending a ^G character
              to  standard  output,  instead  of  playing a sound file.  If an
              option is set to the empty string "", no  sound  is  played  for
              that event.

       -soundShout filename
       -soundSShout filename
       -soundChannel filename
       -soundKibitz filename
       -soundTell filename
       -soundChallenge filename
       -soundRequest filename
       -soundSeek filename
              These  sounds  are triggered in the same way as the colorization
              events described above.  They all default to "", no sound.  They
              are played only if the colorizeMessages is on.

       -soundMove filename
              This sound is used by the Move Sound menu option.  Default: "$".

       -soundIcsAlarm filename
              This sound is used by the ICS Alarm menu option.  Default:  "$".

       -soundIcsWin filename
              This  sound is played when you win an ICS game.  Default: "" (no
              sound).

       -soundIcsLoss filename
              This sound is played when you lose an ICS game.  Default: "" (no
              sound).

       -soundIcsDraw filename
              This sound is played when you draw an ICS game.  Default: "" (no
              sound).

       -soundIcsUnfinished filename
              This sound is played when an ICS game that you are participating
              in  is  aborted,  adjourned,  or  otherwise ends inconclusively.
              Default: "" (no sound).

              Here is an example of how to set the sounds in  your  .Xdefaults
              file:

                  xboard*soundShout: shout.wav
                  xboard*soundSShout: sshout.wav
                  xboard*soundChannel1: channel1.wav
                  xboard*soundChannel: channel.wav
                  xboard*soundKibitz: kibitz.wav
                  xboard*soundTell: tell.wav
                  xboard*soundChallenge: challenge.wav
                  xboard*soundRequest: request.wav
                  xboard*soundSeek: seek.wav
                  xboard*soundMove: move.wav
                  xboard*soundIcsWin: win.wav
                  xboard*soundIcsLoss: lose.wav
                  xboard*soundIcsDraw: draw.wav
                  xboard*soundIcsUnfinished: unfinished.wav
                  xboard*soundIcsAlarm: alarm.wav

   Load and Save Options
       -lgf or -loadGameFile file
       -lgi or -loadGameIndex index
              If  the ‘loadGameFile’ option is set, XBoard loads the specified
              game file at startup. The file name ‘-’ specifies  the  standard
              input.  If  there is more than one game in the file, XBoard pops
              up a menu of the available games, with entries  based  on  their
              PGN  (Portable  Game  Notation)  tags.   If  the ‘loadGameIndex’
              option is set to ‘N’, the menu is suppressed and the N  th  game
              found  in  the  file  is  loaded  immediately.  The menu is also
              suppressed if ‘matchMode’ is enabled or if the game  file  is  a
              pipe;  in  these  cases  the  first  game  in the file is loaded
              immediately.  Use  the  ‘pxboard’  shell  script  provided  with
              XBoard  if  you  want to pipe in files containing multiple games
              and still see the menu.

       -td or -timeDelay seconds
              Time delay between moves during ‘Load Game’. Fractional  seconds
              are  allowed;  try  ‘-td  0.4’.  A  time delay value of -1 tells
              XBoard not to step through game files automatically. Default:  1
              second.

       -sgf or -saveGameFile file
              If  this  option  is  set, XBoard appends a record of every game
              played to the specified file. The file name  ‘-’  specifies  the
              standard output.

       -autosave/-xautosave or -autoSaveGames true/false
              Sets  the  Auto  Save  menu option.  See Options Menu.  Default:
              false.  Ignored if ‘saveGameFile’ is set.

       -lpf or -loadPositionFile file
       -lpi or -loadPositionIndex index
              If the  ‘loadPositionFile’  option  is  set,  XBoard  loads  the
              specified  position file at startup. The file name ‘-’ specifies
              the standard input. If the ‘loadPositionIndex’ option is set  to
              N,  the  Nth position found in the file is loaded; otherwise the
              first position is loaded.

       -spf or -savePositionFile file
              If this option is set, XBoard appends the final position reached
              in  every  game  played to the specified file. The file name ‘-’
              specifies the standard output.

       -oldsave/-xoldsave or -oldSaveStyle true/false
              Sets  the  Old  Save  Style  menu  option.   See  Options  Menu.
              Default: false.

   User Interface Options
       -display
       -geometry
       -iconic
              These and most other standard Xt options are accepted.

       -movesound/-xmovesound or -ringBellAfterMoves true/false
              Sets  the  Move  Sound menu option.  See Options Menu.  Default:
              false.  For compatibility with old XBoard versions, -bell/-xbell
              are also accepted as abbreviations for this option.

       -exit/-xexit or -popupExitMessage true/false
              Sets  the  Popup  Exit  Message  menu option.  See Options Menu.
              Default: true.

       -popup/-xpopup or -popupMoveErrors true/false
              Sets the Popup Move  Errors  menu  option.   See  Options  Menu.
              Default: false.

       -queen/-xqueen or -alwaysPromoteToQueen true/false
              Sets  the Always Queen menu option.  See Options Menu.  Default:
              false.

       -legal/-xlegal or -testLegality true/false
              Sets the Test Legality menu option.  See Options Menu.  Default:
              true.

       -size or -boardSize (sizeName | n1,n2,n3,n4,n5,n6,n7)
              Determines  how  large the board will be, by selecting the pixel
              size of the pieces and setting a few  related  parameters.   The
              sizeName  can  be  one of: Titanic, giving 129x129 pixel pieces,
              Colossal 116x116, Giant 108x108, Huge 95x95,  Big  87x87,  Large
              80x80, Bulky 72x72, Medium 64x64, Moderate 58x58, Average 54x54,
              Middling 49x49, Mediocre 45x45, Small 40x40, Slim 37x37,  Petite
              33x33,  Dinky  29x29, Teeny 25x25, or Tiny 21x21.  Pieces of all
              these sizes are built into XBoard.  Other sizes can be  used  if
              you  have  them;  see  the  pixmapDirectory  and bitmapDirectory
              options.  The default depends on the size of your screen; it  is
              approximately the largest size that will fit without clipping.

              You  can  select  other sizes or vary other layout parameters by
              providing a list of comma-separated values (with no  spaces)  as
              the  argument.   You  do not need to provide all the values; for
              any you omit from the end of the list, defaults are  taken  from
              the nearest built-in size.  The value ‘n1’ gives the piece size,
              ‘n2’ the width of the black border  between  squares,  ‘n3’  the
              desired  size  for  the clockFont, ‘n4’ the desired size for the
              coordFont, ‘n5’ the desired size for the default font, ‘n6’  the
              smallLayout  flag  (0  or 1), and ‘n7’ the tinyLayout flag (0 or
              1).  All dimensions  are  in  pixels.   If  the  border  between
              squares  is  eliminated (0 width), the various highlight options
              will not work, as there is nowhere to draw  the  highlight.   If
              smallLayout  is 1 and ‘titleInWindow’ is true, the window layout
              is rearranged to make more room for the title.  If tinyLayout is
              1,  the  labels on the menu bar are abbreviated to one character
              each and the buttons in the button bar are made narrower.

       -coords/-xcoords or -showCoords true/false
              Sets the Show Coords menu option.  See Options  Menu.   Default:
              false.  The ‘coordFont’ option specifies what font to use.

       -autoraise/-xautoraise or -autoRaiseBoard true/false
              Sets  the  Auto  Raise  Board  menu  option.   See Options Menu.
              Default: true.

       -autoflip/-xautoflip or -autoFlipView true/false
              Sets  the  Auto  Flip  View  menu  option.   See  Options  Menu.
              Default: true.

       -flip/-xflip or -flipView true/false
              If  Auto  Flip  View is not set, or if you are observing but not
              participating in a game, then the positioning of  the  board  at
              the  start  of  each  game  depends  on the flipView option.  If
              flipView is false (the default), the board is positioned so that
              the  white  pawns  move from the bottom to the top; if true, the
              black pawns move from the bottom to the top.  In any  case,  the
              Flip  menu  option  (see  Options  Menu) can be used to flip the
              board after the game starts.

       -title/-xtitle or -titleInWindow true/false
              If this option is true, XBoard displays player  names  (for  ICS
              games)  and  game  file  names (for ‘Load Game’) inside its main
              window. If the option is false (the default),  this  information
              is  displayed only in the window banner. You probably won’t want
              to set this option unless the information is not showing  up  in
              the banner, as happens with a few X window managers.

       -buttons/-xbuttons or -showButtonBar True/False
              If  this option is False, xboard omits the [<<] [<] [P] [>] [>>]
              button bar from the window, allowing  the  message  line  to  be
              wider.   You  can still get the functions of these buttons using
              the menus or their keyboard shortcuts.  Default: true.

       -mono/-xmono or -monoMode true/false
              Determines whether XBoard displays its pieces and  squares  with
              two colors (true) or four (false). You shouldn’t have to specify
              ‘monoMode’; XBoard will determine if it is necessary.

       -flashCount count
       -flashRate rate
       -flash/-xflash
              These options enable flashing of pieces when they land on  their
              destination square.  ‘flashCount’ tells XBoard how many times to
              flash  a  piece  after  it  lands  on  its  destination  square.
              ‘flashRate’   controls   the  rate  of  flashing  (flashes/sec).
              Abbreviations: ‘flash’ sets  flashCount  to  3.   ‘xflash’  sets
              flashCount   to   0.   Defaults:   flashCount=0  (no  flashing),
              flashRate=5.

       -highlight/-xhighlight or -highlightLastMove true/false
              Sets the Highlight Last Move  menu  option.  See  Options  Menu.
              Default: false.

       -blind/-xblind or -blindfold true/false
              Sets  the  Blindfold  menu  option.  See Options Menu.  Default:
              false.

       -clockFont font
              The font used for the clocks. If the option value is  a  pattern
              that  does  not specify the font size, XBoard tries to choose an
              appropriate font  for  the  board  size  being  used.   Default:
              -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal--*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*.

       -coordFont font
              The   font   used   for  rank  and  file  coordinate  labels  if
              ‘showCoords’ is true. If the option value is a pattern that does
              not specify the font size, XBoard tries to choose an appropriate
              font for the board size being used.  Default: -*-helvetica-bold-
              r-normal--*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*.

       -font font
              The  font  used for popup dialogs, menus, comments, etc.  If the
              option value is a pattern that does not specify the  font  size,
              XBoard  tries  to  choose an appropriate font for the board size
              being       used.         Default:        -*-helvetica-medium-r-
              normal--*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*.

       -fontSizeTolerance tol
              In  the  font  selection  algorithm,  a nonscalable font will be
              preferred over a scalable font if the  nonscalable  font’s  size
              differs  by ‘tol’ pixels or less from the desired size.  A value
              of -1 will force a scalable font to always be used if available;
              a  value  of 0 will use a nonscalable font only if it is exactly
              the  right  size;  a  large  value  (say  1000)  will  force   a
              nonscalable font to always be used if available.  Default: 4.

       -bm or -bitmapDirectory dir
       -pixmap or -pixmapDirectory dir
              These options control what piece images xboard uses.  The XBoard
              distribution includes one set of pixmap pieces in xpm format, in
              the  directory  ‘pixmaps’,  and  one set of bitmap pieces in xbm
              format, in the directory ‘bitmaps’.  Pixmap pieces give a better
              appearance  on  the  screen: the white pieces have dark borders,
              and  the  black  pieces  have  opaque  internal  details.   With
              bitmaps,  neither  piece  color  has  a border, and the internal
              details are transparent; you  see  the  square  color  or  other
              background color through them.

              If  XBoard  is configured and compiled on a system that includes
              libXpm, the X pixmap library, the xpm pixmap pieces are compiled
              in as the default.  A different xpm piece set can be selected at
              runtime with the ‘pixmapDirectory’ option, or a bitmap piece set
              can be selected with the ‘bitmapDirectory’ option.

              If  XBoard  is configured and compiled on a system that does not
              include libXpm (or the ‘--disable-xpm’ option is  given  to  the
              configure  program),  the  bitmap  pieces are compiled in as the
              default.  It is not possible to use xpm pieces in this case, but
              pixmap  pieces  in  another  format  called "xim" can be used by
              giving the ‘pixmapDirectory’  option.   Or  again,  a  different
              bitmap  piece  set  can  be  selected with the ‘bitmapDirectory’
              option.

              Files in the ‘bitmapDirectory’ must be  named  as  follows:  The
              first  character  of  a  piece  bitmap  name  gives the piece it
              represents  (‘p’,  ‘n’,  ‘b’,  ‘r’,  ‘q’,  or  ‘k’),  the   next
              characters  give  the  size  in  pixels, the following character
              indicates whether the piece is solid or outline  (‘s’  or  ‘o’),
              and  the  extension is ‘.bm’.  For example, a solid 80x80 knight
              would be named ‘n80s.bm’.  The outline bitmaps are used only  in
              monochrome  mode.   If  bitmap  pieces  are  compiled in and the
              bitmapDirectory is missing some files, the  compiled  in  pieces
              are used instead.

              If  the  bitmapDirectory option is given, it is also possible to
              replace xboard’s icons and menu checkmark,  by  supplying  files
              named ‘icon_white.bm’, ‘icon_black.bm’, and ‘checkmark.bm’.

              For  more  information  about  pixmap  pieces  and  how  to  get
              additional sets, see zic2xpm below.

       -whitePieceColor color
       -blackPieceColor color
       -lightSquareColor color
       -darkSquareColor color
       -highlightSquareColor color
              Colors to use for the pieces, squares,  and  square  highlights.
              Defaults:

                  -whitePieceColor       #FFFFCC
                  -blackPieceColor       #202020
                  -lightSquareColor      #C8C365
                  -darkSquareColor       #77A26D
                  -highlightSquareColor  #FFFF00
                  -premoveHighlightColor #FF0000

              On a grayscale monitor you might prefer:

                  -whitePieceColor       gray100
                  -blackPieceColor       gray0
                  -lightSquareColor      gray80
                  -darkSquareColor       gray60
                  -highlightSquareColor  gray100
                  -premoveHighlightColor gray70

       -drag/-xdrag or -animateDragging true/false
              Sets  the  Animate  Dragging  menu  option.  See  Options  Menu.
              Default: true.

       -animate/-xanimate or -animateMoving true/false
              Sets the Animate Moving menu option. See Options Menu.  Default:
              true.

       -animateSpeed n
              Number  of  milliseconds delay between each animation frame when
              Animate Moves is on.

   Other Options
       -ncp/-xncp or -noChessProgram true/false
              If this option is true, XBoard acts as a passive chessboard;  it
              does  not  start  a  chess engine at all. Turning on this option
              also turns off clockMode. Default: false.

       -mode or -initialMode modename
              If this option is given, XBoard selects the given modename  from
              the  Mode menu after starting and (if applicable) processing the
              loadGameFile  or  loadPositionFile  option.  Default:   ""   (no
              selection).     Other   supported   values   are   MachineWhite,
              MachineBlack,  TwoMachines,  Analysis,  AnalyzeFile,   EditGame,
              EditPosition, and Training.

       -variant varname
              Activates   preliminary,   partial  support  for  playing  chess
              variants against a local engine or editing variant games.   This
              flag is not needed in ICS mode.  Recognized variant names are:

                  normal        Normal chess
                  wildcastle    Shuffle chess, king can castle from d file
                  nocastle      Shuffle chess, no castling allowed
                  fischerandom  Fischer Random shuffle chess
                  bughouse      Bughouse, ICC/FICS rules
                  crazyhouse    Crazyhouse, ICC/FICS rules
                  losers        Lose all pieces or get mated (ICC wild 17)
                  suicide       Lose all pieces including king (FICS)
                  giveaway      Try to have no legal moves (ICC wild 26)
                  twokings      Weird ICC wild 9
                  kriegspiel    Opponent’s pieces are invisible
                  atomic        Capturing piece explodes (ICC wild 27)
                  3check        Win by giving check 3 times (ICC wild 25)
                  shatranj      An ancient precursor of chess (ICC wild 28)
                  unknown       Catchall for other unknown variants

              In the shuffle variants, xboard does not shuffle the pieces, but
              you can do it by hand using Edit Position.   Some  variants  are
              supported  only  in  ICS mode, including fischerandom, bughouse,
              and kriegspiel.  The winning/drawing  conditions  in  crazyhouse
              (offboard  interposition  on  mate),  losers, suicide, giveaway,
              atomic, and 3check are not  fully  understood.   In  crazyhouse,
              xboard  does not yet keep track of offboard pieces.  Shatranj is
              unsupported, but it may be usable if you turn off Test Legality.

       -debug/-xdebug or -debugMode true/false
              Turns on debugging printout.

       -rsh or -remoteShell shell-name
              Name  of  the command used to run programs remotely. The default
              is ‘rsh’ or ‘remsh’, determined when XBoard  is  configured  and
              compiled.

       -ruser or -remoteUser user-name
              User  name  on  the remote system when running programs with the
              ‘remoteShell’. The default is your local user name.

CHESS SERVERS

       An "Internet Chess Server", or "ICS", is a place on the Internet  where
       people  can  get together to play chess, watch other people’s games, or
       just chat.  You can use either ‘telnet’ or a client program like XBoard
       to  connect  to the server.  There are thousands of registered users on
       the different ICS hosts, and it is not unusual  to  meet  200  on  both
       chessclub.com and freechess.org.

       Most  people  can  just  type  ‘xboard  -ics’ to start XBoard as an ICS
       client.  Invoking XBoard in this way connects you to the Internet Chess
       Club  (ICC), a commercial ICS.  You can log in there as a guest even if
       you do not have a paid account.  To connect to  the  largest  Free  ICS
       (FICS),  use  the command ‘xboard -ics -icshost freechess.org’ instead,
       or substitute a different host name to connect to  your  favorite  ICS.
       For  a  full  description  of  command-line  options  that  control the
       connection to ICS and change the default values of ICS options, see ICS
       options.

       While  you  are  running  XBoard as an ICS client, you use the terminal
       window that you started XBoard from as a place to type in commands  and
       read information that is not available on the chessboard.

       The first time you need to use the terminal is to enter your login name
       and password, if you are a registered player. (You  don’t  need  to  do
       this  manually;  the  ‘icsLogon’  option  can  do  it for you.  See ICS
       options.)  If you are not registered, enter ‘g’ as your name,  and  the
       server will pick a unique guest name for you.

       Some useful ICS commands include

       help <topic>
              to  get  help  on  the  given <topic>. To get a list of possible
              topics type "help" without topic.  Try the help  command  before
              you ask other people on the server for help.

              For example ‘help register’ tells you how to become a registered
              ICS player.

       who <flags>
              to see a list of  people  who  are  logged  on.   Administrators
              (people  you  should  talk  to if you have a problem) are marked
              with the character ‘*’, an asterisk. The <flags>  allow  you  to
              display  only  selected  players:  For example, ‘who of’ shows a
              list of players who are interested in playing but do not have an
              opponent.

       games  to see what games are being played

       match <player> [<mins>] [<inc>]
              to challenge another player to a game. Both opponents get <mins>
              minutes for the game, and <inc> seconds will be added after each
              move.   If another player challenges you, the server asks if you
              want to accept the challenge;  use  the  ‘accept’  or  ‘decline’
              commands to answer.

       accept
       decline
              to  accept  or decline another player’s offer.  The offer may be
              to start a new game, or to  agree  to  a  ‘draw’,  ‘adjourn’  or
              ‘abort’ the current game. See Action Menu.

              If  you  have  more than one pending offer (for example, if more
              than one player is challenging you, or if your  opponent  offers
              both  a  draw  and  to  adjourn  the  game),  you have to supply
              additional  information,  by  typing  something   like   ‘accept
              <player>’, ‘accept draw’, or ‘draw’.

       draw
       adjourn
       abort  asks  your  opponent  to  terminate  a game by mutual agreement.
              Adjourned games can  be  continued  later.   Your  opponent  can
              either  ‘decline’  your  offer  or accept it (by typing the same
              command or typing ‘accept’).  In some cases these commands  work
              immediately,   without  asking  your  opponent  to  agree.   For
              example, you can abort the game unilaterally if your opponent is
              out  of  time,  and  you  can  claim a draw by repetition or the
              50-move rule if available simply by typing ‘draw’.

       finger <player>
              to  get  information  about  the   given   <player>.   (Default:
              yourself.)

       vars   to get a list of personal settings

       set <var> <value>
              to modify these settings

       observe <player>
              to observe an ongoing game of the given <player>.

       examine
       oldmoves
              to review a recently completed game

       Some special XBoard features are activated when you are in examine mode
       on  ICS.   See  the  descriptions  of  the  menu  commands   ‘Forward’,
       ‘Backward’,  ‘Pause’,  ‘ICS  Client’,  and ‘Stop Examining’ on the Step
       Menu, Mode Menu, and Options Menu.

FIREWALLS

       By default, XBoard  communicates  with  an  Internet  Chess  Server  by
       opening  a TCP socket directly from the machine it is running on to the
       ICS. If there is a firewall between your  machine  and  the  ICS,  this
       won’t  work.  Here  are some recipes for getting around common kinds of
       firewalls  using  special  options  to  XBoard.   Important:  See   the
       paragraph in the below about extra echoes, in Limitations.

       Suppose  that you can’t telnet directly to ICS, but you can telnet to a
       firewall host, log in, and then telnet from there to  ICS.   Let’s  say
       the firewall is called ‘firewall.example.com’. Set command-line options
       as follows:

           xboard -ics -icshost firewall.example.com -icsport 23

       Or in your ‘.Xdefaults’ file:

           XBoard*internetChessServerHost: firewall.example.com
           XBoard*internetChessServerPort: 23

       Then when you run XBoard in ICS mode, you will be prompted to log in to
       the  firewall  host.  This works because port 23 is the standard telnet
       login service. Do so, then telnet to ICS, using a command like  ‘telnet
       chessclub.com  5000’,  or  whatever  command  the firewall provides for
       telnetting to port 5000.

       If your firewall lets you  telnet  (or  rlogin)  to  remote  hosts  but
       doesn’t  let you telnet to port 5000, you may be able to connect to the
       chess server on port 23 instead, which is the port the  telnet  program
       uses   by   default.    Some  chess  servers  support  this  (including
       chessclub.com and freechess.org), while some do not.

       If your chess server does not allow connections on  port  23  and  your
       firewall  does not allow you to connect to other ports, you may be able
       to connect by hopping through another host outside  the  firewall  that
       you have an account on.  For instance, suppose you have a shell account
       at ‘foo.edu’. Follow the recipe above, but instead  of  typing  ‘telnet
       chessclub.com  5000’ to the firewall, type ‘telnet foo.edu’ (or ‘rlogin
       foo.edu’), log in there, and then type ‘telnet chessclub.com 5000’.

       Suppose that you can’t telnet directly to ICS, but you can use  rsh  to
       run  programs  on  a  firewall  host,  and that host can telnet to ICS.
       Let’s say the firewall is called  ‘rsh.example.com’.  Set  command-line
       options as follows:

           xboard -ics -gateway rsh.example.com -icshost chessclub.com

       Or in your ‘.Xdefaults’ file:

           XBoard*gateway: rsh.example.com
           XBoard*internetChessServerHost: chessclub.com

       Then  when  you  run  XBoard in ICS mode, it will connect to the ICS by
       using ‘rsh’ to run the command  ‘telnet  chessclub.com  5000’  on  host
       ‘rsh.example.com’.

       Suppose  that  you  can telnet anywhere you want, but you have to run a
       special program called ‘ptelnet’ to do so.

       First, we’ll consider the easy case, in  which  ‘ptelnet  chessclub.com
       5000’  gets  you  to  the  chess server.  In this case set command line
       options as follows:

           xboard -ics -telnet -telnetProgram ptelnet

       Or in your ‘.Xdefaults’ file:

           XBoard*useTelnet: true
           XBoard*telnetProgram: ptelnet

       Then when you run XBoard  in  ICS  mode,  it  will  issue  the  command
       ‘ptelnet chessclub.com 5000’ to connect to the ICS.

       Next,  suppose that ‘ptelnet chessclub.com 5000’ doesn’t work; that is,
       your ‘ptelnet’ program doesn’t let you connect to alternative ports. As
       noted  above,  your  chess  server  may allow you to connect on port 23
       instead.  In that case, just add the option ‘-icsport ""’ to the  above
       command,  or add ‘XBoard*internetChessServerPort:’ to your ‘.Xdefaults’
       file.  But if your chess server doesn’t let you connect on port 23, you
       will  have to find some other host outside the firewall and hop through
       it. For instance, suppose you have a shell account  at  ‘foo.edu’.  Set
       command line options as follows:

           xboard -ics -telnet -telnetProgram ptelnet -icshost foo.edu -icsport ""

       Or in your ‘.Xdefaults’ file:

           XBoard*useTelnet: true
           XBoard*telnetProgram: ptelnet
           XBoard*internetChessServerHost: foo.edu
           XBoard*internetChessServerPort:

       Then  when  you  run  XBoard  in  ICS  mode,  it will issue the command
       ‘ptelnet foo.edu’ to connect to  your  account  at  ‘foo.edu’.  Log  in
       there, then type ‘telnet chessclub.com 5000’.

       ICC  timestamp  and  FICS  timeseal do not work through some firewalls.
       You can use them only if your firewall gives  a  clean  TCP  connection
       with  a  full  8-bit wide path.  If your firewall allows you to get out
       only by running a special telnet program, you can’t  use  timestamp  or
       timeseal  across it.  But if you have access to a computer just outside
       your firewall, and you have much lower  netlag  when  talking  to  that
       computer  than  to  the  ICS,  it might be worthwhile running timestamp
       there.  Follow the  instructions  above  for  hopping  through  a  host
       outside  the  firewall  (foo.edu  in the example), but run timestamp or
       timeseal on that host instead of telnet.

       Suppose that you have a SOCKS firewall that will give you a clean 8-bit
       wide   TCP   connection  to  the  chess  server,  but  only  after  you
       authenticate yourself via the SOCKS protocol.  In that case, you  could
       make  a  socksified  version  of XBoard and run that.  If you are using
       timestamp or timeseal, you will to socksify it, not XBoard; this may be
       difficult seeing that ICC and FICS do not provide source code for these
       programs.  Socksification is beyond the scope of this document, but see
       the SOCKS Web site at http://www.socks.permeo.com/.  If you are missing
       SOCKS, try http://www.funbureau.com/.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       Game and  position  files  are  found  in  a  directory  named  by  the
       ‘CHESSDIR’  environment  variable.  If  this  variable  is not set, the
       current working  directory  is  used.  If  ‘CHESSDIR’  is  set,  XBoard
       actually  changes  its  working  directory to ‘$CHESSDIR’, so any files
       written by the chess engine will be placed there too.

LIMITATIONS AND KNOWN BUGS

       There is no way for two people running copies of XBoard  to  play  each
       other without going through an Internet Chess Server.

       Under  some circumstances, your ICS password may be echoed when you log
       on.

       If you are connecting to the ICS  by  running  telnet  on  an  Internet
       provider  or  firewall  host,  you  may find that each line you type is
       echoed back an extra time after  you  hit  <Enter>.  If  your  Internet
       provider is a Unix system, you can probably turn its echo off by typing
       ‘stty -echo’ after  you  log  in,  and/or  typing  <^E><Enter>  (Ctrl+E
       followed  by the Enter key) to the telnet program after you have logged
       into ICS.  It is a good idea to do this if you can, because  the  extra
       echo can occasionally confuse XBoard’s parsing routines.

       The game parser recognizes only algebraic notation.

       The internal move legality tester does not look at the game history, so
       in some cases it misses illegal castling or en  passant  captures.   It
       permits  castling  with the king on the d file because this is possible
       in some "wild 1" games on ICS.   It  does  not  check  piece  drops  in
       bughouse  and  crazyhouse to see if you actually hold the piece you are
       trying to drop.  However, if you attempt an illegal move when  using  a
       chess engine or chess server, XBoard will accept the error message that
       comes back, undo the move, and let you try another.

       Fischer Random castling is  not  understood.   You  can  probably  play
       Fischer  Random  successfully  on ICS by typing castling moves into the
       ICS Interaction window, but they will not be  animated  correctly,  and
       saved games will not be loaded correctly if castling occurs.

       FEN  positions  saved by XBoard never include correct information about
       whether castling is legal or how many half-moves have been  made  since
       the  last  irreversible  move, and sometimes may not correctly indicate
       when en passant capture is available.

       The mate detector does not understand  that  non-contact  mate  is  not
       really  mate  in bughouse and crazyhouse.  The only problem this causes
       while playing is minor: a ‘#’ (mate indicator) character will  show  up
       after  a  non-contact  mating  move  in  the move list; XBoard will not
       assume the game is over at that point.  However, if you are  editing  a
       game, Edit Game mode will be terminated by a non-contact mate.

       The  menus  may  not  work if your keyboard is in Caps Lock or Num Lock
       mode.  This seems to be a problem with the Athena menu widget,  not  an
       XBoard bug.

       Also  see  the  ToDo file included with the distribution for many other
       possible bugs, limitations, and ideas for improvement  that  have  been
       suggested.

REPORTING PROBLEMS

       Report bugs and problems with XBoard to ‘<bug-xboard@gnu.org>’.

       Please  use the ‘script’ program to start a typescript, run XBoard with
       the ‘-debug’ option, and include the typescript output in your message.
       Also tell us what kind of machine and what operating system version you
       are using.  The command ‘uname -a’ will often tell you this.  Here is a
       sample of approximately what you should type:

           script
           uname -a
           ./configure
           make
           ./xboard -debug
           exit
           mail bug-xboard@gnu.org
           Subject: Your short description of the problem
           Your detailed description of the problem
           ~r typescript
           .

       If you improve XBoard, please send a message about your changes, and we
       will get in touch with you about merging them in to the  main  line  of
       development.        Also       see       our      Web      site      at
       http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/xboard/.

AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS

       Tim Mann has been responsible for XBoard versions 1.3 and  beyond,  and
       for  WinBoard,  a  port  of  XBoard  to Microsoft Win32 (Windows NT and
       Windows 95).

       Mark Williams contributed the initial (WinBoard-only) implementation of
       many  new  features added to both XBoard and WinBoard in version 4.1.0,
       including copy/paste, premove, icsAlarm, autoFlipView,  training  mode,
       auto  raise,  and blindfold.  Ben Nye contributed X copy/paste code for
       XBoard.

       Hugh Fisher added animated piece movement to XBoard,  and  Henrik  Gram
       (henrikg@funcom.com)  added  it  to  WinBoard.   Frank  McIngvale added
       click/click moving, the Analysis modes, piece flashing,  ZIICS  import,
       and  ICS text colorization to XBoard.  Jochen Wiedmann ported XBoard to
       the Amiga,  creating  AmyBoard,  and  converted  the  documentation  to
       texinfo.   Elmar Bartel contributed the new piece bitmaps introduced in
       version 3.2.  John Chanak contributed the initial implementation of ICS
       mode.  The color scheme and the old 80x80 piece bitmaps were taken from
       Wayne Christopher’s ‘XChess’ program.

       Chris Sears and  Dan  Sears  wrote  the  original  XBoard.   They  were
       responsible for versions 1.0 through 1.2.

       Evan  Welsh wrote ‘CMail’.  Patrick Surry helped in designing, testing,
       and documenting CMail.

CMAIL

       The ‘cmail’ program can help you play chess by email with opponents  of
       your choice using XBoard as an interface.

       You will usually run ‘cmail’ without giving any options.

   CMail options
       -h     Displays ‘cmail’ usage information.

       -c     Shows  the  conditions  of  the GNU General Public License.  See
              Copying.

       -w     Shows the warranty notice of the  GNU  General  Public  License.
              See Copying.

       -v
       -xv    Provides  or  inhibits  verbose  output from ‘cmail’ and XBoard,
              useful for debugging. The ‘-xv’ form  also  inhibits  the  cmail
              introduction message.

       -mail
       -xmail Invokes or inhibits the sending of a mail message containing the
              move.

       -xboard
       -xxboard
              Invokes or inhibits the running of XBoard on the game file.

       -reuse
       -xreuse
              Invokes or inhibits the reuse of an existing XBoard  to  display
              the current game.

       -remail
              Resends  the  last  mail  message  for  that game. This inhibits
              running XBoard.

       -game <name>
              The name of the game to be processed.

       -wgames <number>
       -bgames <number>
       -games <number>
              Number of games to start as White, as Black or in total. Default
              is  1 as white and none as black. If only one color is specified
              then none of  the  other  color  is  assumed.  If  no  color  is
              specified  then  equal  numbers  of  White  and  Black games are
              started, with the extra game being as White if an odd number  of
              total games is specified.

       -me <short name>
       -opp <short name>
              A one-word alias for yourself or your opponent.

       -wname <full name>
       -bname <full name>
       -name <full name>
       -oppname <full name>
              The full name of White, Black, yourself or your opponent.

       -wna <net address>
       -bna <net address>
       -na <net address>
       -oppna <net address>
              The email address of White, Black, yourself or your opponent.

       -dir <directory>
              The directory in which ‘cmail’ keeps its files. This defaults to
              the  environment  variable   ‘$CMAIL_DIR’   or   failing   that,
              ‘$CHESSDIR’,  ‘$HOME/Chess’  or ‘~/Chess’. It will be created if
              it does not exist.

       -arcdir <directory>
              The  directory  in  which  ‘cmail’  archives  completed   games.
              Defaults  to the environment variable ‘$CMAIL_ARCDIR’ or, in its
              absence, the same directory as cmail  keeps  its  working  files
              (above).

       -mailprog <mail program>
              The  program used by cmail to send email messages. This defaults
              to the environment variable ‘$CMAIL_MAILPROG’  or  failing  that
              ‘/usr/ucb/Mail’, ‘/usr/ucb/mail’ or ‘Mail’. You will need to set
              this variable if none of the above paths fit your system.

       -gamesFile <file>
              A file containing a list of games  with  email  addresses.  This
              defaults  to  the environment variable ‘$CMAIL_GAMES’ or failing
              that ‘.cmailgames’.

       -aliasesFile <file>
              A file containing one  or  more  aliases  for  a  set  of  email
              addresses.   This   defaults   to   the   environment   variable
              ‘$CMAIL_ALIASES’ or failing that ‘.cmailaliases’.

       -logFile <file>
              A file in which to dump  verbose  debugging  messages  that  are
              invoked with the ‘-v’ option.

       -event <event>
              The PGN Event tag (default ‘Email correspondence game’).

       -site <site>
              The PGN Site tag (default ‘NET’).

       -round <round>
              The PGN Round tag (default ‘-’, not applicable).

       -mode <mode>
              The PGN Mode tag (default ‘EM’, Electronic Mail).

       Other options
              Any  option flags not listed above are passed through to XBoard.
              Invoking XBoard through CMail changes the default values of  two
              XBoard  options:  The  default  value  for  ‘-noChessProgram’ is
              changed to true; that is, by default no chess engine is started.
              The  default value for ‘-timeDelay’ is changed to 0; that is, by
              default XBoard immediately goes to the end of the game as played
              so  far, rather than stepping through the moves one by one.  You
              can still set these options to whatever  values  you  prefer  by
              supplying them on CMail’s command line.  See Options.

   Starting a CMail Game
       Type  ‘cmail’  from  a shell to start a game as white. After an opening
       message, you will be prompted for a game name, which is optional --  if
       you  simply  press  <Enter>,  the game name will take the form ‘you-VS-
       opponent’. You will next  be  prompted  for  the  short  name  of  your
       opponent.  If  you  haven’t played this person before, you will also be
       prompted for his/her email address. ‘cmail’ will then invoke XBoard  in
       the  background.  Make  your first move and select ‘Mail Move’ from the
       ‘File’ menu. See File Menu. If all is well, ‘cmail’ will mail a copy of
       the move to your opponent. If you select ‘Exit’ without having selected
       ‘Mail Move’ then no move will be made.

   Answering a Move
       When you receive a message from an opponent containing a move in one of
       your  games,  simply  pipe the message through ‘cmail’. In some mailers
       this is as simple as typing ‘| cmail’ when viewing the  message,  while
       in  others  you  may have to save the message to a file and do ‘cmail <
       file’ at the command line. In either case ‘cmail’ will display the game
       using  XBoard.  If you didn’t exit XBoard when you made your first move
       then ‘cmail’ will do its best to use the  existing  XBoard  instead  of
       starting  a  new  one.  As  before, simply make a move and select ‘Mail
       Move’ from the ‘File’ menu. See File Menu. ‘cmail’ will try to use  the
       XBoard  that  was  most recently used to display the current game. This
       means that many games can be in progress simultaneously, each with  its
       own active XBoard.

       If  you  want  to look at the history or explore a variation, go ahead,
       but you must return to the current position before  XBoard  will  allow
       you  to  mail  a  move.  If you edit the game’s history you must select
       ‘Reload Same Game’ from the ‘File’ menu to get  back  to  the  original
       position,  then  make  the  move  you  want and select ‘Mail Move’.  As
       before, if you decide you aren’t ready to make a move just yet you  can
       either  select  ‘Exit’  without  sending  a  move  or just leave XBoard
       running until you are ready.

   Multi-Game Messages
       It is possible to have a ‘cmail’ message  carry  more  than  one  game.
       This  feature was implemented to handle IECG (International Email Chess
       Group) matches, where a match consists of one game as white and one  as
       black,  with  moves  transmitted simultaneously. In case there are more
       general  uses,  ‘cmail’  itself  places  no  limit  on  the  number  of
       black/white games contained in a message; however, XBoard does.

   Completing a Game
       Because XBoard can detect checkmate and stalemate, ‘cmail’ handles game
       termination sensibly. As well as resignation, the ‘Action’ menu  allows
       draws to be offered and accepted for ‘cmail’ games.

       For  multi-game  messages, only unfinished and just-finished games will
       be included in email messages. When all the games  are  finished,  they
       are  archived  in  the  user’s  archive directory, and similarly in the
       opponent’s when he or she pipes the final message through ‘cmail’.  The
       archive file name includes the date the game was started.

   Known CMail Problems
       It’s possible that a strange conjunction of conditions may occasionally
       mean that ‘cmail’ has trouble reactivating an existing XBoard. If  this
       should  happen, simply trying it again should work.  If not, remove the
       file that stores the XBoard’s PID (‘game.pid’)  or  use  the  ‘-xreuse’
       option to force ‘cmail’ to start a new XBoard.

       Versions of ‘cmail’ after 2.16 no longer understand the old file format
       that XBoard used to use and so cannot be used to correspond with anyone
       using an older version.

       Versions  of ‘cmail’ older than 2.11 do not handle multi-game messages,
       so multi-game correspondence is not possible with  opponents  using  an
       older version.

OTHER PROGRAMS YOU CAN USE WITH XBOARD

       Here are some other programs you can use with XBoard

   GNU Chess
       The GNU Chess engine is available from:

       ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnuchess/

       You  can  use  XBoard to play a game against GNU Chess, or to interface
       GNU Chess to an ICS.

   Crafty
       Crafty is a chess engine written by Bob Hyatt.  You can use  XBoard  to
       play  a game against Crafty, hook Crafty up to an ICS, or use Crafty to
       interactively analyze games and positions for you.

       Crafty is a strong, rapidly evolving chess program. This rapid pace  of
       development  is good, because it means Crafty is always getting better.
       This can sometimes cause problems  with  backwards  compatibility,  but
       usually  the  latest  version  of Crafty will work well with the latest
       version of XBoard.  Crafty can be obtained from its author’s FTP  site:
       ftp://ftp.cis.uab.edu/hyatt/.

       To  use  Crafty  with XBoard, give the -fcp and -fd options as follows,
       where <crafty’s directory> is the  directory  in  which  you  installed
       Crafty and placed its book and other support files.

   zic2xpm
       The  ‘‘zic2xpm’’ program is used to import chess sets from the ZIICS(*)
       program into XBoard. ‘‘zic2xpm’’ is part of  the  XBoard  distribution.
       ZIICS is available from:

       ftp://ftp.freechess.org/pub/chess/DOS/ziics131.exe

       To import ZIICS pieces, do this:

       1. Unzip ziics131.exe into a directory:

                  unzip -L ziics131.exe -d ~/ziics

       2. Use zic2xpm to convert a set of pieces to XBoard format.

              For  example,  let’s  say  you want to use the FRITZ4 set. These
              files are named ‘‘fritz4.*’’ in the ZIICS distribution.

                  mkdir ~/fritz4
                  cd ~/fritz4
                  zic2xpm ~/ziics/fritz4.*

       3. Give XBoard the ‘‘-pixmap’’ option when starting up, e.g.:

                  xboard -pixmap ~/fritz4

              Alternatively, you can add this line to your .Xdefaults file:

                  xboard*pixmapDirectory: ~/fritz4

       (*) ZIICS is a  separate  copyrighted  work  of  Andy  McFarland.   The
       ‘‘ZIICS  pieces’’  are  copyrighted works of their respective creators.
       Files produced by ‘‘zic2xpm’’ are for PERSONAL USE ONLY and may NOT  be
       redistributed  without explicit permission from the original creator(s)
       of the pieces.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright   (C)   1991   Digital   Equipment   Corporation,    Maynard,
       Massachusetts.

       All Rights Reserved.

       Permission  to  use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
       documentation for any  purpose  and  without  fee  is  hereby  granted,
       provided  that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
       both that  copyright  notice  and  this  permission  notice  appear  in
       supporting  documentation,  and that the name of Digital not be used in
       advertising or publicity pertaining to  distribution  of  the  software
       without specific, written prior permission.

       Digital   disclaims  all  warranties  with  regard  to  this  software,
       including all implied warranties of merchantability and fitness.  In no
       event   shall   Digital   be   liable  for  any  special,  indirect  or
       consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss  of
       use,  data  or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or
       other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use  or
       performance of this software.

       Enhancements copyright (C) 1992-2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Published by the Free Software Foundation
       59 Temple Place - Suite 330
       Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA

       Permission  is  granted  to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and  this  permission  notice  are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim copying,  provided  also  that
       the  section  entitled  ‘‘GNU  General  Public  License,’’  is included
       exactly as in the original, and  provided  that  the  entire  resulting
       derived  work  is  distributed  under  the terms of a permission notice
       identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to  copy  and  distribute  translations  of  this
       manual  into  another language, under the above conditions for modified
       versions,  except  that  the  section  entitled  ‘‘GNU  General  Public
       License,’’  and this permission notice, may be included in translations
       approved by the Free Software Foundation instead  of  in  the  original
       English.

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

       Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111 USA

       Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
       of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

         The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom
       to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public License is
       intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software --
       to make sure the software is free for  all  its  users.   This  General
       Public  License  applies  to  most  of  the  Free Software Foundation’s
       software and to any other program whose authors  commit  to  using  it.
       (Some  other  Free  Software  Foundation software is covered by the GNU
       Library General Public License instead.)  You  can  apply  it  to  your
       programs, too.

         When  we  speak  of  free  software, we are referring to freedom, not
       price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that  you
       have  the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
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       if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in
       new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

         To protect your rights, we need  to  make  restrictions  that  forbid
       anyone  to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
       These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
       distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

         For  example,  if  you  distribute  copies of such a program, whether
       gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the  rights  that
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         We  protect  your  rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software,
       and (2) offer you this license which  gives  you  legal  permission  to
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         Also,  for each author’s protection and ours, we want to make certain
       that everyone understands that there  is  no  warranty  for  this  free
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         Finally, any  free  program  is  threatened  constantly  by  software
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         The  precise  terms  and  conditions  for  copying,  distribution and
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       This License applies to any program or  other  work  which  contains  a
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       above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

       Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three  years,  to
       give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically
       performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the
       corresponding  source  code,  to  be  distributed  under  the  terms of
       Sections 1 and 2 above  on  a  medium  customarily  used  for  software
       interchange; or,

       Accompany  it  with  the  information  you  received as to the offer to
       distribute corresponding source code.   (This  alternative  is  allowed
       only  for  noncommercial  distribution  and  only  if  you received the
       program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord
       with Subsection b above.)

       The  source  code  for  a work means the preferred form of the work for
       making modifications to it.  For an executable  work,  complete  source
       code  means  all  the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
       associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control
       compilation  and installation of the executable.  However, as a special
       exception, the source code distributed need not include  anything  that
       is  normally  distributed  (in  either  source or binary form) with the
       major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating  system
       on  which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies
       the executable.

       If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access
       to  copy  from  a  designated place, then offering equivalent access to
       copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of  the
       source  code,  even  though third parties are not compelled to copy the
       source along with the object code.

       You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program  except
       as  expressly  provided  under  this License.  Any attempt otherwise to
       copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is  void,  and  will
       automatically  terminate  your  rights  under  this  License.  However,
       parties who have received  copies,  or  rights,  from  you  under  this
       License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties
       remain in full compliance.

       You are not required to accept this License, since you have not  signed
       it.    However,  nothing  else  grants  you  permission  to  modify  or
       distribute the Program or its  derivative  works.   These  actions  are
       prohibited  by  law  if  you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
       modifying or distributing  the  Program  (or  any  work  based  on  the
       Program),  you  indicate  your acceptance of this License to do so, and
       all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the
       Program or works based on it.

       Each  time  you  redistribute  the  Program  (or  any work based on the
       Program), the recipient  automatically  receives  a  license  from  the
       original  licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
       these  terms  and  conditions.   You  may  not   impose   any   further
       restrictions  on the recipients’ exercise of the rights granted herein.
       You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by  third  parties  to
       this License.

       If,  as  a  consequence  of  a  court  judgment or allegation of patent
       infringement or for any other reason (not limited  to  patent  issues),
       conditions  are  imposed  on  you (whether by court order, agreement or
       otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do  not
       excuse  you  from  the  conditions  of  this  License.   If  you cannot
       distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under  this
       License  and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
       may not distribute the Program  at  all.   For  example,  if  a  patent
       license  would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
       all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through  you,  then
       the  only  way  you  could satisfy both it and this License would be to
       refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

       If any portion of this section is held invalid or  unenforceable  under
       any  particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
       apply and the section  as  a  whole  is  intended  to  apply  in  other
       circumstances.

       It  is  not  the  purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
       patents or other property right claims or to contest  validity  of  any
       such  claims;  this  section  has  the  sole  purpose of protecting the
       integrity  of  the  free  software  distribution   system,   which   is
       implemented  by  public  license  practices.   Many  people  have  made
       generous contributions  to  the  wide  range  of  software  distributed
       through  that  system  in  reliance  on  consistent application of that
       system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is  willing
       to  distribute  software through any other system and a licensee cannot
       impose that choice.

       This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is  believed  to
       be a consequence of the rest of this License.

       If  the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain
       countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the  original
       copyright  holder  who places the Program under this License may add an
       explicit   geographical   distribution   limitation   excluding   those
       countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries
       not thus  excluded.   In  such  case,  this  License  incorporates  the
       limitation as if written in the body of this License.

       The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
       the General Public License from time to time.  Such new  versions  will
       be  similar  in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail
       to address new problems or concerns.

       Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the  Program
       specifies  a  version  number  of  this License which applies to it and
       ‘‘any later version’’, you have the option of following the  terms  and
       conditions  either of that version or of any later version published by
       the Free Software Foundation.   If  the  Program  does  not  specify  a
       version  number  of  this  License,  you  may  choose  any version ever
       published by the Free Software Foundation.

       If you wish to  incorporate  parts  of  the  Program  into  other  free
       programs  whose  distribution  conditions  are  different, write to the
       author to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the
       Free  Software  Foundation,  write  to the Free Software Foundation; we
       sometimes make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the
       two  goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free
       software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software  generally.

       BECAUSE  THE  PROGRAM  IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
       FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED  BY  APPLICABLE  LAW.   EXCEPT
       WHEN  OTHERWISE  STATED  IN  WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER
       PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM ‘‘AS IS’’ WITHOUT  WARRANTY  OF  ANY  KIND,
       EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
       WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS  FOR  A  PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.
       THE  ENTIRE  RISK  AS  TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS
       WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE  COST  OF
       ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

       IN  NO  EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
       WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY  WHO  MAY  MODIFY  AND/OR
       REDISTRIBUTE  THE  PROGRAM  AS  PERMITTED  ABOVE,  BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR
       DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL,  INCIDENTAL  OR  CONSEQUENTIAL
       DAMAGES  ARISING  OUT  OF  THE  USE  OR  INABILITY  TO  USE THE PROGRAM
       (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS  OF  DATA  OR  DATA  BEING  RENDERED
       INACCURATE  OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF
       THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR
       OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

         If  you  develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
       possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make  it
       free  software  which  everyone can redistribute and change under these
       terms.

         To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is  safest
       to  attach  them  to  the start of each source file to most effectively
       convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should  have  at  least
       the ‘‘copyright’’ line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

       ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM’S NAME AND AN IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
       Copyright (C) 19YY  NAME OF AUTHOR

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
       as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
       of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
       GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
       along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
       Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111 USA.

       Also add information on how to contact  you  by  electronic  and  paper
       mail.

       If  the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
       when it starts in an interactive mode:

       Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19YY NAME OF AUTHOR
       Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
       type ‘show w’.  This is free software, and you are welcome
       to redistribute it under certain conditions; type ‘show c’
       for details.

       The hypothetical commands  ‘show  w’  and  ‘show  c’  should  show  the
       appropriate  parts  of  the  General  Public  License.   Of course, the
       commands you use may be called something other than ‘show w’ and  ‘show
       c’;  they  could  even  be mouse-clicks or menu items -- whatever suits
       your program.

       You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
       school,  if any, to sign a ‘‘copyright disclaimer’’ for the program, if
       necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

           Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
           interest in the program ‘Gnomovision’
           (which makes passes at compilers) written
           by James Hacker.

           SIGNATURE OF TY COON, 1 April 1989
           Ty Coon, President of Vice

       This General Public License does not permit incorporating your  program
       into  proprietary  programs.   If your program is a subroutine library,
       you  may  consider  it  more  useful  to  permit  linking   proprietary
       applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the
       GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.