Provided by: postgresql-client-8.1_8.1.3-4_i386 bug


       CREATE ROLE - define a new database role


       CREATE ROLE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

       where option can be:

           | INHERIT | NOINHERIT
           | LOGIN | NOLOGIN
           | CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
           | [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD ’password’
           | VALID UNTIL ’timestamp’
           | IN ROLE rolename [, ...]
           | IN GROUP rolename [, ...]
           | ROLE rolename [, ...]
           | ADMIN rolename [, ...]
           | USER rolename [, ...]
           | SYSID uid


       CREATE ROLE adds a new role to a PostgreSQL database cluster. A role is
       an entity that can own database objects and have database privileges; a
       role  can  be  considered a ‘‘user’’, a ‘‘group’’, or both depending on
       how it is used. Refer to the documentation and  the  documentation  for
       information  about  managing  users  and  authentication. You must have
       CREATEROLE privilege or be a database superuser to use this command.

       Note that roles are defined at the database cluster level, and  so  are
       valid in all databases in the cluster.


       name   The name of the new role.


              These clauses determine whether the new role is a ‘‘superuser’’,
              who can override all access restrictions  within  the  database.
              Superuser  status  is  dangerous  and  should  be used only when
              really needed. You must yourself be a superuser to create a  new
              superuser.  If not specified, NOSUPERUSER is the default.


              These  clauses  define  a role’s ability to create databases. If
              CREATEDB is specified, the role being defined will be allowed to
              create new databases. Specifying NOCREATEDB will deny a role the
              ability to create databases. If not specified, NOCREATEDB is the


              These  clauses  determine  whether  a  role will be permitted to
              create new roles (that is, execute CREATE ROLE).   A  role  with
              CREATEROLE  privilege  can  also alter and drop other roles.  If
              not specified, NOCREATEROLE is the default.


              These clauses are an obsolete, but still accepted,  spelling  of
              SUPERUSER and NOSUPERUSER.  Note that they are not equivalent to
              CREATEROLE as one might naively expect!


              These  clauses  determine  whether  a  role   ‘‘inherits’’   the
              privileges  of roles it is a member of.  A role with the INHERIT
              attribute can automatically  use  whatever  database  privileges
              have  been  granted  to all roles it is directly or indirectly a
              member of.  Without INHERIT, membership  in  another  role  only
              grants  the  ability  to  SET  ROLE  to  that  other  role;  the
              privileges of the other role are  only  available  after  having
              done so.  If not specified, INHERIT is the default.


              These  clauses  determine  whether  a role is allowed to log in;
              that is, whether the role can be given as  the  initial  session
              authorization  name  during client connection. A role having the
              LOGIN attribute can be thought of as a user.  Roles without this
              attribute  are  useful for managing database privileges, but are
              not users in the usual sense of the  word.   If  not  specified,
              NOLOGIN  is  the  default,  except  when  CREATE ROLE is invoked
              through its alternate spelling CREATE USER.

       CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
              If  role  can  log  in,  this  specifies  how  many   concurrent
              connections  the role can make. -1 (the default) means no limit.

       PASSWORD password
              Sets the role’s password. (A password is only of use  for  roles
              having  the  LOGIN attribute, but you can nonetheless define one
              for roles without it.)  If you  do  not  plan  to  use  password
              authentication you can omit this option.


              These key words control whether the password is stored encrypted
              in the system catalogs. (If neither is  specified,  the  default
              behavior   is   determined   by   the   configuration  parameter
              password_encryption.)  If  the  presented  password  string   is
              already in MD5-encrypted format, then it is stored encrypted as-
              is, regardless of whether ENCRYPTED or UNENCRYPTED is  specified
              (since   the  system  cannot  decrypt  the  specified  encrypted
              password string). This allows reloading of  encrypted  passwords
              during dump/restore.

              Note   that   older   clients  may  lack  support  for  the  MD5
              authentication mechanism that is needed to work  with  passwords
              that are stored encrypted.

       VALID UNTILtimestamp’
              The  VALID  UNTIL  clause  sets  a date and time after which the
              role’s password is no longer valid. If this  clause  is  omitted
              the password will be valid for all time.

       IN ROLE rolename
              The IN ROLE clause lists one or more existing roles to which the
              new role will be immediately added as a new member.  (Note  that
              there  is no option to add the new role as an administrator; use
              a separate GRANT command to do that.)

       IN GROUP rolename
              IN GROUP is an obsolete spelling of IN ROLE.

       ROLE rolename
              The ROLE clause lists one  or  more  existing  roles  which  are
              automatically added as members of the new role.  (This in effect
              makes the new role a ‘‘group’’.)

       ADMIN rolename
              The ADMIN clause is like ROLE, but the named roles are added  to
              the  new  role WITH ADMIN OPTION, giving them the right to grant
              membership in this role to others.

       USER rolename
              The USER clause is an obsolete spelling of the ROLE clause.

       SYSID uid
              The SYSID clause is  ignored,  but  is  accepted  for  backwards


       Use  ALTER ROLE [alter_role(7)] to change the attributes of a role, and
       DROP ROLE [drop_role(7)] to remove a role. All the attributes specified
       by CREATE ROLE can be modified by later ALTER ROLE commands.

       The  preferred  way  to  add and remove members of roles that are being
       used as groups is to use GRANT [grant(7)] and REVOKE [revoke(7)].

       The VALID UNTIL clause defines an expiration time for a password  only,
       not  for  the  role  per  se. In particular, the expiration time is not
       enforced when logging  in  using  a  non-password-based  authentication

       The INHERIT attribute governs inheritance of grantable privileges (that
       is, access privileges for database objects and  role  memberships).  It
       does  not  apply  to the special role attributes set by CREATE ROLE and
       ALTER ROLE. For example,  being  a  member  of  a  role  with  CREATEDB
       privilege  does  not immediately grant the ability to create databases,
       even if INHERIT is set; it would be necessary to become that  role  via
       SET ROLE [set_role(7)] before creating a database.

       The   INHERIT  attribute  is  the  default  for  reasons  of  backwards
       compatibility: in prior releases of PostgreSQL, users always had access
       to  all  privileges of groups they were members of.  However, NOINHERIT
       provides a closer match to the semantics specified in the SQL standard.

       PostgreSQL  includes  a program createuser [createuser(1)] that has the
       same functionality as CREATE ROLE (in fact, it calls this command)  but
       can be run from the command shell.

       The  CONNECTION LIMIT option is only enforced approximately; if two new
       sessions start at about the same time when just one connection ‘‘slot’’
       remains  for  the  role,  it is possible that both will fail. Also, the
       limit is never enforced for superusers.


       Create a role that can log in, but don’t give it a password:

       CREATE ROLE jonathan LOGIN;

       Create a role with a password:

       CREATE USER davide WITH PASSWORD ’jw8s0F4’;

       (CREATE USER is the same as CREATE ROLE except that it implies  LOGIN.)

       Create  a  role  with  a  password that is valid until the end of 2004.
       After one second has ticked in 2005, the password is no longer valid.

       CREATE ROLE miriam WITH LOGIN PASSWORD ’jw8s0F4’ VALID UNTIL ’2005-01-01’;

       Create a role that can create databases and manage roles:



       The CREATE ROLE statement is in the SQL standard, but the standard only
       requires the syntax

       CREATE ROLE name [ WITH ADMIN rolename ]

       Multiple  initial  administrators,  and all the other options of CREATE
       ROLE, are PostgreSQL extensions.

       The SQL standard defines the  concepts  of  users  and  roles,  but  it
       regards  them  as  distinct  concepts  and leaves all commands defining
       users to be specified by each database implementation. In PostgreSQL we
       have  chosen  to  unify  users  and roles into a single kind of entity.
       Roles therefore have many more optional attributes than they do in  the

       The behavior specified by the SQL standard is most closely approximated
       by giving users the NOINHERIT attribute,  while  roles  are  given  the
       INHERIT attribute.


       SET   ROLE   [set_role(7)],   ALTER  ROLE  [alter_role(l)],  DROP  ROLE
       [drop_role(l)], GRANT [grant(l)], REVOKE [revoke(l)], createuser(1)