Provided by: libsane_1.0.17-1ubuntu4_i386 bug


       sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners


       SANE  is  an  application  programming  interface  (API)  that provides
       standardized  access  to  any  raster  image  scanner   hardware.   The
       standardized  interface  makes it possible to write just one driver for
       each scanner  device  instead  of  one  driver  for  each  scanner  and

       While  SANE  is  primarily targeted at a UNIX environment, the standard
       has been carefully designed to make it possible to implement the API on
       virtually any hardware or operating system.

       This  manual page provides a summary of the information available about

       If you have trouble getting your scanner detected,  read  the  PROBLEMS


       An  application that uses the SANE interface is called a SANE frontend.
       A driver that implements the SANE interface is called a  SANE  backend.
       A  meta  backend  provides  some  means  to  manage  one  or more other


       The package ‘sane-backends’ contains a lot of  backends,  documentation
       (including the SANE standard), networking support, and the command line
       frontend  ‘scanimage’.   The  frontends   ‘xscanimage’,   ‘xcam’,   and
       ‘scanadf’  are included in the package ‘sane-frontends’.  Both packages
       can  be   downloaded   from   the   SANE   homepage   (http://www.sane-  Information about other frontends and backends can also
       be found on the SANE homepage.


       The following sections provide short descriptions  and  links  to  more
       information  about  several  aspects  of SANE.  A name with a number in
       parenthesis (e.g.  ‘sane-dll(5)’) points to a manual page. In this case
       ‘man    5    sane-dll’    will   display   the   page.   Entries   like
       ‘/usr/share/doc/libsane/sane.tex’ are references  to  text  files  that
       were     copied     to     the     SANE     documentation     directory
       (/usr/share/doc/libsane/) during installation. Everything else is a URL
       to a resource on the web.

       SANE homepage
         Information on all aspects of SANE including a tutorial and a link to
         the SANE FAQ can be found  on  the  SANE  homepage:  http://www.sane-

       SANE device lists
         The  SANE  device  lists contain information about the status of SANE
         support for a specific device. If your scanner is  not  listed  there
         (either supported or unsupported), please contact us. See section HOW
         CAN YOU HELP SANE for details. There are lists for specific  releases
         of  SANE,  for  the  current development version and a search engine:   The  lists
         are also installed on your system at /usr/share/doc/libsane/.

       SANE mailing list
         There  is  a  mailing  list  for  the  purpose of discussing the SANE
         standard and its implementations: sane-devel.  Despite its name,  the
         list  is  not only intended for developers, but also for users. There
         are also some more lists for  special  topics,  however,  for  users,
         sane-devel  is  the  right  list.  How  to subscribe and unsubscribe:

       SANE IRC channel
         The IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channel  #sane  can  be  found  on  the
         Freenode   network   (  It’s  for  discussing  SANE
         problems,  talking  about  development  and  general   SANE   related
         chatting. Before asking for help, please read the other documentation
         mentioned in this manual page. The channel’s topic is also  used  for
         announcements  of  problems  with SANE infrastructure (mailing lists,
         web server, etc.).

       Compiling and installing SANE
         Look at /usr/share/doc/libsane/README  and  the  os-dependent  README
         files for information about compiling and installing SANE.

       SCSI configuration
         For  information about various systems and SCSI controllers see sane-

       USB configuration
         For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).


         Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

         SANE network daemon  that  allows  remote  clients  to  access  image
         acquisition devices available on the local host. See saned(8).

         Command-line  tool  to find SCSI and USB scanners and determine their
         Unix device files. See sane-find-scanner(1).

       Also, have a look at the sane-frontends package (including  xscanimage,
       xcam,   and   scanadf)   and   the   frontend   information   page   at


         The SANE backend for Abaton flatbed scanners supports the Scan 300/GS
         (8bit,  256  levels  of  gray)  and  the Scan 300/S (black and white,
         untested). See sane-abaton(5) for details.

         This backend supports AGFA  Focus  scanners  and  the  Siemens  S9036
         (untested).  See sane-agfafocus(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for Apple flatbed scanners supports the following
         scanners: AppleScanner, OneScanner  and  ColorOneScanner.  See  sane-
         apple(5) for details.

         The  SANE  Artec  backend  supports several Artec/Ultima SCSI flatbed
         scanners as well as the BlackWidow BW4800SP and the  Plustek  19200S.
         See sane-artec(5) for details.

         The SANE artec_eplus48u backend supports the scanner Artec E+ 48U and
         re-badged models like Tevion MD 9693, Medion MD 9693, Medion MD  9705
         and Trust Easy Webscan 19200. See sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for details.

         This is a SANE  backend  for  using  the  Artec  AS6E  parallel  port
         interface scanner. See sane-as6e(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports several Avision based scanners. This includes
         the original Avision scanners (like AV 630, AV 620, ...) as  well  as
         the  HP  ScanJet  53xx  and  74xx  series,  Fujitsu ScanPartner, some
         Mitsubishi  and  Minolta  film-scanners.   See  sane-avision(5)   for

         The  bh  backend  provides  access  to Bell+Howell Copiscan II series
         document scanners. See sane-bh(5) for details.

         The canon backend  supports  the  CanoScan  300,  CanoScan  600,  and
         CanoScan  2700F SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for details.

         The canon630u  backend  supports  the  CanoScan  630u  and  636u  USB
         scanners.  See sane-canon630u(5) for details.

         The  canon_pp backend supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P and
         N640P parallel port scanners.  See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

         This is a SANE backend for Nikon Coolscan  film-scanners.  See  sane-
         coolscan(5) for details.

         This  is  a SANE backend for Nikon Coolscan film-scanners.  See sane-
         coolscan2(5) or for details.

         The SANE epson backend provides support for Epson SCSI, parallel port
         and USB flatbed scanners. See sane-epson(5) for details.

         The fujitsu backend provides support for Fujitsu 3091, 3093, 3096 and
         fi-4340 SCSI scanners. See sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

         The genesys backend  provides  support  for  scanners  based  on  the
         Genesys Logic GL646 and GL841 chips like the Medion 6471 and Hewlett-
         Packard 2300c.  Support for GL841 based scanners is  far  from  being
         complete. See sane-genesys(5) for details.

         The  gt68xx  backend  provides  support  for  scanners  based  on the
         Grandtech GT-6801 and GT-6816 chips like the Artec  Ultima  2000  and
         several  Mustek  BearPaw  CU  and  TA  models.  Some Genius, Lexmark,
         Medion, Packard Bell, Plustek, and Trust scanners are also supported.
         See sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

         The  SANE  hp  backend  provides  access  to  Hewlett-Packard ScanJet
         scanners which support SCL (Scanner  Control  Language  by  HP).  See
         sane-hp(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for  the  Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 5S scanner. See
         sane-hpsj5s(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard  ScanJet  4200  series.  See
         sane-hp4200(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 54XXC series. See
         sane-hp5400(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for some IBM and  Ricoh  SCSI  scanners.  See  sane-
         ibm(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports the Leo S3 and the Across FS-1130, which is a
         re-badged LEO FS-1130 scanner. See sane-leo(5) for details.

         This backend supports the Lexmark X1100 series of USB  scanners.  See
         sane-lexmark(5) for details.

         The  ma1509  backend  supports  the  Mustek BearPaw 1200F USB flatbed
         scanner. See sane-ma1509(5) for details.

         This backend supports some Panasonic KVSS high  speed  scanners.  See
         sane-matsushita(5) for details.

         The  microtek  backend  provides  access  to  the "second generation"
         Microtek scanners with SCSI-1 command set. See  sane-microtek(5)  for

         The  microtek2 backend provides access to some Microtek scanners with
         a SCSI-2 command set. See sane-microtek2(5) for details.

         The SANE mustek backend supports most Mustek  SCSI  flatbed  scanners
         including the Paragon and ScanExpress series and the 600 II N and 600
         II EP (non-SCSI). Some Trust scanners are also supported.  See  sane-
         mustek(5) for details.

         The mustek_pp backend provides access to Mustek parallel port flatbed
         scanners. See sane-mustek_pp(5) for details.

         The mustek_usb backend provides access to some Mustek ScanExpress USB
         flatbed scanners. See sane-mustek_usb(5) for details.

         The  mustek_usb2  backend provides access to scanners using the SQ113
         chipset like the Mustek BearPaw 2448 TA Pro USB flatbed scanner.  See
         sane-mustek_usb2(5) for details.

         The  SANE  nec backend supports the NEC PC-IN500/4C SCSI scanner. See
         sane-nec(5) for details.

         The niash backend supports the Agfa Snapscan Touch and the HP ScanJet
         3300c,  3400c,  and 4300c USB flatbed scanners. See sane-niash(5) for

         The pie backend provides access to Pacific  Image  Electronics  (PIE)
         and Devcom SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-pie(5) for details.

         The  SANE  plustek backend supports USB flatbed scanners that use the
         National  Semiconductor  LM983[1/2/3]-chipset  aka  Merlin.  Scanners
         using this LM983x chips include some models from Plustek, KYE/Genius,
         Hewlett-Packard, Mustek, Umax, Epson, and Canon. See  sane-plustek(5)
         for details.

         The  SANE  plustek_pp  backend supports Plustek parallel port flatbed
         scanners.  Scanners using the Plustek ASIC P96001, P96003, P98001 and
         P98003  include  some  models  from  Plustek, KYE/Genius, Primax. See
         sane-plustek_pp(5) for details.

         The ricoh backend provides access  to  the  following  Ricoh  flatbed
         scanners: IS50 and IS60. See sane-ricoh(5) for details.

         The  s9036  backend provides access to Siemens 9036 flatbed scanners.
         See sane-s9036(5) for details.

         The sceptre backend provides access  to  the  Sceptre  S1200  flatbed
         scanner. See sane-sceptre(5) for details.

         The  SANE  sharp  backend  supports  Sharp  SCSI  scanners. See sane-
         sharp(5) for details.

         The SANE sm3600 backend supports  the  Microtek  ScanMaker  3600  USB
         scanner. See sane-sm3600(5) for details.

         The  SANE  sm3840  backend  suppoert  the Microtek ScanMaker 3840 USB
         scanner.  See sane-sm3840(5) for details.

         The snapscan backend supports AGFA  SnapScan  flatbed  scanners.  See
         sane-snapscan(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports  the  Fujitsu  FCPA  ScanPartner  15C flatbed
         scanner. See sane-sp15c(5) for details.

         The sane-st400 backend provides access to Siemens  ST400  and  ST800.
         See sane-st400(5) for details.

         The   SANE   tamarack  backend  supports  Tamarack  Artiscan  flatbed
         scanners. See sane-tamarack(5) for details.

       teco1 teco2 teco3
         The SANE teco1, teco2 and teco3 backends support some TECO  scanners,
         usually sold under the Relisys, Trust, Primax, Piotech, Dextra names.
         See sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5) and sane-teco3(5) for details.

         The sane-u12 backend provides USB flatbed scanners based on Plustek’s
         ASIC  98003  (parallel-port  ASIC)  and a GeneSys Logics’ USB-parport
         bridge chip like the Plustek OpticPro  U(T)12.  See  sane-u12(5)  for

         The  sane-umax  backend provides access to several UMAX-SCSI-scanners
         and some Linotype Hell SCSI-scanners. See sane-umax(5) for details.

         The sane-umax_pp  backend  provides  access  to  Umax  parallel  port
         flatbed scanners and the HP 3200C. See sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

         The  sane-umax1220u  backend  supports  the  UMAX  Astra  1220U (USB)
         flatbed scanner (and also the UMAX Astra 2000U, sort of).  See  sane-
         umax1220u(5) for details.

       Also,  have  a look at the backend information page at http://www.sane- and the  list  of  projects  in


         Backend for Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See sane-dc210(5).

         Backend for Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See sane-dc240(5).

         Backend for Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See sane-dc25(5).

         Backend  for the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See sane-dmc(5).

         Backend for digital cameras supported by the gphoto2 library package.
         (See  for  more  information  and  a  list  of
         supported cameras.)   Gphoto2  supports  over  140  different  camera
         models.   However,  please  note that more development and testing is
         needed before all of these cameras will be supported by SANE backend.
         See sane-gphoto2(5).

         Backend for Connectix QuickCam cameras. See sane-qcam(5).

       Also,  have  a look at the backend information page at http://www.sane- and the  list  of  projects  in


         The  sane-dll  library implements a SANE backend that provides access
         to an arbitrary number of other SANE backends by dynamic loading. See

         The  SANE network daemon saned provides access to scanners located on
         different computers in connection with the  net  backend.  See  sane-
         net(5) and saned(8).

         PNM  image  reader  pseudo-backend.  The  purpose  of this backend is
         primarily to aid in debugging of SANE frontends. See sane-pnm(5).

         Backend for scanners that use the PINT (Pint  Is  Not  Twain)  device
         driver.   The  PINT driver is being actively developed on the OpenBSD
         platform, and has been ported to  a  few  other  *nix-like  operating
         systems. See sane-pint(5).

         The  SANE  test  backend  is  for  testing  frontends  and  the  SANE
         installation.  It provides test pictures and  various  test  options.
         See sane-test(5).

         The  sane-v4l library implements a SANE backend that provides generic
         access to video cameras and similar equipment using  the  V4L  (Video
         for Linux) API. See sane-v4l(5).

       Also,  have  a look at the backend information page at http://www.sane- and the  list  of  projects  in


       By  default,  all SANE backends (drivers) are loaded dynamically by the
       sane-dll meta backend. If you have  any  questions  about  the  dynamic
       loading,  read  sane-dll(5).  SANE frontend can also be linked to other
       backends directly by copying or linking  a  backend  to  in

       It’s  not hard to write a SANE backend. It can take some time, however.
       You should have basic knowledge  of  C  and  enough  patience  to  work
       through the documentation and find out how your scanner works. Appended
       is a list of some documents that help to write backends and  frontends.

       The  SANE  standard defines the application programming interface (API)
       that is used to communicate between frontends and backends. It  can  be
       found  at /usr/share/doc/libsane/ (if latex is installed on your
       system) and  on  the  SANE  website:
       (HTML), or (Postscript).

       There     is    some    more    information    for    programmers    in
       /usr/share/doc/libsane/backend-writing.txt.  Most of the internal  SANE
       routines   (sanei)   are  documented  using  doxygen:  http://www.sane-  Before  a  new  backend  or  frontend  project  is
       started,  have  a  look at /usr/share/doc/libsane/PROJECTS for projects
       that are planned or not yet included into the SANE distribution and  at
       our        bug-tracking       system:       http://www.http://www.sane-

       There are some links on how  to  find  out  about  the  protocol  of  a

       If  you  start writing a backend or frontend or any other part of SANE,
       please contact the sane-devel mailing list for coordination so the same
       work isn’t done twice.


              The backend configuration files.

              The static libraries implementing the backends.

              The  shared  libraries  implementing  the  backends  (present on
              systems that support dynamic loading).

              SANE  documentation:  The  standard,  READMEs,  text  files  for
              backends etc.


       If your device isn’t found but you know that it is supported, make sure
       that it is  detected  by  your  operating  system.  For  SCSI  and  USB
       scanners,  use the sane-find-scanner tool (see sane-find-scanner(1) for
       details). It prints one line for each scanner it has detected and  some
       comments  (#). If sane-find-scanner finds your scanner only as root but
       not as normal user, the  permissions  for  the  device  files  are  not
       adjusted  correctly.  If  the scanner isn’t found at all, the operating
       system hasn’t detected it and may need some help. Depending on the type
       of your scanner, read sane-usb(5) or sane-scsi(5).  If your scanner (or
       other device) is not connected over the  SCSI  bus  or  USB,  read  the
       backend’s manual page for details on how to set it up.

       Now  your  scanner is detected by the operating system but not by SANE?
       Try scanimage -L.   If  the  scanner  is  not  found,  check  that  the
       backend’s name is mentioned in /etc/sane.d/dll.conf.  Some backends are
       commented out by default. Remove the comment sign for your  backend  in
       this  case.  Also  some backends aren’t compiled at all if one of their
       prerequisites are missing. Examples  include  dc210,  dc240,  canon_pp,
       hpsj5s,  gphoto2,  pint,  qcam, v4l, net, sm3600, snapscan, pnm. If you
       need one of these backends and they aren’t available,  read  the  build
       instructions  in the README file and the individual manual pages of the

       Another reason for not being detected by scanimage -L may be a  missing
       or  wrong configuration in the backend’s configuration file. While SANE
       tries  to  automatically  find  most  scanners,  some  can’t  be  setup
       correctly  without  the intervention of the administrator. Also on some
       operating systems auto-detection may  not  work.  Check  the  backend’s
       manual page for details.

       If your scanner is still not found, try setting the various environment
       variables that are available to assist in debugging.   The  environment
       variables are documented in the relevant manual pages.  For example, to
       get the maximum amount of debug information when testing a Mustek  SCSI
       scanner,  set  environment variables SANE_DEBUG_DLL, SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK,
       and SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI to 128 and then invoke scanimage  -L  .   The
       debug messages for the dll backend tell if the mustek backend was found
       and loaded at all. The mustek messages explain what the mustek  backend
       is  doing while the SCSI debugging shows the low level handling. If you
       can’t find out what’s going on  by  checking  the  messages  carefully,
       contact  the  sane-devel  mailing  list  for  help  (see REPORTING BUGS

       Now that your scanner is found by scanimage  -L,  try  to  do  a  scan:
       scanimage  >image.pnm.   This  command  starts  a  scan for the default
       scanner with default settings. All the available options are listed  by
       running  scanimage  --help.   If scanning aborts with an error message,
       turn on debugging as mentioned  above.  Maybe  the  configuration  file
       needs  some tuning, e.g. to setup the path to a firmware that is needed
       by some scanners. See the backend’s manual page  for  details.  If  you
       can’t find out what’s wrong, contact sane-devel.

       To  check  that  the SANE libraries are installed correctly you can use
       the test backend, even if you  don’t  have  a  scanner  or  other  SANE

              scanimage -d test -T

       You  should  get  a list of PASSed tests. You can do the same with your
       backend by changing "test" to your backend’s name.

       So now scanning with scanimage works and you want to  use  one  of  the
       graphical  frontends  like  xsane, xscanimage, or quiteinsane but those
       frontends don’t detect  your  scanner?  One  reason  may  be  that  you
       installed two versions of SANE.  E.g. the version that was installed by
       your distribution  in  /usr  and  one  you  installed  from  source  in
       /usr/local/.   Make  sure  that  only one version is installed. Another
       possible reason is, that your system’s dynamic loader  can’t  find  the
       SANE  libraries.  For  Linux,  make  sure that /etc/ contains
       /usr/local/lib and does not contain /usr/local/lib/sane.  See also  the
       documentation of the frontends.


       We  appreciate  any help we can get. Please have a look at our web page
       about contributing to SANE:


       For reporting bugs or requesting new  features,  please  use  our  bug-
       tracking  system:  You can also
       contact the author of your backend directly. Usually the email  address
       can   be  found  in  the  /usr/share/doc/libsane/AUTHORS  file  or  the
       backend’s manpage. For general discussion about SANE,  please  use  the
       SANE  mailing list sane-devel (see
       lists.html for details).


       saned(8),  sane-find-scanner(1),  scanimage(1),  sane-abaton(5),  sane-
       agfafocus(5),   sane-apple(5),  sane-artec(5),  sane-artec_eplus48u(5),
       sane-as6e(5),   sane-avision(5),   sane-bh(5),   sane-canon(5),   sane-
       canon630u(5),  sane-canon_pp(5),  sane-coolscan2(5),  sane-coolscan(5),
       sane-dc210(5), sane-dc240(5), sane-dc25(5),  sane-dll(5),  sane-dmc(5),
       sane-epson(5), sane-fujitsu(5), sane-genesys(5), sane-gphoto2(5), sane-
       gt68xx(5), sane-hp(5), sane-hpsj5s(5), sane-hp4200(5),  sane-hp5400(5),
       sane-ibm(5),   sane-leo(5),   sane-lexmark(5),   sane-ma1509(5),  sane-
       matsushita(5),  sane-microtek2(5),  sane-microtek(5),   sane-mustek(5),
       sane-mustek_pp(5),   sane-mustek_usb(5),   sane-mustek_usb2(5),   sane-
       nec(5), sane-net(5), sane-niash(5),  sane-pie(5),  sane-pint(5),  sane-
       plustek(5),   sane-plustek_pp(5),   sane-pnm(5),   sane-qcam(5),  sane-
       ricoh(5), sane-s9036(5), sane-sceptre(5), sane-scsi(5),  sane-sharp(5),
       sane-sm3600(5),  sane-sm3840(5), sane-snapscan(5), sane-sp15c(5), sane-
       st400(5),   sane-tamarack(5),   sane-teco1(5),   sane-teco2(5),   sane-
       teco3(5),  sane-test(5),  sane-u12(5), sane-umax1220u(5), sane-umax(5),
       sane-umax_pp(5), sane-usb(5), sane-v4l(5)


       David     Mosberger-Tang     and     many      many      more      (see
       /usr/share/doc/libsane/AUTHORS for details).  This man page was written
       by Henning Meier-Geinitz. Quite a lot of text was taken from  the  SANE
       standard, several man pages, and README files.