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       morphy - discussion of WordNet’s morphological processing


       Although  only  base  forms  of  words  are  usually stored in WordNet,
       searches  may  be  done  on  inflected  forms.   A  set  of  morphology
       functions,  Morphy,  is applied to the search string to generate a form
       that is present in WordNet.

       Morphology in WordNet uses two types of processes to try to convert the
       string  passed  into  one  that  can  be found in the WordNet database.
       There are lists of inflectional endings, based on  syntactic  category,
       that can be detached from individual words in an attempt to find a form
       of the word that is in WordNet.  There are also exception  list  files,
       one  for  each  syntactic  category, in which a search for an inflected
       form  is  done.   Morphy  tries  to  use  these  two  processes  in  an
       intelligent  manner  to  translate  the  string passed to the base form
       found in WordNet.  Morphy first checks for exceptions,  then  uses  the
       rules  of  detachment.   The  Morphy functions are not independent from
       WordNet.  After  each  transformation,  WordNet  is  searched  for  the
       resulting string in the syntactic category specified.

       The  Morphy  functions are passed a string and a syntactic category.  A
       string is either a single word or a  collocation.   Since  some  words,
       such  as  axes  can have more than one base form (axe and axis), Morphy
       works in the following manner.  The first time that  Morphy  is  called
       with  a  specific  string, it returns a base form.  For each subsequent
       call to Morphy made with a NULL string argument, Morphy returns another
       base form.  Whenever Morphy cannot perform a transformation, whether on
       the first call for a word or subsequent calls,  NULL  is  returned.   A
       transformation  to  a valid English string will return NULL if the base
       form of the string is not in WordNet.

       The morphological functions are found  in  the  WordNet  library.   See
       morph(3WN) for information on using these functions.

   Rules of Detachment
       The following table shows the rules of detachment used by Morphy.  If a
       word ends with one of the suffixes, it is stripped from  the  word  and
       the  corresponding  ending  is added.  Then WordNet is searched for the
       resulting string.  No rules are applicable to adverbs.

                              |POS  | Suffix | Ending |
                              |NOUN | "s"    | ""     |
                              |NOUN | "ses"  | "s"    |
                              |NOUN | "xes"  | "x"    |
                              |NOUN | "zes"  | "z"    |
                              |NOUN | "ches" | "ch"   |
                              |NOUN | "shes" | "sh"   |
                              |NOUN | "men"  | "man"  |
                              |NOUN | "ies"  | "y"    |
                              |VERB | "s"    | ""     |
                              |VERB | "ies"  | "y"    |
                              |VERB | "es"   | "e"    |
                              |VERB | "es"   | ""     |
                              |VERB | "ed"   | "e"    |
                              |VERB | "ed"   | ""     |
                              |VERB | "ing"  | "e"    |
                              |VERB | "ing"  | ""     |
                              |ADJ  | "er"   | ""     |
                              |ADJ  | "est"  | ""     |
                              |ADJ  | "er"   | "e"    |
                              |ADJ  | "est"  | "e"    |

   Exception Lists
       There is one exception list file  for  each  syntactic  category.   The
       exception  lists  contain the morphological transformations for strings
       that  are  not  regular  and  therefore  cannot  be  processed  in   an
       algorithmic  manner.   Each  line  of  an  exception  list  contains an
       inflected form of a word or collocation, followed by one or  more  base
       forms.   The  list is kept in alphabetical order and a binary search is
       used to find words in these lists.  See wndb(5WN)  for  information  on
       the format of the exception list files.

   Single Words
       In  general, single words are relatively easy to process.  Morphy first
       looks for the word in the exception list.  If it  is  found  the  first
       base  form  is  returned.  Subsequent calls with a NULL argument return
       additional base forms, if present.  A NULL is returned when  there  are
       no more base forms of the word.

       If  the  word  is  not found in the exception list corresponding to the
       syntactic  category,  an  algorithmic  process  using  the   rules   of
       detachment looks for a matching suffix.  If a matching suffix is found,
       a corresponding ending is applied (sometimes  this  ending  is  a  NULL
       string,  so in effect the suffix is removed from the word), and WordNet
       is consulted to see if the resulting word is found in the desired  part
       of speech.

       As  opposed  to  single  words,  collocations can be quite difficult to
       transform into a base form that is present  in  WordNet.   In  general,
       only  base  forms  of  words,  even  those comprising collocations, are
       stored  in  WordNet,  such  as  attorney general.    Transforming   the
       collocation  attorneys general  is  then simply a matter of finding the
       base forms of the individual words comprising  the  collocation.   This
       usually  works  for  nouns,  therefore  non-conforming  nouns,  such as
       customs duty are presently entered in the noun exception list.

       Verb collocations that contain prepositions, such  as  ask for it,  are
       more  difficult.   As with single words, the exception list is searched
       first.  If the  collocation  is  not  found,  special  code  in  Morphy
       determines  whether  a  verb collocation includes a preposition.  If it
       does, a function is called  to  try  to  find  the  base  form  in  the
       following manner.  It is assumed that the first word in the collocation
       is a verb and that the last word is a noun.  The algorithm then  builds
       a  search  string with the base forms of the verb and noun, leaving the
       remainder of the collocation (usually just the  preposition,  but  more
       words   may   be   involved)   in  the  middle.   For  example,  passed
       asking for it, the database search would be performed with  ask for it,
       which  is  found  in WordNet, and therefore returned from Morphy.  If a
       verb collocation does not contain a preposition, then the base form  of
       each  word  in the collocation is found and WordNet is searched for the
       resulting string.

       Hyphenation also presents special difficulties when searching  WordNet.
       It  is  often a subjective decision as to whether a word is hyphenated,
       joined as one word, or is a collocation of several words, and which  of
       the  various  forms  are  entered  into  WordNet.  When Morphy breaks a
       string  into  "words",  it  looks  for  both  spaces  and  hyphens   as
       delimiters.   It  also looks for periods in strings and removes them if
       an exact match is not found.  A search for an  abbreviation  like  oct.
       return   the   synset  for  { October, Oct }.   Not  every  pattern  of
       hyphenated and collocated string is searched for properly, so it may be
       advantageous  to  specify  several  search  strings if the results of a
       search attempt seem incomplete.


       Since  many  noun   collocations   contains   prepositions,   such   as
       line of products, an algorithm similar to that used for verbs should be
       written for  nouns.   In  the  present  scheme,  if  Morphy  is  passed
       lines of products,  the search string becomes line of product, which is
       not in WordNet


       WNHOME              Base  directory  for  WordNet.   Unix  default   is
                           /usr/local/WordNet-2.0,    Windows    default    is
                           C:\Program Files\WordNet\2.0.

       WNSEARCHDIR         Directory in which the WordNet  database  has  been
                           installed.   Unix  default  is WNHOME/dict, Windows
                           default is WNHOME\dict.


       In directory WNSEARCHDIR:

       pos.exc             morphology exception lists


       wn(1WN), wnb(1WN), binsrch(3WN), morph(3WN), wndb(5WN), wninput(7WN).