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NAME

       hier - Description of the file system hierarchy

DESCRIPTION

       A typical Linux system has, among others, the following directories:

       /      This  is  the  root  directory.   This  is  where the whole tree
              starts.

       /bin   This directory contains executable programs which are needed  in
              single user mode and to bring the system up or repair it.

       /boot  Contains  static files for the boot loader.  This directory only
              holds the files which are needed during the boot  process.   The
              map  installer  and  configuration  files should go to /sbin and
              /etc.

       /dev   Special or device files, which refer to physical  devices.   See
              mknod(1).

       /dos   If  both  MS-DOS  and  Linux  are run on one computer, this is a
              typical place to mount a DOS file system.

       /etc   Contains configuration files which are  local  to  the  machine.
              Some  larger  software  packages,  like  X11, can have their own
              subdirectories below /etc.  Site-wide configuration files may be
              placed  here  or  in  /usr/etc.   Nevertheless,  programs should
              always look for these files in /etc and you may have  links  for
              these files to /usr/etc.

       /etc/opt
              Host-specific   configuration   files  for  add-on  applications
              installed in /opt.

       /etc/sgml
              This directory contains the configuration files for SGML and XML
              (optional).

       /etc/skel
              When  a  new  user account is created, files from this directory
              are usually copied into the user’s home directory.

       /etc/X11
              Configuration files for the X11 window system (optional).

       /home  On machines with home directories for users, these  are  usually
              beneath  this directory, directly or not.  The structure of this
              directory depends on local administration decisions.

       /lib   This directory should  hold  those  shared  libraries  that  are
              necessary to boot the system and to run the commands in the root
              filesystem.

       /mnt   This directory contains mount  points  for  temporarily  mounted
              filesystems

       /opt   This  directory  should  contain  add-on  packages  that contain
              static files.

       /proc  This is a mount point for the proc  filesystem,  which  provides
              information  about  running  processes  and  the  kernel.   This
              pseudo-file system is described in more detail in proc(5).

       /root  This directory is usually the home directory for the  root  user
              (optional).

       /sbin  Like  /bin,  this  directory  holds  commands needed to boot the
              system, but which are usually not executed by normal users.

       /tmp   This directory contains temporary files  which  may  be  deleted
              with no notice, such as by a regular job or at system boot up.

       /usr   This directory is usually mounted from a separate partition.  It
              should hold only sharable, read-only data, so  that  it  can  be
              mounted by various machines running Linux.

       /usr/X11R6
              The X-Window system, version 11 release 6 (optional).

       /usr/X11R6/bin
              Binaries which belong to the X-Windows system; often, there is a
              symbolic link from the more traditional /usr/bin/X11 to here.

       /usr/X11R6/lib
              Data files associated with the X-Windows system.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11
              These contain miscellaneous files needed to run X;  Often, there
              is a symbolic link from /usr/lib/X11 to this directory.

       /usr/X11R6/include/X11
              Contains  include  files needed for compiling programs using the
              X11 window  system.   Often,  there  is  a  symbolic  link  from
              /usr/include/X11 to this directory.

       /usr/bin
              This  is  the  primary  directory for executable programs.  Most
              programs executed by normal  users  which  are  not  needed  for
              booting  or for repairing the system and which are not installed
              locally should be placed in this directory.

       /usr/bin/X11
              is the traditional place to look for X11 executables; on  Linux,
              it usually is a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/bin.

       /usr/dict
              Replaced by /usr/share/dict.

       /usr/doc
              Replaced by /usr/share/doc.

       /usr/etc
              Site-wide  configuration  files  to  be  shared  between several
              machines may be stored in  this  directory.   However,  commands
              should  always  reference  those files using the /etc directory.
              Links from files in /etc should point to the  appropriate  files
              in /usr/etc.

       /usr/games
              Binaries for games and educational programs (optional).

       /usr/include
              Include files for the C compiler.

       /usr/include/X11
              Include files for the C compiler and the X-Windows system.  This
              is usually a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/include/X11.

       /usr/include/asm
              Include files which declare some assembler functions.  This used
              to be a symbolic link to /usr/src/linux/include/asm.

       /usr/include/linux
              This  contains  information which may change from system release
              to  system  release  and  used  to  be  a   symbolic   link   to
              /usr/src/linux/include/linux to get at operating system specific
              information.

              (Note that  one  should  have  include  files  there  that  work
              correctly  with  the  current  libc  and in user space. However,
              Linux kernel source  is  not  designed  to  be  used  with  user
              programs  and  does  not  know  anything  about the libc you are
              using. It is very likely that  things  will  break  if  you  let
              /usr/include/asm and /usr/include/linux point at a random kernel
              tree. Debian systems don’t do this and use headers from a  known
              good kernel version, provided in the libc*-dev package.)

       /usr/include/g++
              Include files to use with the GNU C++ compiler.

       /usr/lib
              Object   libraries,   including  dynamic  libraries,  plus  some
              executables  which  usually  are  not  invoked  directly.   More
              complicated programs may have whole subdirectories there.

       /usr/lib/X11
              The  usual  place for data files associated with X programs, and
              configuration files for the  X  system  itself.   On  Linux,  it
              usually is a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/lib/X11.

       /usr/lib/gcc-lib
              contains  executables  and include files for the GNU C compiler,
              gcc(1).

       /usr/lib/groff
              Files for the GNU groff document formatting system.

       /usr/lib/uucp
              Files for uucp(1).

       /usr/local
              This is where programs which are local to the site typically go.

       /usr/local/bin
              Binaries for programs local to the site.

       /usr/local/doc
              Local documentation.

       /usr/local/etc
              Configuration  files associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/games
              Binaries for locally installed games.

       /usr/local/lib
              Files associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/include
              Header files for the local C compiler.

       /usr/local/info
              Info pages associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/man
              Man pages associated with locally installed programs.

       /usr/local/sbin
              Locally installed programs for system administration.

       /usr/local/share
              Local application  data  that  can  be  shared  among  different
              architectures of the same OS.

       /usr/local/src
              Source code for locally installed software.

       /usr/man
              Replaced by /usr/share/man.

       /usr/sbin
              This    directory   contains   program   binaries   for   system
              administration which are not essential for the boot process, for
              mounting /usr, or for system repair.

       /usr/share
              This directory contains subdirectories with specific application
              data, that can be shared among different  architectures  of  the
              same  OS.   Often  one  finds  stuff  here  that used to live in
              /usr/doc or /usr/lib or /usr/man.

       /usr/share/dict
              Contains the word lists used by spell checkers.

       /usr/share/doc
              Documentation about installed programs.

       /usr/share/games
              Static data files for games in /usr/games.

       /usr/share/info
              Info pages go here.

       /usr/share/locale
              Locale information goes here.

       /usr/share/man
              Manpages go here in subdirectories according  to  the  man  page
              sections.

       /usr/share/man/<locale>/man[1-9]
              These  directories  contain manual pages for the specific locale
              in source code form. Systems which use  a  unique  language  and
              code set for all manual pages may omit the <locale> substring.

       /usr/share/misc
              Miscellaneous   data   that   can   be  shared  among  different
              architectures of the same OS.

       /usr/share/nls
              The message catalogs for native language support go here.

       /usr/share/sgml
              Files for SGML and XML.

       /usr/share/terminfo
              The database for terminfo.

       /usr/share/tmac
              Troff macros that are not distributed with groff.

       /usr/share/zoneinfo
              Files for timezone information.

       /usr/src
              Source files for different parts of the  system,  included  with
              some  packages for reference purposes. Don’t work here with your
              own projects, as files below /usr  should  be  read-only  except
              when installing software.

       /usr/src/linux
              This  was  the  traditional  place  for the kernel source.  Some
              distributions put here the source for the  default  kernel  they
              ship.   You  should probably use another directory when building
              your own kernel.

       /usr/tmp
              Obsolete. This should be a  link  to  /var/tmp.   This  link  is
              present only for compatibility reasons and shouldn’t be used.

       /var   This  directory contains files which may change in size, such as
              spool and log files.

       /var/adm
              This directory  is  superseded  by  /var/log  and  should  be  a
              symbolic link to /var/log.

       /var/backups
              Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/cache
              Data cached for programs.

       /var/catman/cat[1-9] or /var/cache/man/cat[1-9]
              These directories contain preformatted manual pages according to
              their man page section. (The use of preformatted manual pages is
              deprecated.)

       /var/cron
              Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/lib
              Variable state information for programs.

       /var/local
              Variable data for /usr/local.

       /var/lock
              Lock  files are placed in this directory.  The naming convention
              for device lock files is LCK..<device>  where  <device>  is  the
              device’s name in the filesystem.  The format used is that of HDU
              UUCP lock files, i.e. lock files contain  a  PID  as  a  10-byte
              ASCII decimal number, followed by a newline character.

       /var/log
              Miscellaneous log files.

       /var/opt
              Variable data for /opt.

       /var/mail
              Users’ mailboxes. Replaces /var/spool/mail.

       /var/msgs
              Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/preserve
              Reserved for historical reasons.

       /var/run
              Run-time  variable files, like files holding process identifiers
              (PIDs) and  logged  user  information  (utmp).   Files  in  this
              directory are usually cleared when the system boots.

       /var/spool
              Spooled (or queued) files for various programs.

       /var/spool/at
              Spooled jobs for at(1).

       /var/spool/cron
              Spooled jobs for cron(1).

       /var/spool/lpd
              Spooled files for printing.

       /var/spool/mail
              Replaced by /var/mail.

       /var/spool/mqueue
              Queued outgoing mail.

       /var/spool/news
              Spool directory for news.

       /var/spool/rwho
              Spooled files for rwhod(8).

       /var/spool/smail
              Spooled files for the smail(1) mail delivery program.

       /var/spool/uucp
              Spooled files for uucp(1).

       /var/tmp
              Like  /tmp,  this  directory holds temporary files stored for an
              unspecified duration.

       /var/yp
              Database files for NIS.

CONFORMS TO

       The      Filesystem      Hierarchy      Standard,      Version      2.2
       <http://www.pathname.com/fhs/>

BUGS

       This  list  is  not  exhaustive;  different  systems  may be configured
       differently.

SEE ALSO

       find(1), ln(1), mount(1), proc(5)

       The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard