Provided by: groff_1.18.1.1-11_i386 bug

NAME

       groff - a short reference for the GNU roff language

DESCRIPTION

       The  name  groff  stands for GNU roff and is the free implementation of
       the roff type-setting  system.   See  roff(7)  for  a  survey  and  the
       background of the groff system.

       This  document  gives  only  short  descriptions of the predefined roff
       language elements as used in groff.  Both the  classical  features  and
       the groff extensions are provided.

       Historically,  the roff language was called troff.  groff is compatible
       with the classical system and provides proper extensions.  So  in  GNU,
       the  terms  roff,  troff, and groff language could be used as synonyms.
       However troff slightly tends to refer more to  the  classical  aspects,
       whereas  groff  emphasizes  the GNU extensions, and roff is the general
       term for the language.

       This file is only a short version of the complete documentation that is
       found  in the groff info(1) file, which contains more detailed, actual,
       and concise information.

       The general syntax for writing groff documents is relatively easy,  but
       writing extensions to the roff language can be a bit harder.

       The roff language is line-oriented.  There are only two kinds of lines,
       control lines and text lines.  The control lines start with  a  control
       character,  by  default  a period β€œ.”  or a single quote β€œβ€β€™β€; all other
       lines are text lines.

       Control lines represent commands, optionally with arguments.  They have
       the following syntax.  The leading control character can be followed by
       a command name; arguments, if any, are separated  by  blanks  from  the
       command name and among themselves, for example,

              .command_name arg1 arg2

       For  indentation, any number of space or tab characters can be inserted
       between the leading control character and the  command  name,  but  the
       control character must be on the first position of the line.

       Text  lines  represent  the  parts  that  will be printed.  They can be
       modified by  escape  sequences,  which  are  recognized  by  a  leading
       backslash  β€˜\’.   These are in-line or even in-word formatting elements
       or functions.  Some of these take arguments separated by single  quotes
       β€œβ€β€™β€,  others  are  regulated by a length encoding introduced by an open
       parenthesis β€˜(’ or enclosed in brackets β€˜[’ and β€˜]’.

       The roff language provides flexible instruments  for  writing  language
       extension,  such  as  macros.  When interpreting macro definitions, the
       roff system enters a special operating mode, called the copy mode.

       The copy mode behavior can be quite tricky, but there  are  some  rules
       that ensure a safe usage.

       1.     Printable  backslashes  must  be  denoted  as  \e.   To  be more
              precise, \e represents the current escape character.  To  get  a
              backslash glyph, use \(rs or \[rs].

       2.     Double all backslashes.

       3.     Begin  all text lines with the special non-spacing character \&.

       This does not produce the most efficient code, but it should work as  a
       first  measure.   For  better  strategies,  see the groff info file and
       groff_tmac(5).

       Reading roff source files is easier, just reduce all double backslashes
       to a single one in all macro definitions.

GROFF ELEMENTS

       The  roff  language elements add formatting information to a text file.
       The fundamental elements are predefined  commands  and  variables  that
       make roff a full-blown programming language.

       There  are  two  kinds  of  roff  commands,  possibly  with  arguments.
       Requests are written on a line of their own starting with a dot β€˜.’  or
       a  β€œβ€β€™β€,  whereas  Escape  sequences  are  in-line functions and in-word
       formatting elements starting with a backslash β€˜\’.

       The user can define her own formatting commands using the  de  request.
       These  commands  are  called  macros,  but  they  are used exactly like
       requests.  Macro packages are pre-defined sets of macros written in the
       groff  language.   A  user’s  possibilities  to create escape sequences
       herself is very limited, only special characters can be mapped.

       The groff language provides several kinds of variables  with  different
       interfaces.   There  are pre-defined variables, but the user can define
       her own variables as well.

       String variables store character sequences.  They are set with  the  ds
       request  and  retrieved  by  the \* escape sequences.  Strings can have
       variables.

       Register variables can store numerical values,  numbers  with  a  scale
       unit,  and  occasionally string-like objects.  They are set with the nr
       request and retrieved by the \n escape sequences.

       Environments allow the user  to  temporarily  store  global  formatting
       parameters  like line length, font size, etc. for later reuse.  This is
       done by the ev request.

       Fonts are identified either by a name or by an  internal  number.   The
       current font is chosen by the ft request or by the \f escape sequences.
       Each device has special fonts, but the following  fonts  are  available
       for  all  devices.   R  is  the  standard  font  Roman.   B is its bold
       counterpart.  The italic font is called I and is available  everywhere,
       but  on  text devices it is displayed as an underlined Roman font.  For
       the graphical output devices, there exist  constant-width  pendants  of
       these  fonts,  CR,  CI, and CB.  On text devices, all characters have a
       constant width anyway.

       Moreover, there are some advanced roff elements.   A  diversion  stores
       information  into  a  macro  for  later  usage.  A trap is a positional
       condition like a certain  number  of  lines  from  page  top  or  in  a
       diversion  or  in  the  input.  Some action can be prescribed to be run
       automatically when the condition is met.

       More detailed information and examples can be found in the  groff  info
       file.

CONTROL CHARACTERS

       There is a small set of characters that have a special controlling task
       in certain conditions.

       .      A dot is only special at the beginning of a line  or  after  the
              condition  in  the  requests if, ie, el, and while.  There it is
              the control character that introduces a request (or macro).  The
              special  behavior  can  be  delayed by using the \.  escape.  By
              using the cc request, the control character  can  be  set  to  a
              different character, making the dot β€˜.’ a non-special character.

              In all other positions, it just means a dot character.  In  text
              paragraphs,  it is advantageous to start each sentence at a line
              of its own.

       β€β€™      The single quote has two controlling tasks.  At the beginning of
              a  line  and  in the conditional requests it is the non-breaking
              control character.  That means that it introduces a request like
              the  dot,  but  with  the  additional property that this request
              doesn’t cause a linebreak.  By using the c2  request,  the  non-
              break control character can be set to a different character.

              As  a  second  task,  it  is  the  most  commonly  used argument
              separator in some functional escape sequences (but any  pair  of
              characters  not  part  of the argument will work).  In all other
              positions, it denotes the single quote or apostrophe  character.
              Groff  provides  a printable representation with the \(cq escape
              sequence.

       "      The double quote is  used  to  enclose  arguments  in  requests,
              macros,  and  strings.   In  the  ds  and as requests, a leading
              double quote in  the  argument  will  be  stripped  off,  making
              everything  else  afterwards  the string to be defined (enabling
              leading whitespace).  The escaped double quote \"  introduces  a
              comment.   Otherwise,  it  is  not  special.   Groff  provides a
              printable representation with the \(dq escape sequence.

       \      The backslash usually introduces an escape sequence (this can be
              changed  with  the ec request).  A printed version of the escape
              character is the \e escape; a backslash glyph can be obtained by
              \(rs.

       (      The  open  parenthesis  is only special in escape sequences when
              introducing an escape name or argument consisting of exactly two
              characters.   In  groff, this behavior can be replaced by the []
              construct.

       [      The opening bracket is only special in groff  escape  sequences;
              there  it is used to introduce a long escape name or long escape
              argument.  Otherwise, it is non-special, e.g. in macro calls.

       ]      The closing bracket is only special in groff  escape  sequences;
              there  it terminates a long escape name or long escape argument.
              Otherwise, it is non-special.

       space  Space characters are only functional characters.  They  separate
              the arguments in requests, macros, and strings, and the words in
              text lines.  They are  subject  to  groff’s  horizontal  spacing
              calculations.   To  get  a defined space width, escape sequences
              like β€˜\ ’ (this is the escape character followed  by  a  space),
              \|, \^, or \h should be used.

       newline
              In   text   paragraphs,   newlines   mostly  behave  like  space
              characters.  Continuation lines can be specified by  an  escaped
              newline,  i.e.,  by  specifying  a  backslash  β€˜\’  as  the last
              character of a line.

       tab    If a tab character occurs during text the  interpreter  makes  a
              horizontal  jump to the next pre-defined tab position.  There is
              a sophisticated interface for handling tab positions.

NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS

       A numerical value is a signed or unsigned  integer  or  float  with  or
       without  an  appended scaling indicator.  A scaling indicator is a one-
       character abbreviation for a unit of measurement.  A number followed by
       a  scaling  indicator  signifies  a  size value.  By default, numerical
       values do not have a scaling indicator, i.e., they are normal  numbers.

       The roff language defines the following scaling indicators.

              c         Centimeter
              i         Inch
              P         Pica = 1/6 inch
              p         Point = 1/72 inch
              m         Em = the font size in points (width of letter β€˜m’)
              M         100th of an Em
              n         En = Em/2
              u         Basic unit for actual output device
              v         Vertical    line   space   in   basic   units   scaled
                        point = 1/sizescale of a point (defined in  font  DESC
                        file)
              f         Scale by 65536.

       Numerical  expressions are combinations of the numerical values defined
       above with the following  arithmetical  operators  already  defined  in
       classical troff.

              +         Addition
              -         Subtraction
              *         Multiplication
              /         Division
              %         Modulo
              =         Equals
              ==        Equals
              <         Less than
              >         Greater than
              <=        Less or equal
              >=        Greater or equal
              &         Logical and
              :         Logical or
              !         Logical not
              (         Grouping of expressions
              )         Close current grouping

       Moreover,   groff   added   the   following   operators  for  numerical
       expressions:

              e1>?e2    The maximum of e1 and e2.
              e1<?e2    The minimum of e1 and e2.
              (c;e)     Evaluate e using c as the default scaling indicator.

       For details see the groff info file.

CONDITIONS

       Conditions occur in tests raised by the if, ie, and the while requests.
       The following table characterizes the different types of conditions.

              N         A  numerical  expression N yields true if its value is
                        greater than 0.
              !N        True if the value of I is 0.
              β€β€™s1β€β€™s2β€β€™   True if string s1 is identical to string s2.
              !β€β€™s1β€β€™s2β€β€™  True if string s1 is not identical to string s2.
              cch       True if there is a character ch available.
              dname     True if  there  is  a  string,  macro,  diversion,  or
                        request called name.
              e         Current page number is even.
              o         Current page number is odd.
              mname     True if there is a color called name.
              n         Formatter is nroff.
              rreg      True if there is a register named reg.
              t         Formatter is troff.

REQUESTS

       This  section  provides  a short reference for the predefined requests.
       In groff,  request  and  macro  names  can  be  arbitrarily  long.   No
       bracketing or marking of long names is needed.

       Most  requests take one or more arguments.  The arguments are separated
       by space characters (no tabs!); there is no inherent  limit  for  their
       length  or  number.   An  argument  can be enclosed by a pair of double
       quotes.  This is very handy if an argument contains  space  characters,
       e.g., "arg with space" denotes a single argument.

       Some  requests have optional arguments with a different behaviour.  Not
       all of these details are outlined here.  Refer to the groff  info  file
       and groff_diff(7) for all details.

       In  the  following  request  specifications,  most  argument names were
       chosen  to  be  descriptive.   Only  the  following  denotations   need
       clarification.

              c         denotes a single character.
              font      a  font  either  specified  as  a  font name or a font
                        number.
              anything  all characters up to the end of the line or within  \{
                        and \}.
              n         is a numerical expression that evaluates to an integer
                        value.
              N         is  an  arbitrary  numerical  expression,  signed   or
                        unsigned.
              Β±N        has  three  meanings  depending on its sign, described
                        below.

       If an expression defined as Β±N starts with a  β€˜+’  sign  the  resulting
       value  of  the  expression  will  be added to an already existing value
       inherent to the related request, e.g. adding to a number register.   If
       the  expression  starts  with a β€˜-’ the value of the expression will be
       subtracted from the request value.

       Without a sign, N replaces the existing value directly.   To  assign  a
       negative  number  either  prepend  0  or enclose the negative number in
       parentheses.

   Request Short Reference
       .         Empty line, ignored.  Useful for structuring documents.
       .\" anything
                 Complete line is a comment.
       .ab string
                 Print string on standard error, exit program.
       .ad       Begin line adjustment for  output  lines  in  current  adjust
                 mode.
       .ad c     Start line adjustment in mode c (c=l,r,b,n).
       .af register c
                 Assign format c to register (c=l,i,I,a,A).
       .aln alias register
                 Create alias name for register.
       .als alias object
                 Create  alias  name  for request, string, macro, or diversion
                 object.
       .am macro Append to macro until .. is encountered.
       .am macro end
                 Append to macro until .end is called.
       .ami macro
                 Append to a macro whose  name  is  contained  in  the  string
                 register macro until .. is encountered.
       .ami macro end
                 Append  to  a  macro  indirectly.   macro  and end are string
                 registers whose contents are interpolated for the macro  name
                 and the end macro, respectively.
       .am1 macro
                 Same  as  .am but with compatibility mode switched off during
                 macro expansion.
       .am1 macro end
                 Same as .am but with compatibility mode switched  off  during
                 macro expansion.
       .as stringvar anything
                 Append anything to stringvar.
       .asciify diversion
                 Unformat  ASCII characters, spaces, and some escape sequences
                 in diversion.
       .as1 stringvar anything
                 Same as .as but with compatibility mode switched  off  during
                 string expansion.
       .backtrace
                 Print a backtrace of the input on stderr.
       .bd font N
                 Embolden font by N-1 units.
       .bd S font N
                 Embolden Special Font S when current font is font.
       .blm      Unset the blank line macro.
       .blm macro
                 Set the blank line macro to macro.
       .box      End current diversion.
       .box macro
                 Divert to macro, omitting a partially filled line.
       .boxa     End current diversion.
       .boxa macro
                 Divert and append to macro, omitting a partially filled line.
       .bp       Eject current page and begin new page.
       .bp Β±N    Eject current page; next page number Β±N.
       .br       Line break.
       .brp      Break and spread output line.  Same as \p.
       .break    Break out of a while loop.
       .c2       Reset no-break control character to β€œβ€β€™β€.
       .c2 c     Set no-break control character to c.
       .cc       Reset control character to β€˜.’.
       .cc c     Set control character to c.
       .ce       Center the next input line.
       .ce N     Center following N input lines.
       .cf filename
                 Copy contents of file filename unprocessed to  stdout  or  to
                 the diversion.
       .cflags mode c1 c2 ...
                 Treat characters c1, c2, ... according to mode number.
       .ch trap N
                 Change trap location to N .
       .char c anything
                 Define character c as string anything.
       .chop object
                 Chop  the  last  character  off  macro,  string, or diversion
                 object.
       .close stream
                 Close the stream.
       .color    Enable colors.
       .color N  If N is zero disable colors, otherwise enable them.
       .continue Finish the current iteration of a while loop.
       .cp       Enable compatibility mode.
       .cp N     If N is zero disable compatibility mode, otherwise enable it.
       .cs font N M
                 Set  constant  character width mode for font to N/36 ems with
                 em M.
       .cu N     Continuous underline in nroff, like .ul in troff.
       .da       End current diversion.
       .da macro Divert and append to macro.
       .de macro Define or redefine macro until .. is encountered.
       .de macro end
                 Define or redefine macro until .end is called.
       .de1 macro
                 Same as .de but with compatibility mode switched  off  during
                 macro expansion.
       .de1 macro end
                 Same  as  .de but with compatibility mode switched off during
                 macro expansion.
       .defcolor color scheme component
                 Define or redefine a color with name color.   scheme  can  be
                 rgb,  cym,  cymk,  gray,  or  grey.   component can be single
                 components specified  as  fractions  in  the  range  0  to  1
                 (default  scaling  indicator  f),  as  a  string of two-digit
                 hexadecimal color components with a leading #, or as a string
                 of four-digit hexadecimal components with two leading #.  The
                 color default can’t be redefined.
       .dei macro
                 Define or redefine a macro whose name  is  contained  in  the
                 string register macro until .. is encountered.
       .dei macro end
                 Define  or  redefine  a  macro indirectly.  macro and end are
                 string registers whose  contents  are  interpolated  for  the
                 macro name and the end macro, respectively.
       .di       End current diversion.
       .di macro Divert to macro .
       .do name  Interpret .name with compatibility mode disabled.
       .ds stringvar anything
                 Set stringvar to anything.
       .ds1 stringvar anything
                 Same  as  .ds but with compatibility mode switched off during
                 string expansion.
       .dt N trap
                 Set  diversion  trap   to   position   N   (default   scaling
                 indicator v).
       .ec       Reset escape character to β€˜\’.
       .ec c     Set escape character to c.
       .ecr      Restore escape character saved with .ecs.
       .ecs      Save current escape character.
       .el anything
                 Else part for if-else (ie) request.
       .em macro The macro will be run after the end of input.
       .eo       Turn off escape character mechanism.
       .ev       Switch to previous environment.
       .ev env   Push down environment number or name env and switch to it.
       .evc env  Copy   the   contents  of  environment  env  to  the  current
                 environment.  No pushing or popping.
       .ex       Exit from roff processing.
       .fam      Return to previous font family.
       .fam name Set the current font family to name.
       .fc       Disable field mechanism.
       .fc a     Set field delimiter to a and pad character to space.
       .fc a b   Set field delimiter to a and pad character to b.
       .fchar c anything
                 Define fallback character c as string anything.
       .fi       Fill output lines.
       .fl       Flush output buffer.
       .fp n font
                 Mount font on position n.
       .fp n internal external
                 Mount font with long external name to short internal name  on
                 position n.
       .fspecial font s1 s2 ...
                 When  the  current  font  is font, then the fonts s1, s2, ...
                 will be special.
       .ft       Return to previous font.  Same as \f[] or \fP.
       .ft font  Change to font name or number font; same as  \f[font]  escape
                 sequence.
       .ftr font1 font2
                 Translate font1 to font2.
       .hc       Remove additional hyphenation indicator character.
       .hc c     Set up additional hyphenation indicator character c.
       .hcode c1 code1 c2 code2 ...
                 Set the hyphenation code of character c1 to code1, that of c2
                 to code2, etc.
       .hla lang Set the current hyphenation language to lang.
       .hlm n    Set the maximum number of consecutive hyphenated lines to  n.
       .hpf file Read hyphenation patterns from file.
       .hpfa file
                 Append hyphenation patterns from file.
       .hpfcode file
                 Set input mapping for .hpf.
       .hw words List of words with exceptional hyphenation.
       .hy N     Switch to hyphenation mode N.
       .hym n    Set   the   hyphenation   margin   to   n   (default  scaling
                 indicator m).
       .hys n    Set the hyphenation space to n.
       .ie cond anything
                 If cond then anything else goto .el.
       .if cond anything
                 If cond then anything; otherwise do nothing.
       .ig       Ignore text until .. is encountered.
       .ig end   Ignore text until .end.
       .in       Change to previous indent value.
       .in Β±N    Change indent according to Β±N (default scaling indicator  m).
       .it N trap
                 Set an input-line count trap for the next N lines.
       .itc N trap
                 Same  as .it but count lines interrupted with \c as one line.
       .kern     Enable pairwise kerning.
       .kern n   If n is zero, disable pairwise kerning, otherwise enable  it.
       .lc       Remove leader repetition character.
       .lc c     Set leader repetition character to c.
       .length register anything
                 Write the length of the string anything in register.
       .linetabs Enable line-tabs mode (i.e., calculate tab positions relative
                 to output line).
       .linetabs n
                 If n is zero, disable line-tabs mode, otherwise enable it.
       .lf N file
                 Set input line number to N and filename to file.
       .lg N     Ligature mode on if N>0.
       .ll       Change to previous line length.
       .ll Β±N    Set line length according to Β±N (default size  6.5i,  default
                 scaling indicator m).
       .ls       Change to the previous value of additional intra-line skip.
       .ls N     Set  additional  intra-line  skip value to N, i.e., N-1 blank
                 lines are inserted after each text output line.
       .lt Β±N    Length of title (default scaling indicator m).
       .mc       Margin character off.
       .mc c     Print character c after each text  line  at  actual  distance
                 from right margin.
       .mc c N   Set margin character to c and distance to N from right margin
                 (default scaling indicator m).
       .mk register
                 Mark current vertical position in register.
       .mso file The same as the .so request except that file is  searched  in
                 the tmac directories.
       .na       No output-line adjusting.
       .ne       Need a one-line vertical space.
       .ne N     Need N vertical space (default scaling indicator v).
       .nf       No filling or adjusting of output-lines.
       .nh       No hyphenation.
       .nm       Number mode off.
       .nm Β±N [M [S [I]]]
                 In  line  number  mode,  set  number,  multiple, spacing, and
                 indent.
       .nn       Do not number next line.
       .nn N     Do not number next N lines.
       .nop anything
                 Always execute anything.
       .nr register Β±N M
                 Define or modify register using Β±N with auto-increment M.
       .nroff    Make the built-in condition n true and t false.
       .ns       Turn no-space mode on.
       .nx       Immediately jump to end of current file.
       .nx filename
                 Next file.
       .open stream filename
                 Open register filename for writing and associate  the  stream
                 named register stream with it.
       .opena stream filename
                 Like .open but append to it.
       .os       Output vertical distance that was saved by the sv request.
       .output string
                 Emit string directly to intermediate output, allowing leading
                 whitespace if string starts with " (which  will  be  stripped
                 off).
       .pc       Reset page number character to β€˜%’.
       .pc c     Page number character.
       .pi program
                 Pipe output to program (nroff only).
       .pl       Set  page  length to default 11i.  The current page length is
                 stored in register .p.
       .pl Β±N    Change page length to Β±N (default scaling indicator v).
       .pm       Print macro names and sizes (number of blocks of 128  bytes).
       .pm t     Print  only  total  of  sizes  of macros (number of 128 bytes
                 blocks).
       .pn Β±N    Next page number N.
       .pnr      Print the names and contents of all currently defined  number
                 registers on stderr.
       .po       Change  to  previous page offset.  The current page offset is
                 available in register .o.
       .po Β±N    Page offset N.
       .ps       Return to previous point-size.
       .ps Β±N    Point size; same as \s[Β±N].
       .psbb filename
                 Get the bounding box of a PostScript image filename.
       .pso command
                 This behaves like the so request except that input comes from
                 the standard output of command.
       .ptr      Print  the  names  and  positions of all traps (not including
                 input line traps and diversion traps) on stderr.
       .pvs      Change to previous post-vertical line spacing.
       .pvs Β±N   Change post-vertical line spacing according  to  Β±N  (default
                 scaling indicator p).
       .rchar c1 c2 ...
                 Remove the definitions of characters c1, c2, ...
       .rd prompt
                 Read insertion.
       .return   Return from a macro.
       .rj n     Right justify the next n input lines.
       .rm name  Remove request, macro, or string name.
       .rn old new
                 Rename request, macro, or string old to new.
       .rnn reg1 reg2
                 Rename register reg1 to reg2.
       .rr register
                 Remove register.
       .rs       Restore spacing; turn no-space mode off.
       .rt Β±N    Return  (upward  only)  to  marked  vertical  place  (default
                 scaling indicator v).
       .shc      Reset soft hyphen character to \(hy.
       .shc c    Set the soft hyphen character to c.
       .shift n  In a macro, shift the arguments by n positions.
       .sizes s1 s2 ... sn [0]
                 Set available font sizes similar to the sizes  command  in  a
                 DESC file.
       .so filename
                 Include source file.
       .sp       Skip one line vertically.
       .sp N     Space  vertical  distance N up or down according to sign of N
                 (default scaling indicator v).
       .special s1 s2 ...
                 Fonts s1, s2, etc. are  special  and  will  be  searched  for
                 characters not in the current font.
       .spreadwarn
                 Toggle  the  spread  warning  on and off without changing its
                 value.
       .spreadwarn limit
                 Emit a warning if each space in an output line is widened  by
                 limit or more (default scaling indicator m).
       .ss N     Space-character  size  set  to  N/12 of the spacewidth in the
                 current font.
       .ss N M   Space-character size set to N/12 and sentence space size  set
                 to M/12 of the spacewidth in the current font (=1/3 em).
       .sty n style
                 Associate style with font position n.
       .substring xx n1 n2
                 Replace the string named xx with the substring defined by the
                 indices n1 and n2.
       .sv       Save 1v of vertical space.
       .sv N     Save the  vertical  distance  N  for  later  output  with  os
                 request.
       .sy command-line
                 Execute program command-line.
       .ta T N   Set  tabs  after  every  position  that  is  a  multiple of N
                 (default scaling indicator m).
       .ta n1 n2 ... nn T r1 r2 ... rn
                 Set tabs at positions n1, n2,  ...,  nn,  then  set  tabs  at
                 nn+r1,  nn+r2,  ...,  nn+rn, then at nn+rn+r1, nn+rn+r2, ...,
                 nn+rn+rn, and so on.
       .tc       Remove tab repition character.
       .tc c     Set tab repetition character to c.
       .ti Β±N    Temporary indent next line (default scaling indicator m).
       .tkf font s1 n1 s2 n2
                 Enable track kerning for font.
       .tl β€β€™leftβ€β€™centerβ€β€™rightβ€β€™
                 Three-part title.
       .tm anything
                 Print anything on terminal (UNIX standard message output).
       .tm1 anything
                 Print anything on terminal (UNIX  standard  message  output),
                 allowing  leading whitespace if anything starts with " (which
                 will be stripped off).
       .tmc anything
                 Similar to .tm1 without emitting a final newline.
       .tr abcd...
                 Translate a to b, c to d, etc. on output.
       .trf filename
                 Transparently output the contents of file filename.
       .trin abcd...
                 This is the same as the tr request except  that  the  asciify
                 request  will  use  the  character  code  (if any) before the
                 character translation.
       .trnt abcd...
                 This  is  the  same  as  the  tr  request  except  that   the
                 translations  do  not  apply  to  text  that is transparently
                 throughput into a diversion with \!.
       .troff    Make the built-in condition t true and n false.
       .uf font  Underline font set to font (to be switched to by .ul).
       .ul N     Underline (italicize in troff) N input lines.
       .unformat diversion
                 Unformat  space  characters   and   tabs,   preserving   font
                 information in diversion.
       .vpt n    Enable vertical position traps if n is non-zero, disable them
                 otherwise.
       .vs       Change to previous vertical base line spacing.
       .vs Β±N    Set vertical base  line  spacing  according  to  Β±N  (default
                 scaling indicator p).  Default value is 12p.
       .warn n   Set warnings code to n.
       .warnscale si
                 Set scaling indicator used in warnings to si.
       .wh N     Remove (first) trap at position N.
       .wh N trap
                 Set location trap; negative means from page bottom.
       .while cond anything
                 While condition cond is true, accept anything as input.
       .write stream anything
                 Write anything to the stream named stream.
       .writec stream anything
                 Similar to .write without emitting a final newline.
       .writem stream xx
                 Write  contents  of  macro  or  string xx to the stream named
                 stream.

       Besides these standard groff requests, there  might  be  further  macro
       calls.   They  can  originate  from a macro package (see roff(7) for an
       overview) or from a preprocessor.

       Preprocessor macros are easy to be recognized.  They enclose their code
       into a pair of characteristic macros.

                      +-------------+-------------+------------+
                      |preprocessor | start macro |  end macro |
                      +-------------+-------------+------------+
                      |    eqn      |     .PS     |    .PE     |
                      |    grap     |     .G1     |    .G2     |
                      |    grn      |     .GS     |    .GE     |
                      |    pic      |     .PS     |    .PE     |
                      |   refer     |     .R1     |    .R2     |
                      |   soelim    |    none     |    none    |
                      |    tbl      |     .TS     |    .TE     |
                      +-------------+-------------+------------+

ESCAPE SEQUENCES

       Escape  sequences are in-line language elements usually introduced by a
       backslash β€˜\’ and followed  by  an  escape  name  and  sometimes  by  a
       required  argument.   Input  processing is continued directly after the
       escaped  character  or  the  argument  resp.  without  an   intervening
       separation  character.   So there must be a way to determine the end of
       the escape name and the end of the argument.

       This is done by enclosing names (escape name and  arguments  consisting
       of a variable name) by a pair of brackets [name] and constant arguments
       (number expressions and characters) by apostrophes  (ASCII  0x27)  like
       β€β€™constantβ€β€™.

       There  are  abbreviations  for short names.  Two character escape names
       can be specified by an opening parenthesis like \(xy without a  closing
       counterpart.   And  all  one-character names different from the special
       characters β€˜[’ and β€˜(’ can even be specified without a  marker  in  the
       form \c.

       Constant  arguments  of  length 1 can omit the marker apostrophes, too,
       but there is no two-character analogue.

       While  1-character  escape  sequences  are  mainly  used  for   in-line
       functions and system related tasks, the 2-letter names following the \(
       construct are used  for  special  characters  predefined  by  the  roff
       system.   Escapes  sequences  with  names  of  more than two characters
       \[name] denote user defined named characters (see the char request).

   Single Character Escapes
       \"     Beginning of a comment.  Everything up to the end of the line is
              ignored.
       \#     Everything  up  to  and  including  the next newline is ignored.
              This is interpreted in copy mode.  This is like \"  except  that
              the terminating newline is ignored as well.
       \*s    The  string  stored in the string variable with 1-character name
              s.
       \*(st  The string stored in the string variable with  2-character  name
              st.
       \*[stringvar arg1 arg2 ...]
              The  string  stored in the string variable with arbitrary length
              name stringvar, taking arg1, arg2, ... as arguments.
       \$0    The name by which  the  current  macro  was  invoked.   The  als
              request can make a macro have more than one name.
       \$x    Macro  or  string  argument  with 1-place number x, where x is a
              digit between 1 and 9.
       \$(xy  Macro or string argument with 2-digit number xy.
       \$[nexp]
              Macro or string argument with  number  nexp,  where  nexp  is  a
              numerical expression evaluating to an integer β‰₯1.
       \$*    In  a  macro  or  string, the concatenation of all the arguments
              separated by spaces.
       \$@    In a macro or string, the concatenation  of  all  the  arguments
              with  each surrounded by double quotes, and separated by spaces.
       \\     reduces  to  a   single   backslash;   useful   to   delay   its
              interpretation   as  escape  character  in  copy  mode.   For  a
              printable backslash,  use  \e,  or  even  better  \[rs],  to  be
              independent from the current escape character.
       \β€β€™     The  acute accent Β΄; same as \(aa.  Unescaped: apostrophe, right
              quotation mark, single quote (ASCII 0x27).
       \β€β€˜     The grave accent  `;  same  as  \(ga.   Unescaped:  left  quote,
              backquote (ASCII 0x60).
       \-     The - sign in the current font.
       \.     An uninterpreted dot (period), even at start of line.
       \%     Default optional hyphenation character.
       \!     Transparent line indicator.
       \?anything?
              In  a  diversion,  this will transparently embed anything in the
              diversion.  anything is read in copy mode.  See also the  escape
              sequences \!  and \?.
       \space Unpaddable space-size space character (no line break).
       \0     Digit width.
       \|     1/6 em narrow space character; zero width in nroff.
       \^     1/12 em half-narrow space character; zero width in nroff.
       \&     Non-printable, zero width character.
       \)     Like  \&  except  that it behaves like a character declared with
              the cflags request to be transparent for the purposes of end  of
              sentence recognition.
       \/     Increases  the  width  of  the  preceding  character so that the
              spacing between that character and the following character  will
              be correct if the following character is a roman character.
       \,     Modifies  the  spacing  of  the  following character so that the
              spacing between that character and the preceding character  will
              correct if the preceding character is a roman character.
       \~     Unbreakable  space that stretches like a normal inter-word space
              when a line is adjusted.
       \:     Inserts a zero-width break point (similar to \%  but  without  a
              soft hyphen character).
       \newline
              Ignored newline, for continuation lines.
       \{     Begin conditional input.
       \}     End conditional input.
       \(sc   The  special  character  with  2-character  name sc, see section
              Special Characters.
       \[name]
              The named character with arbitrary length name name.
       \a     Non-interpreted leader character.
       \Aβ€β€™anythingβ€β€™
              If anything  is  acceptable  as  a  name  of  a  string,  macro,
              diversion,  register,  environment  or font it expands to 1, and
              to 0 otherwise.
       \bβ€β€™abc...β€β€™
              Bracket building function.
       \Bβ€β€™anythingβ€β€™
              If anything is acceptable  as  a  valid  numeric  expression  it
              expands to 1, and to 0 otherwise.
       \c     Interrupt text processing.
       \Cβ€β€™charβ€β€™
              The  character  called  char; same as \[char], but compatible to
              other roff versions.
       \d     Forward (down) 1/2 em vertical unit (1/2 line in nroff).
       \Dβ€β€™charseqβ€β€™
              Draw a graphical element defined by the characters  in  charseq;
              see groff info file for details.
       \e     Printable version of the current escape character.
       \E     Equivalent  to  an  escape  character, but is not interpreted in
              copy-mode.
       \fF    Change to font with 1-character name or 1-digit number F.
       \fP    Switch back to previous font.
       \f(fo  Change to font with 2-character name or 2-digit number fo.
       \f[font]
              Change to font with arbitrary length name or  number  expression
              font.
       \f[]   Switch back to previous font.
       \Ff    Change to font family with 1-character name f.
       \F(fm  Change to font family with 2-character name fm.
       \F[fam]
              Change to font family with arbitrary length name fam.
       \F[]   Switch back to previous font family.
       \g[reg]
              Return  format  of  register  with  name  reg  suitable for .af.
              Alternative forms \g(xy and \gx.
       \hβ€β€™Nβ€β€™  Local horizontal motion; move right N (left if negative).
       \Hβ€β€™Nβ€β€™  Set height of current font to N.
       \k[reg]
              Mark horizontal input place in register  with  arbitrary  length
              name reg.  Alternative forms \k(xy and \kx.
       \lβ€β€™Ncβ€β€™ Horizontal line drawing function (optionally using character c).
       \Lβ€β€™Ncβ€β€™ Vertical line drawing function (optionally using character c).
       \m[color]
              Change to color color.  Alternative forms \m(co and \mc.
       \m[]   Switch back to previous color.
       \M[color]
              Change filling color for closed drawn objects  to  color  color.
              Alternative forms \M(co and \Mc.
       \M[]   Switch to previous fill color.
       \nr    The  numerical  value  stored  in the register variable with the
              1-character name r.
       \n(re  The numerical value stored in the  register  variable  with  the
              2-character name re.
       \n[reg]
              The  numerical  value  stored  in  the  register  variable  with
              arbitrary length name reg.
       \Nβ€β€™nβ€β€™  Typeset the character with  code  n  in  the  current  font,  no
              special  fonts  are searched.  Useful for adding characters to a
              font using the char request.
       \oβ€β€™abc...β€β€™
              Overstrike characters a, b, c, etc.
       \O0    Disable glyph output.  Mainly for internal use.
       \O1    Enable glyph output.  Mainly for internal use.
       \p     Break and spread output line.
       \r     Reverse 1 em vertical motion (reverse line in nroff).
       \Rβ€β€™name Β±nβ€β€™
              The same as .nr name Β±n.
       \s[Β±N] Set the point size to N scaled  points.   Note  the  alternative
              forms  \sΒ±[N], \sβ€β€™Β±Nβ€β€™, \sΒ±β€β€™Nβ€β€™, \s(Β±xy, \sΒ±(xy, \sΒ±x.  Same as ps
              request.
       \Sβ€β€™Nβ€β€™  Slant output N degrees.
       \t     Non-interpreted horizontal tab.
       \u     Reverse (up) 1/2 em vertical motion (1/2 line in nroff).
       \vβ€β€™Nβ€β€™  Local vertical motion; move down N (up if negative).
       \V[env]
              The contents of the environment variable env.  Alternative forms
              \V(xy and \Vx.
       \wβ€β€™stringβ€β€™
              The width of the character sequence string.
       \xβ€β€™Nβ€β€™  Extra line-space function (negative before, positive after).
       \Xβ€β€™stringβ€β€™
              Output string as device control function.
       \Y[name]
              Output  string  variable  or  macro name uninterpreted as device
              control function.  Alternative forms \Y(xy and \Yx.
       \zc    Print c with zero width (without spacing).
       \Zβ€β€™anythingβ€β€™
              Print anything and then  restore  the  horizontal  and  vertical
              position; anything may not contain tabs or leaders.

       The  escape  sequences \e, \., \", \$, \*, \a, \n, \t, \g, and \newline
       are interpreted in copy mode.

       Escape sequences starting  with  \(  or  \[  do  not  represent  single
       character escape sequences, but introduce escape names with two or more
       characters.

       If a backslash is followed by a character that does  not  constitute  a
       defined  escape  sequence  the  backslash  is  silently ignored and the
       character maps to itself.

   Special Characters
       Common special characters are predefined by  escape  sequences  of  the
       form  \(xy  with  characters x and y.  Some of these exist in the usual
       font while most of them are only available in the special font.   Below
       you’ll  find  a selection of the most important glyphs; a complete list
       can be found in groff_char(7).

              \(bu   Bullet sign
              \(co   Copyright
              \(ct   Cent
              \(dd   Double dagger
              \(de   Degree
              \(dg   Dagger
              \(rs   Printable double quote
              \(em   Em-dash
              \(hy   Hyphen
              \(rg   Registered sign
              \(rs   Printable backslash character
              \(sc   Section sign
              \(ul   Underline character
              \(==   Identical
              \(>=   Larger or equal
              \(<=   Less or equal
              \(!=   Not equal
              \(->   Right arrow
              \(<-   Left arrow
              \(+-   Plus-minus sign

   Strings
       Strings are defined by the ds request and can be retrieved  by  the  \*
       escape sequence.

       Strings  share  their  name  space  with macros.  So strings and macros
       without arguments are roughly equivalent; it  is  possible  to  call  a
       string   like   a  macro  and  vice-versa,  but  this  often  leads  to
       unpredictable results.  The following strings are predefined in  groff.

       \*[.T]    The  name of the current output device as specified by the -T
                 command line option.

REGISTERS

       Registers are variables that store a value.  In groff,  most  registers
       store  numerical  values (see section NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS above), but
       some can also hold a string value.

       Each register is given a name.  Arbitrary registers can be defined  and
       set with the request nr register.

       The value stored in a register can be retrieved by the escape sequences
       introduced by \n.

       Most useful are predefined registers.  In the  following  the  notation
       name  is used to refer to a register called register name to make clear
       that we speak about registers.  Please  keep  in  mind  that  the  \n[]
       decoration is not part of the register name.

   Read-only Registers
       The  following  registers  have  predefined  values  that should not be
       modified by the user (usually, registers starting with a  dot  a  read-
       only).   Mostly,  they  provide  information on the current settings or
       store results from request calls.

       \n[.$]    Number of arguments in the current macro or string.
       \n[.a]    Post-line  extra  line-space  most  recently  utilized  using
                 \xβ€β€™Nβ€β€™.
       \n[.A]    Set to 1 in troff if option -A is used; always 1 in nroff.
       \n[.c]    Current input line number.
       \n[.C]    1 if compatibility mode is in effect, 0 otherwise.
       \n[.cdp]  The  depth  of  the  last  character  added  to  the  current
                 environment.  It is positive if the character  extends  below
                 the baseline.
       \n[.ce]   The  number  of lines remaining to be centered, as set by the
                 ce request.
       \n[.cht]  The height  of  the  last  character  added  to  the  current
                 environment.   It  is positive if the character extends above
                 the baseline.
       \n[.color]
                 1 if colors are enabled, 0 otherwise.
       \n[.csk]  The  skew  of  the  last  character  added  to  the   current
                 environment.  The skew of a character is how far to the right
                 of the center of a character the center  of  an  accent  over
                 that character should be placed.
       \n[.d]    Current   vertical  place  in  current  diversion;  equal  to
                 register register nl.
       \n[.ev]   The name  or  number  of  the  current  environment  (string-
                 valued).
       \n[.f]    Current font number.
       \n[.fam]  The current font family (string-valued).
       \n[.fn]   The current (internal) real font name (string-valued).
       \n[.fp]   The number of the next free font position.
       \n[.g]    Always  1  in  GNU  troff.   Macros  should use it to test if
                 running under groff.
       \n[.h]    Text base-line high-water mark on current page or  diversion.
       \n[.H]    Available horizontal resolution in basic units.
       \n[.hla]  The  current hyphenation language as set by the .hla request.
       \n[.hlc]  The number of immediately  preceding  consecutive  hyphenated
                 lines.
       \n[.hlm]  The  maximum  allowed number of consecutive hyphenated lines,
                 as set by the hlm request.
       \n[.hy]   The current hyphenation flags (as set by the hy request).
       \n[.hym]  The current hyphenation margin (as set by the hym request).
       \n[.hys]  The current hyphenation space (as set by the hys request).
       \n[.i]    Current ident.
       \n[.in]   The indent that applies to the current output line.
       \n[.int]  Positive if last output line contains \c.
       \n[.kern] 1 if pairwise kerning is enabled, 0 otherwise.
       \n[.l]    Current line length.
       \n[.lg]   The current ligature mode (as set by the lg request).
       \n[.linetabs]
                 The current line-tabs mode (as set by the linetabs  request).
       \n[.ll]   The line length that applies to the current output line.
       \n[.lt]   The title length (as set by the lt request).
       \n[.n]    Length of text portion on previous output line.
       \n[.ne]   The  amount  of  space that was needed in the last ne request
                 that caused a trap to be sprung.  Useful in conjunction  with
                 register .trunc.
       \n[.ns]   1 if in no-space mode, 0 otherwise.
       \n[.o]    Current page offset.
       \n[.p]    Current page length.
       \n[.pn]   The  number  of  the  next page: either the value set by a pn
                 request, or the number of the current page plus 1.
       \n[.ps]   The current pointsize in scaled points.
       \n[.psr]  The last-requested pointsize in scaled points.
       \n[.pvs]  The current post-vertical line spacing.
       \n[.rj]   The number of lines to be right-justified as set  by  the  rj
                 request.
       \n[.s]    Current point size as a decimal fraction.
       \n[.sr]   The  last requested pointsize in points as a decimal fraction
                 (string-valued).
       \n[.t]    Distance to the next trap.
       \n[.T]    Set to 1 if option -T is used.
       \n[.tabs] A string representation of the current tab settings  suitable
                 for use as an argument to the ta request.
       \n[.trunc]
                 The  amount  of vertical space truncated by the most recently
                 sprung vertical position trap, or, if the trap was sprung  by
                 a ne request, minus the amount of vertical motion produced by
                 .ne.  In other words, at the  point  a  trap  is  sprung,  it
                 represents the difference of what the vertical position would
                 have been but for the trap, and what  the  vertical  position
                 actually  is.   Useful  in  conjunction with the register .ne
                 register.
       \n[.ss]   The value of the parameters set by the first argument of  the
                 ss request.
       \n[.sss]  The value of the parameters set by the second argument of the
                 ss request.
       \n[.u]    Equal to 1 bin fill mode and 0 in nofill mode.
       \n[.v]    Current vertical line spacing.
       \n[.V]    Available vertical resolution in basic units.
       \n[.vpt]  1  if vertical position traps are enabled, 0 otherwise.
       \n[.w]    Width of previous character.
       \n[.warn] The  sum  of  the  number  codes  of  the  currently  enabled
                 warnings.
       \n[.x]    The major version number.
       \n[.y]    The minor version number.
       \n[.Y]    The revision number of groff.
       \n[.z]    Name of current diversion.

   Writable Registers
       The following registers can be read and written by the user.  They have
       predefined default values, but these can be modified for customizing  a
       document.

       \n[%]     Current page number.
       \n[c.]    Current input line number.
       \n[ct]    Character type (set by width function \w).
       \n[dl]    Maximal width of last completed diversion.
       \n[dn]    Height of last completed diversion.
       \n[dw]    Current day of week (1-7).
       \n[dy]    Current day of month (1-31).
       \n[hours] The  number of hours past midnight.  Initialized at start-up.
       \n[hp]    Current horizontal position at input line.
       \n[llx]   Lower left x-coordinate (in  PostScript  units)  of  a  given
                 PostScript image (set by .psbb).
       \n[lly]   Lower  left  y-coordinate  (in  PostScript  units) of a given
                 PostScript image (set by .psbb).
       \n[ln]    Output line number.
       \n[minutes]
                 The number of minutes after the hour.  Initialized at  start-
                 up.
       \n[mo]    Current month (1-12).
       \n[nl]    Vertical position of last printed text base-line.
       \n[rsb]   Like register sb, but takes account of the heights and depths
                 of characters.
       \n[rst]   Like register st, but takes account of the heights and depths
                 of characters.
       \n[sb]    Depth  of string below base line (generated by width function
                 \w).
       \n[seconds]
                 The number of  seconds  after  the  minute.   Initialized  at
                 start-up.
       \n[skw]   Right skip width from the center of the last character in the
                 \w argument.
       \n[slimit]
                 If greater than 0, the maximum number of objects on the input
                 stack.  If ≀0 there is no limit, i.e., recursion can continue
                 until virtual memory is exhausted.
       \n[ssc]   The amount  of  horizontal  space  (possibly  negative)  that
                 should  be  added  to  the  last character before a subscript
                 (generated by width function \w).
       \n[st]    Height of string above base line (generated by width function
                 \w).
       \n[systat]
                 The  return  value  of  the system() function executed by the
                 last sy request.
       \n[urx]   Upper right x-coordinate (in PostScript  units)  of  a  given
                 PostScript image (set by .psbb).
       \n[ury]   Upper  right  y-coordinate  (in  PostScript units) of a given
                 PostScript image (set by .psbb).
       \n[year]  The current year (year 2000 compliant).
       \n[yr]    Current year minus 1900.  For  Y2K  compliance  use  register
                 register year instead.

COMPATIBILITY

       The  differences of the groff language in comparison to classical troff
       as defined by [CSTR #54] are documented in groff_diff(7).

       The groff system provides a compatibility mode, see groff(1) on how  to
       invoke this.

BUGS

       Report bugs to the groff bug mailing list 〈bug-groff@gnu.orgβŒͺ.  Include
       a complete, self-contained example  that  will  allow  the  bug  to  be
       reproduced, and say which version of groff you are using.

AUTHORS

       Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  document  is  distributed  under  the  terms of the FDL (GNU Free
       Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should have  received
       a  copy  of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the
       GNU copyleft site 〈http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.htmlβŒͺ.

       This document is part of groff, the  GNU  roff  distribution.   It  was
       written  by  Bernd Warken 〈bwarken@mayn.deβŒͺ; it is maintained by Werner
       Lemberg 〈wl@gnu.orgβŒͺ.

SEE ALSO

       The main source of information for the  groff  language  is  the  groff
       info(1) file.  Besides the gory details, it contains many examples.

       groff(1)
              the usage of the groff program and pointers to the documentation
              and availability of the groff system.

       groff_diff(7)
              the differences of the groff language as compared  to  classical
              roff.   This  is  the  authoritative document for the predefined
              language elements that are specific to groff.

       groff_char(7)
              the predefined groff characters (glyphs).

       groff_font(5)
              the specification of fonts and the DESC file.

       roff(7)
              the history of  roff,  the  common  parts  shared  by  all  roff
              systems, and pointers to further documentation.

       [CSTR #54]
              Nroff/Troff   User’s  Manual  by  Osanna  &  Kernighan  〈http://
              cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/54.psβŒͺ β€” the bible for classical troff.