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netlink, PF_NETLINK - Communication between kernel and user
netlink_socket = socket(PF_NETLINK, socket_type, netlink_family);
Netlink is used to transfer information between kernel modules and user
space processes. It consists of a standard sockets based interface for
user processes and an internal kernel API for kernel modules. The
internal kernel interface is not documented in this man page. Also
there is an obsolete netlink interface via netlink character devices,
this interface is not documented here and is only provided for
Netlink is a datagram oriented service. Both SOCK_RAW and SOCK_DGRAM
are valid values for socket_type; however the netlink protocol does not
distinguish between datagram and raw sockets.
netlink_family selects the kernel module or netlink group to
communicate with. The currently assigned netlink families are:
Receives routing updates and may be used to modify the IPv4
routing table (see rtnetlink(7)).
Receives packets sent by the IPv4 firewall code.
For managing the arp table in user space.
Receives and sends IPv6 routing table updates.
to receive packets that failed the IPv6 firewall checks
(currently not implemented).
are the instances of the ethertap device. Ethertap is a pseudo
network tunnel device that allows an ethernet driver to be
simulated from user space.
Reserved for ENskip.
is reserved for future user space protocols.
Netlink messages consist of a byte stream with one or multiple nlmsghdr
headers and associated payload. For multipart messages the first and
all following headers have the NLM_F_MULTI flag set, except for the
last header which has the type NLMSG_DONE. The byte stream should only
be accessed with the standard NLMSG_* macros, see netlink(3).
Netlink is not a reliable protocol. It tries its best to deliver a
message to its destination(s), but may drop messages when an out of
memory condition or other error occurs. For reliable transfer the
sender can request an acknowledgement from the receiver by setting the
NLM_F_ACK flag. An acknowledgment is an NLMSG_ERROR packet with the
error field set to 0. The application must generate acks for received
messages itself. The kernel tries to send an NLMSG_ERROR message for
every failed packet. A user process should follow this convention too.
Each netlink family has a set of 32 multicast groups. When bind(2) is
called on the socket, the nl_groups field in the sockaddr_nl should be
set to a bitmask of the groups which it wishes to listen to. The
default value for this field is zero which means that no multicasts
will be received. A socket may multicast messages to any of the
multicast groups by setting nl_groups to a bitmask of the groups it
wishes to send to when it calls sendmsg(2) or does a connect(2). Only
users with an effective UID of 0 or the CAP_NET_ADMIN capability may
send or listen to a netlink multicast group. Any replies to a message
received for a multicast group should be sent back to the sending PID
and the multicast group.
__u32 nlmsg_len; /* Length of message including header */
__u16 nlmsg_type; /* Message content */
__u16 nlmsg_flags;/* Additional flags */
__u32 nlmsg_seq; /* Sequence number */
__u32 nlmsg_pid; /* PID of the process that opened the socket */
int error; /* negative errno or 0 for acks. */
struct nlmsghdr msg; /* message header that caused the error */
After each nlmsghdr the payload follows. nlmsg_type can be one of the
standard message types: NLMSG_NOOP message is to be ignored,
NLMSG_ERROR the message signals an error and the payload contains a
nlmsgerr structure, NLMSG_DONE message terminates a multipart message,
A netlink family usually specifies more message types, see the
appropriate man pages for that, e.g. rtnetlink(7) for NETLINK_ROUTE.
Standard Flag bits in nlmsg_flags
NLM_F_REQUEST set on all request messages
NLM_F_MULTI the message is part of a multipart
message terminated by NLMSG_DONE
NLM_F_ACK reply with an acknowledgment on success
NLM_F_ECHO echo this request
Additional flag bits for GET requests
NLM_F_ROOT Return the complete table instead of a single entry.
NLM_F_MATCH Not implemented yet.
NLM_F_ATOMIC Return an atomic snapshot of the table.
NLM_F_DUMP not documented yet.
Additional flag bits for NEW requests
NLM_F_REPLACE Override existing object.
NLM_F_EXCL Don’t replace if the object already exists.
NLM_F_CREATE Create object if it doesn’t already exist.
NLM_F_APPEND Add to the end of the object list.
Note that NLM_F_ATOMIC requires CAP_NET_ADMIN or superuser rights.
The sockaddr_nl structure describes a netlink client in user space or
in the kernel. A sockaddr_nl can be either unicast (only send to one
peer) or send to netlink groups (nl_groups not equal 0).
sa_family_t nl_family; /* AF_NETLINK */
unsigned short nl_pad; /* zero */
pid_t nl_pid; /* process ID */
__u32 nl_groups; /* multicast groups mask */
nl_pid is the PID of the process owning the destination socket, or 0 if
the destination is in the kernel. nl_groups is a bitmask with every
bit representing a netlink group number.
This man page is not complete.
It is often better to use netlink via libnetlink than via the low level
The socket interface to netlink is a new feature of Linux 2.2
Linux 2.0 supported a more primitive device based netlink interface
(which is still available as a compatibility option). This obsolete
interface is not described here.
cmsg(3), netlink(3), capabilities(7), rtnetlink(7)
ftp://ftp.inr.ac.ru/ip-routing/iproute2* for libnetlink