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NAME

       locale - Description of multi-language support

SYNOPSIS

       #include <locale.h>

DESCRIPTION

       A  locale is a set of language and cultural rules.  These cover aspects
       such as language for messages, different  character  sets,  lexigraphic
       conventions,  etc.   A program needs to be able to determine its locale
       and act accordingly to be portable to different cultures.

       The header <locale.h> declares data types, functions and  macros  which
       are useful in this task.

       The  functions  it  declares are setlocale() to set the current locale,
       and localeconv() to get information about number formatting.

       There are different categories for local information  a  program  might
       need; they are declared as macros.  Using them as the first argument to
       the setlocale() function, it is possible to set one  of  these  to  the
       desired locale:

       LC_COLLATE
              This  is used to change the behaviour of the functions strcoll()
              and strxfrm(), which are used to compare strings  in  the  local
              alphabet.  For example, the German sharp s is sorted as "ss".

       LC_CTYPE
              This  changes  the  behaviour  of  the  character  handling  and
              classification functions, such as isupper() and  toupper(),  and
              the  multi-byte character functions such as mblen() or wctomb().

       LC_MONETARY
              changes the information returned by localeconv() which describes
              the  way  numbers  are  usually  printed,  with  details such as
              decimal  point  versus  decimal  comma.   This  information   is
              internally used by the function strfmon().

       LC_MESSAGES
              changes  the  language  messages  are  displayed  in  and how an
              affirmative or negative answer looks like.   The  GNU  C-library
              contains  the  gettext(), ngettext(), and rpmatch() functions to
              ease the use of these information.  The GNU  gettext  family  of
              functions also obey the environment variable LANGUAGE.

       LC_NUMERIC
              changes  the information used by the printf() and scanf() family
              of functions, when they are advised to use the  locale-settings.
              This   information  can  also  be  read  with  the  localeconv()
              function.

       LC_TIME
              changes the behaviour of the strftime() function to display  the
              current  time in a locally acceptable form; for example, most of
              Europe uses a 24-hour clock vs. the US’ 12-hour clock.

       LC_ALL All of the above.

       If the second argument to setlocale() is  empty  string,  "",  for  the
       default locale, it is determined using the following steps:

       1.     If there is a non-null environment variable LC_ALL, the value of
              LC_ALL is used.

       2.     If an environment variable with the same  name  as  one  of  the
              categories  above  exists and is non-null, its value is used for
              that category.

       3.     If there is a non-null environment variable LANG, the  value  of
              LANG is used.

       Values  about  local  numeric  formatting is made available in a struct
       lconv returned by the localeconv() function, which  has  the  following
       declaration:
       struct lconv
       {
         /* Numeric (non-monetary) information.  */

         char *decimal_point;        /* Decimal point character.  */
         char *thousands_sep;        /* Thousands separator.  */
         /* Each element is the number of digits in each group;
            elements with higher indices are farther left.
            An element with value CHAR_MAX means that no further grouping is done.
            An element with value 0 means that the previous element is used
            for all groups farther left.  */
         char *grouping;

         /* Monetary information.  */

         /* First three chars are a currency symbol from ISO 4217.
            Fourth char is the separator.  Fifth char is ’ ’.  */
         char *int_curr_symbol;
         char *currency_symbol; /* Local currency symbol.  */
         char *mon_decimal_point;    /* Decimal point character.  */
         char *mon_thousands_sep;    /* Thousands separator.  */
         char *mon_grouping;         /* Like ‘grouping’ element (above).  */
         char *positive_sign;        /* Sign for positive values.  */
         char *negative_sign;        /* Sign for negative values.  */
         char int_frac_digits;       /* Int’l fractional digits.  */
         char frac_digits;      /* Local fractional digits.  */
         /* 1 if currency_symbol precedes a positive value, 0 if succeeds.  */
         char p_cs_precedes;
         /* 1 if a space separates currency_symbol from a positive value.  */
         char p_sep_by_space;
         /* 1 if currency_symbol precedes a negative value, 0 if succeeds.  */
         char n_cs_precedes;
         /* 1 if a space separates currency_symbol from a negative value.  */
         char n_sep_by_space;
         /* Positive and negative sign positions:
            0 Parentheses surround the quantity and currency_symbol.
            1 The sign string precedes the quantity and currency_symbol.
            2 The sign string succeeds the quantity and currency_symbol.
            3 The sign string immediately precedes the currency_symbol.
            4 The sign string immediately succeeds the currency_symbol.  */
         char p_sign_posn;
         char n_sign_posn;
       };

CONFORMS TO

       POSIX.1
       The GNU gettext functions are specified in LI18NUX2000.

SEE ALSO

       locale(1),   localedef(1),   gettext(3),   localeconv(3),  ngettext(3),
       nl_langinfo(3),  rpmatch(3),  setlocale(3),   strcoll(3),   strfmon(3),
       strftime(3), strxfrm(3)